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lA/hat Will You Do With Sunday Morning ? by Inez Long • Carl Stephens' Experimt 
in Mission by Walter D. Bowman • • Litany for Changing Times by Ernest Bolz • • 
Does Your Child Know the Value of Work? by Pearl Gibbs • Hitch Your Camel to a 
Star by Howard A. Miller • New Horizons for World Missions by Ira W. Moomaw 



JL 1 G^ ^ 

readers write 


Certain tragic events in our country dur- 
ing recent months bring to mind sonic of the 
profound lessons handed down to us by 
die bibhcal writers of our early religious 
heritage. . . . 

We are familiar with the story of Abra- 
ham, Sarah, Hagar, Ishniael, and Isaac, re- 
corded in Genesis 16 — 17. To understand 
more easily events that have occurred more 
dian 4,000 years later, let us look again at 
the verses in Gen. 16:11-12: "And the angel 
of die Lord said to her ( Hagar ) . 'Behold 
you are with cliild, and shall bear a son; 
you shall call his name Ishmael; because 
the Lord has given heed to your afflicHon. 
He shall be a wild ass of a man, liis hand 
against every man and every man's hand 
against him; and he shall dwell over against 
all his kinsmen.' " 

Further, in Gen. 17:20-21: "As for Ish- 
mael, I have heard you; behold, I will bless 
him and make him fruitful and muldply 
him exceedingly; he shall be the father of 
twelve princes, and I will make liim a 
great nation. But I will establish my cove- 
nant with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to 
you at this season next year." 

We can see in this last reference the rift 
between Ishmael and Isaac when God or- 
dained diat his covenant would be with 
Isaac and generated through his twelve 
sons, culminating in the twelve tribes of 

Before we draw the obvious conclusion 
alluded to in die first paragraph, we should 
look at the relevant historical data in secular 
writings, with Hebrew scriptural references 
where they pertain. 

Of the twelve tribes of Ishmael, we find 
the following mentioned in our scriptures: 
Nebaiodi (Is. 60:7), Kedar (Ezek. 27:21), 
Tenia (Job 6:19), Jetur, and Ncphish (1 
Cliron. 5:19). The territory ruled by the 
twelve sons of Ishmael encompassed what 
are now the lands allied and known as the 
United Arab RepubUc. 

In searcliing through the teachings of 
Mohammed and the Koran, we must recog- 
nize the direct descent of Mohammed from 
Ishmael. Moslems are taught that it was 
Ishmael, not Isaac, who was to be sacrificed 
by Abraham and was saved by divine inter- 
vention when the ram was caught in the 
nearby diicket. Both Ishmael and his 
mother, Hagar, are buried in Mecca, ac- 
cording to tradition. We must also reahze 

that the Hebrews considered the Ishmaelites 
to be an inferior race. 

These thoughts of mine are not to be 
considered as evidence of prophecy but only 
to enlighten our comprehension of die un- 
derlying reasons for die bitter reactions of 
citizens of the United Arab Republic to 
statements of our national leaders who seem 
to favor various types of aid to modern Is- 
rael. Further, my is neidier to 
condemn nor to condone but to be aware of 
the countless generations of seemingly con- 
flicting ideologies and how they explode 
into open conflict today. 

Merlin C. Finnell 
MnnticcUo, Ind. 


At a time when our church goveniment in 
Elgin is being rc\aiiiped and new faces are 
showing up, new ideas for strong peace 
methods through education and action are 
welcome. Somewhere in man's mind must 
exist a realistic dream of a government or- 
ganization which will not use war as a 
political or economic game in which people's 
lives are the "buttons" to be moved, won, 
or lost. 

What can we do now for peace? We can 
treat all as brodiers, trying to iiromote un- 
derstanding among people so that someday 
there will be cause for celebration as peo- 
ple will have learned that living and loving 
together is much better than hating and kill- 
ing together. 

As promoters of the cause of hope, friend- 
ship, love, and peace, we enlist your help 
to send us any ideas you may have concern- 
ing new and \ital ways our Brotherhood 
could go in our peace witness. We want 
you to help bring the Church of the Breth- 
ren iiractices up to our historical ideals. 

At present we are collecting ideas. TI 
following steps will be evaluation of all tl 
ideas we receive, after which we will wri 
a letter accompanied by a petition to < 
pastors, BVScrs, district executives, at 
interested persons, hoping to gain suppc 
for these idea 

Our goal is this. One way or anoth< 
we will find out what Brethren people a 
thinking, and this is good. If wc get i 
response on the ideas we present, we can t( 
the World Ministries Commission diat t 
church is apadietic, scared, or that the ide 
were not acceptable. If we do receive 
fa\orable response, the new Commissic 
will have new ideas to study and possib 
to implement. Nodiing tried, nothing 1( 
■ or, nothing gained! 

The signatures on the petitions after t 
ideas are evaluated and sent out for su 
port will be turned over to the Wor 
Ministries Commission only to show t 
amount of support gained 

Would you help us in our struggle i 
peaceful existence? If so, please write wi 
your ideas, thoughts, suggestions, and qu( 
tions to; Brethren Crusaders for Peace, B 
188, New Windsor, Md. 21776 


1 was surprised to read (Nov. 21) of M 
ton D. Royer's being a part-time pastor 
Zion church. If ever a pastor gave his £ 
of time and energy, he did. Both Paslc i 
and Mrs. Royer have labored long and wli 
for not only the members but for others I 
well. They gave and gave. Is there sul 
a thing as a part-time pastor when ol 
lives in the neighborhood? 

Martha BarnumI 
Prescott, Mich. 

BYLINES: Howard A. Miller serves as pastor of the Dixon, Illinois, church. ... A former membe 
the General Board, Inez Long (Mrs. John) lives in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where she teaches in tl 
public school system. . . . Catherine Wittier, a previous contributor to MESSENGER, resides in Sebririj 
Florida. . . . Formerly pastor of Wichita's First church in Kansas, Walter D. Bowman is director I 
camping and Christian education for the District of Southern Ohio. . . . President of the Retirees Cla' 
of York, Pennsylvania, Local 196 of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, Mary Volland ch 
the Social Education and Action Commission of the Church of the Brethren in Southern Pennsylva 
She is a member of the Lower Conewago congregation. . . . Lakewood, Ohio, is the home of free-lai 
writer Pearl Gibbs. . . . Author, former missionary to India, and one-time executive secretary 
agricultural missions, Ira W. Moomaw currently is teaching at Bethany Theological Seminary, C 
Brook, Illinois. 

■ t» 

MESSENGER is owned and published every other week by the Church of the Brethren G( 
eral Bo;ird, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, 

^itch Your Camel 
:o a Star 

bey came not to the temple — those trav- 
ers (perhaps a dozen or more). They 
d come to tlie city of the temple, to 
rrusalem, in their search for "the King 

the Jews" — to the city where a king 
lould be. Where else but in the 
pital city? 
You would hardly expect one so great 

. so important ... so promising . . . 

be born anywhere else — would you? 
"Not here," they are told; "but in a 
tie town called Bethlehem (House of 
■ead)" — not knowing that the babe 
ere would one day and forever be 
lied the "Bread of Life." Bethlehem, 

insignificant touTi where those hardly 
lie to Hve in the big city could find 

cheaper housing and lower taxes. 

Eager — yet wondering — hurrying 
their camels along; still following that 
star. In their haste, almost riding through 
the little town before they see it. Stop- 
ping at a low rent boarding house to 
inquire. A knock on the door. Excited 
gestm-es of people trying to communicate, 
not knowing each other's language. At 
last finding a common language. Sudden- 
ly the faces of the travelers light up; 

"They are here?" 

"Yes, you'll find them over in that little 
room; just moved in from a stable last 
week." A look at the child and his 
radiant parents dispelling the remaining 
disappointment, they eagerly crowd 
around the crude cradle. A feeling of joy 
rather than fulfillment of duty coursing 
tfirough them, they worship. Worship — 
a sti'ange thing to do in a cfilapidated 
boarding house with no altar, no candles, 
no stained-glass windows to set the 

Their prayer is simple silence, for no 

words are needed. No words can say the 
joy they feel. They are there. No gift, 
no word can say more than that. No 
pious phrase, no canned cliche can say 
more than that. They are there. They 
have brought themselves. They offer 
themselves. The gold, frankincense, 
myrrh are pledges of that — symbols of 
love shared. 

They leave. Their stay was a few 
short hours, yet it was for eternity, the 
fullness of time that comes when each 
knows the other completely. The fullness 
of time that comes too seldom; for we 
will not let it come. They have left. But 
they can never be the same, living half- 
lives, for they had seen the source of life. 
And they can no longer be satisfied to 
go about in tiny circles in carts with 
squeak-y wheels. 

And you. Child of God, where will you 
hitch your camel? To a tiny streak of 
light barely squeezing into the cramped 
closet of your life? Or to a star and go — 
unhindered by space, time — to the wild- 
est imagination your mind can reach? 
Beyond the possible, beyond the mortal, 
beyond the reasonable, beyond the 
profitable. To life . . . eternal life! D 

by Howard A.Miller 

,t^ im ilH M tiH M teftlwa30« 


This is a time of change! 

A time in which the knowledge we knew 
yesterday looks like ignorance today. 

A time in which a penny saved Is a penny 
worth less. 

A time in which each new pair of shoes 
means that our baby will soon be a man. 

This is a time of change! 

A time in which the growth of our town 
brings with it the threat of the city and 
its problems. 

A time in which our leaders, our prophets, 
our candidates for office are murdered, 
mourned, and buried in living color in 
our living rooms with increasing fre- 

A time in which the poor and the op- 
pressed shout, "WE WONT WAIT!" and 
we don't know If they mean for "theirs" 
or for "ours." 

This is a time of change! 

A time in which our faith Is shaken when 
man says, "God is dead!" and the bomb 
says, "Man is finished!" 

A time in which the certainties of the past 
that we clutch as a child does a blanket 
are jerked from our grasp and we are 
forced to stand in the cold, uncertain, 
sweeping, swirling currents of history. 

This is a time of change! 

A time in which. . . . For thus says the Lord! 
"For behold, I create new heavens and 
a new earth; and the former things shall 
not be remembered or come into mind. 
But be glad and rejoice for ever in that 
which I create" (Isaiah 65:17-18). 


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What Will You Do 
With Sunday Morning? 

yjn Sunday morning, Christians meet 
together to celebrate events in their 
liistory which have made them into a 
faith communit)-. "Do this in remem- 
brance" is a command to celebrate 
memorable events which were not only 
experienced in the past history of the 
faith communit\' but have also become 
active reality in the lives of behevers 

Memorable events have the continuous 
flow from generation to generation of a 
"once-upon-a-time" story. Such a story 
has an endlessness about it, as if the end 
of the story grasps the beginning to 
form a circle of telling, again and again. 

Such a story places events not only "in 
those days" or "in the fullness of time" 
but also sets our own days flowing out to 
meet parallel events. 

So Christians celebrate events which, 
once mere pinpricks in history, have 
become high points from which man 
became aware and keeps on being aware. 
In such moments of sharp awareness, 
man made giant leaps forward. Because 
these giant leaps seem to have a pattern — 
that is, there are underlying principles 
and concepts common to them — Chris- 
tians gi\e symbols and figurations to 
these patterns in the rituals wliich the 
faith community keeps alive. Eventful 

events kept alive in poetry and music 
keep alive expectations for eventful 
living today. So the eternal present is 
celebrated on Sunday morning. 

Of course no one can program steps by 
which historical events become actively 
alive in indi\iduals or in community. Nc 
one can force the process by which the 
struggles and victories of the human race 
are funneled into individual persons or 
communities with differences and time- 
tables peculiar to each. No devious 
shuttle can weave the woof of circum- 
stances against the warp of a man's will 
Mystics offer assurances and disciplines 
Desperate conditions speed the process. 

Undying hope helps, too. And the faith 
community testifies that putting oneself 
in certain places and attitudes helps 
greatly. Here the record is impressive: 
There is no such thing as a 'Tsolt out of 
the blue"; always revelation — the great 
Event — is consummated in a green 
seedbed cultivated by community for the 
precise purpose of producing fruits for 
the good of community. 

However, moments of awareness move 
into a man beyond his guessing or con- 
Tiving. Perceptive people have repeat- 
sdly witnessed to the fact that joy 
surprises one at any corner and lightning 
strikes in unlikely places. So on Sunday 
iHoming, the faith community celebrates 
the presence of mystery in history even 
IS she dramatizes eventful events and 
^promises parallel experiences for the 
present and future. 

Celebration, or worship, is a symboHc 
\'ay of speaking imspeakable truths. In 
[he drama of the Seder ceremony, a 
fewish family is saying symbolically, 
iThis night is vmlike all other nights 
oecause on this night an event happened 
n Egypt by which Hebrews were 
orought to God out of slavery and were 
noved by faith into the promised land. 
iVe continue to enact this event because 
(he motif of exodus is everywhere in 
luman experience. Someone, especially 
I child, might see for the first time 
onight that exodus — the struggle out of 
londage into a better state — is the motif 
tf adolescence moving into maturity. An 
ilder disillusioned for the himdredth 

time might see that he is bitter and 
wasted because he has not yet crossed 
over. In this ceremony, which remembers 
men of faith who were once lifted from 
one condition to a better one, we keep 
ahve the memory that God has something 
better in store for every man of faith. 
Exodus is a principle which is basic to 
rich human experience." 

In addition, the power of the exodus 
motif is strengthened by corporate par- 
ticipation, especially for the young who 
size up the importance of a ritual not 
only by a count of noses of adults but by 
poundage of maturity and prestige they 
hold. In dramatic ritual, children fill up 
with emotion, brimful hke the dishes on 
the table. A home which has no rituals 
m_akes no provision for the most effective 
device for teaching values, proved and 
transmitted in events in family history. 


/hristians remember the Last Supper 
as the event which dramatized in a new 
way in the first century that the cosmic 
becomes incarnate for the benefit of man; 
that what was abstract has been actual- 
ized; that incarnation exacts sacrifice. 
The ritual holds promise for any man for 
whom a life free of alcohohsm, prejudice, 
or fantasy is only an idea. Though the 
promise is not an easy one, the ritual 
affirms that an image can be translated 
into reality, that the old can be redeemed 
into a new creation. A church without 
redemptive ritual becomes a worship 
center for anything. 

The hangup of today's worshiper is 
twofold. First, he wants above all to be 
honest about his own experiences. He is 
existential man, anxious because he 
thinks no human experience, especially 
his own, has ever been duplicated before. 
He is lean and lonely, a bundle of 
experiences combining to make liim 
unique and holding the key to the riddle 
of himself with the combination locked 
up within assorted pieces which only he 
can organize and solve. He feels it is 
hypocritical to mouth experiences which 
are not under his own skin. To join 
corporate rituals which speak to experi- 
ences he has not known firsthand is to 
join "vain repetitions" and "to be seen 
and heard of men." 

Furthermore, he sees well-heeled men 
kneeling to receive blessings which they 
have inherited, having been bom well, 
while others wait outside the temple 
gates having been bom into slavery wdth 
no breakthrough, no exodus from dead- 
ening hell on earth, no rebirth into full- 
ness of Hfe. Exodus, incarnation, and 
resurrection seem to be themes of mock- 
ery when those who have been given 
much rejoice much while those outside 
the pale of gifts, confessed as the birth- 
right of every man, weep and agonize. 

Second, today's worshiper beheves that 
if he has not experienced in his own 
life the great events which are ritualized, 
and he has not seen them operative in 
redemptive ways for the poor around 
him, how can he know they are for real? 
He believes he would be happy to join 

Man cannot do without worship and without 
comradeship in worship. He will choose that which 
speaks to what he wants to have actualized as the 
highest fulfillment as a child of Gk)d • by Inez Long 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 5 

SUNDAY MORNING / continued 

the ritual, just to keep truth alive, but 
how can he be sure that what is cele- 
brated is truly true? 

Suppose, he conjectures — taking a 
clue from chuich history — this genera- 
tion must look outside the temple gates 
for a new bringer of good news who may 
be walking the byways, as Christ once 
did? Perhaps, he says, somewhere, in 
1969, someone is saying in a strange way 
and a strange tongue which only a few 
have ears to hear, "It has been said of 
old time . . . but I say unto you . . ." 

This definite expectation, however 
indefinite its shape, is stated by Robert 
Lowell in his poem, "Waking Early 
Sunday Morning." He uses the phrase, 
"Anywhere, but somewhere else." The 
paraphrase might read, "Anywhere but 
here." Can this complaint, almost a plea, 
so typical of easily uprooted Americans, 
be celebrated in church on Sunday 
morning? Can this plea for exodus from 
home, church, and birthright community 
be ritualized into the worshiping commu- 
nity on Sunday morning? 

This question, with its incitement for 
mass exodus, haimts the church. And 
the home also. Can any place but home 
base be a meaningful homeland for an 
empty soul? Just any place? Can any 
thing but the present thing provide 
meaningful worship to renew the failing 
spirit? Just anything? 

There are many things around us 
celebrating today the happenings in our 
social revolution. They have ritualistic 
earmarks about them. The chant of the 
social militants in jail: "Christianity is 
false when it insists that evil should be 
overcome by good. It takes evil to 
overcome evil." The prayers of absolute 
pacifists, also in jail, "Christianity must 
be practiced absolutely. Give me the 
courage to testify to nonresistance and to 
do penance for my nation." The prophet- 
ic oratory of a hippie drop-out, "You 
can't fight something irrelevant; you drop 

6 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

out and move into something that is." 
The invitation of the chauvinist, "Join the 
men who are fighting for what made this 
country great." 

In the celebration of anything, just so 
it is something else, young people have 
followed and lost many broken heroes : 
Leary tuning into the promised land of 
LSD that turned into addiction; Green- 
wich Village tuning into a child's land of 
simplicities that turned into a complex 
maze for the undisciplined; a yearning 
for charismatic leaders that tuned into 
the two Kennedys only to have them 
turned into victims of magnicide; Martin 
Luther King's acts of civil disobedience 
tuned into justice that turned into 
reactionary violence and backlash. 


Leanwhile, the church is trying to say, 
"Come unto me, all ye . . ." and at the 

same time, "Come, ye blessed " 

The exclusive and the inclusive are trying 
to speak, with both compassion and 
morality, and the double-tongued speech 
can be heard in church if one has ears 
to hear. The church welcomes without 
fear every person doing "his thing." But 
the church has a healthy fear about any 
person, bringing anything, just so it's 
something else than what has always 
been, into the worship center. 

So, to the young, the church seems 
helpless to incorporate into its ritual what 
seems to be living out now the themes 
of exodus, incarnation, and resurrection. 
The church seems to be echoing ditties 
of past creeds unresponsive to current 
needs and deeds. When the church says, 
"We will innovate but we will not 
incorporate — not yet," the young wor- 
shipers say, "Change comes too fast for 
us to wait. We'll join a group that is 
ritualizing what is happening today." 

And they do. They hy the rituals of 
the newly rich; the barbecue pit with its 
free flowing spirits, the clean plastic 

fetishes, the easy bids for unrepressed 
relationships. They hallow the most 
respected community in American soci- 
ety: the college campus with its interplay 
of wits, its jargon that teaches by example 
that obscenity has clarity and fervor, its 
name-dropping to fortify dogmatic as- 
sumptions, its degrees as signs of ordina- 
tion in the mind cult. They become 
modern prototypes of the guilt-ridden 
do-gooder with ghetto walks after mid- 
night into the black community, com- 
miserations at the bar with subjects of 
human pity, and open talk about 
privacies as an act of laying one's very 
humanity alongside another's. These 
rituals have the methods, though not the 
substance, of the faith community. 

Meanwhile, the church is both eager 
and uneasy. She is eager to speak to 
e\er>' human being where he is because 
she is under orders to be set in the ver> 
humanity of very human business. But 
she is uneasy that in a day of rationahsm 
affluence, and quick revolution her sense 
of faith, discipline, and steady refoitna- 
tion seems irrelevant. She is eager for 
new forms because she is under orders tc 
keep remembrance lively, but she is 
uneasy that changing forms might corrupt 
the substance. So the church is under 
self-examination to detect what rituals, 
new or old, might dim the substance. Ir 
this self-examination, she puts herself 
under instruction from her own teaching; 
that tragic flaw is perennially present in 
all that is touched by human hands. 

The basic question for each person is, 
"What will I do with the ancient truth 
that one day in seven is to be hallowed? 
What will I put into ritual?" Man cannot 
do without worship and comradeship in 
worship. He will choose that which 
speaks to what he wants to have actual- 
ized as the highest fulfillment of himself 
as a child of God. And that which speaks 
of himself in a community meant to be 
the Kingdom of God on earth. □ 

speak up 

/ Married a Catholic 

Twenty-five years ago, tvvo weeks before 
my nineteenth birthday, I married a 
Roman Catholic. 

I was raised in the Church of the 
Brethren, in which my father was a 
deacon, and whenever the church doors 
opened, I was there — not out of necessity 
or because I was made to go, but 
because I wanted to be there. Going to 
church was a joy to me. 

Thus, my parents' shock when I 
revealed my plans is rmderstandable, 
though they had met the young man and 
had learned to like him very much. But 
for me, a Brethren, to marry not just out 
of my denomination, but out of my faith 
entirely, was almost more than my 
mother could stand. But decisions were 
never made for my brother or for me. 
We were never told, "You can't do this" 
or "You can't go there," but rather, "If it 
were I, I wouldn't do this or go there." 
All of us knew full well that we wouldn't 
go if our parents thought it wasn't right. 

When I asked if I could marry this 
wonderful young man, they as always 
pointed out the pros and cons of the 
situation but let me know that the final 
decision was mine and that they would 
respect it, with one exception. He would 
.aave to agree to a wedding in my church. 

Being eighteen years old and in love 
luias its advantages, for it took me only 
ninutes to decide that this was the man 
with whom I wanted to spend the rest 
)f my Hfe. ( My husband often prods me 
)y asking, "What took so long?") 

How did I approach a Roman Cathohc, 
aised so strictly by his parents, a family 
)f German Catholics who thought all 
Protestants were going to hell and made 
10 bones about telling me so, to tell him 
had my parents' consent if we married 
n my church? Again, being eighteen and 
n love, one has much more than average 
courage. But all my worries were for 
laught, for he agreed to be married by 
'ur pastor and have a church wedding. 

Then began the long road of adjust- 
ment. How does a young girl, raised 
strictly in the Church of the Brethren, 
leam to swim through a sea of Catholi- 
cism with no hfe raft except her faith in 
God? When we visited my husband's 
parents, we were told we could not sleep 
together, for, according to them, we 
were not married. How could I win these 
people over to at least see my side of 
the coin? 

I was determined, first of all, to make 
them like me as a person, to let my light 
shine. It is far harder to reprimand a 
person you like and respect than someone 
you don't particularly care for. 

I started with the two youngest girls — 
there were six of them — thinking that 
if I could break the ice with them, at least 
I'd have a path in. But this took time. 
After many disappointments and much 
heartache, I felt I had succeeded. But 
then came the next hurdle: The family 
kept insisting that we be married by a 
priest. My mother, bless her heart, 
thought it was fair and just for me to 
be manied in my husband's faith, since 
he had been willing to be married in 
mine. My father agreed. 

A chaplain in my husband's branch of 
the armed services could perform this 
Catholic marriage without the non- 
Catholic's taking instructions. But I was 
requii'ed to sign a paper stating that if 
we had children, they would be raised as 
Roman Catholics. This I could not do, 
for I had promised my spouse that I 
would not ask him to change his faith, 
for I would never change mine. In order 
to keep peace, I signed the paper, 
informing the chaplain that I was signing 
a falsehood, and we were married once 
again. This satisfied my husband's family 
for awhile. 

The next step — and if there are any 
girls in my reading audience contemplat- 
ing marriage out of their faith, this would 
be my advice — was to learn all I could 

about the Cathohc and the Cathohc faith. 
In aU wars there must be weapons, and 
gradually this became all-out war. 

We were dehghted when we discov- 
ered we were going to have a child. But 
now the family wanted this child to be 
christened a Catholic. I had moved home 
with my family at this time, and this was 
the first inkhng I had that my husband 
had ever thought of changing his faith. 
On the morning of the day he was to go 
overseas with the anriy he asked my 
parents to see that his child was not 
christened a Cathohc. 

By this time the church had become 
thoroughly disgusted with him, and when 
our first child was born and was not 
baptized a Catholic, my husband was 
excommunicated. He was left swimming 
without any life raft, no church at all — 
only his sincere belief in God. 

When the war was over and he re- 
turned wounded but well, he didn't go to 
church at all. This disturbed me, for he 
had been taught to go to confession, 
communion, and always to mass on 

When our son was bom I took both 
children to church school and church. 
We had no nurseries then. My husband 
stood by and watched me struggle, feeling 
left out each time, I'm sure. 

I said to him, "I entreat you to go to 
church for your mother's sake, if not for 
your own." For by now, I had learned 
to love my mother-in-law and my 
father-in-law and my six new sisters. 
But his answer was, "I'll go to church if 
I can go with you." I informed him that 
he was perfectly welcome to come to my 
church if he was sure this was what he 

He attended regularly for two to three 
years, and when he was twenty-eight 
years old, he was baptized into the 
Protestant faith by trine immersion. 
I married a Cathohc. And I'm glad. 
— Catherine Wittler 

1-2-69 messenger 7 


The story of how one man acted upon 
his conviction that the church must 
discover the mission God has for it 
to carry out in its local community 


Ihe basic question," said the man with 
conviction, "is whether we will have the 
church in its present form or whether 
it will be built around its mission 
response. Experimental mission is the 
response of the believing community to 
human needs in whatever form. It ought 
to be free to experiment, to move in 
whatever direction is necessary, tackle 
whatever job needs to be done." 

As he sat in my office, the black rims 
of his glasses covered with paint specks 
fresh from the job he had interrupted to 
come to discuss experimental mission, I 
couldn't help musing about how out of 
place he seemed. His white overalls fit 
much better with the paintbrush and 
drop cloth of his business enterprise. If 
not that, at least he looked much more 

at home surrounded by eager young boys, 
black and write, each clamoring for help 
on his current woodworking project. Or 
just as much at home in the middle of a 
four-acre garden patch, directing the 
work of three dozen inexperienced hoes. 
For Carl Stephens I had learned to know 
as a man of action. 

But this reaction was only a passing 
thought. I knew how much at home he 
was in the world of books and the realm 
of ideas. This was not the first time he 
had sat in this chair, exploring the 
implications of the church as mission. 
Both our minister of education and I had 
long since ceased to be surprised at 
Carl's acquaintance with Bonhoeffer or 
Tillich or Niebuhr as we had tried to help 
the concept of experimental mission 

become a practical reality, expressing th( 
concern of the church. So it was not 
surprising now to hear Carl reclarifying 
and restating the concepts underlying ouj 
program which has now been operating 
on Saturdays for more than a year. 

lor Carl, both words which he uses tc 
name this concept are equally important. 
If the church is to be the church, it musi 
be a group involving itself in discovering 
the mission God has for the world in it; 
particular community. Needs must be 
identified and singled out and ways must 
be discovered of moving to minister in 
the spirit of Christ to meet those needs] 
But at the same time the efforts to be in 
mission must carry with them a continu- 
ing experimental approach. We start by 


8 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

' admitting that we do not know how to 
meet these needs. We must do, in order 
to know how to do and what to do, and 
the church must continually resist its 
tendency to institutionalize the attempts 
which it begins. It must be ever ready 
to move in whatever new direction the 
activity already begun may indicate. 
And so the church's approach to mission 
must be flexible, willing not only to 
admit failure when an idea has in 
actuality not worked but ready also to 
capitalize on and to expand those aspects 
of mission which do actually meet the 

Experimental mission for us at First 
church in Wichita, Kansas, meant an 
involvement with about thirty-five boys in 
a program of work orientation, skill 

training, and recreation. The boys are 
mostly black, mostly from families with 
no father, mostly underprivileged, mostly 
ages eleven and twelve. Our bus picked 
them up on Saturday morning and 
delivered them to the center owned by 
the church — a building originally built 
by a Brethren work camp in 1944 and 
now converted into a woodworking shop. 
Half of them spilled into the shop to 
work till noon, while the half who in the 
afternoon would have their turn at shop 
went to the garden to exercise their hoes 
against the continual invasion of weeds 
which threatened to rob them of the 
beans, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, 
corn, and turnips, later taken home to 
their families or contributed to emergency 
neighborhood needs through CAP. After 

lunch, served by ladies from the church, 
tasks were resumed until recreation 
time — basketball or softball, depending 
on the season. 

Experimental mission has meant that, 
but it has meant a great deal more than 
that. "Mission by itself means to the 
average person little more than just the 
word mission," Carl admits. "However, it 
ought to involve us in a total response 
to any mission and all mission." Prac- 
tically speaking, it has meant facing the 
fact of refusing many times the number 
of boys now being served. It has meant 
telling the Community Action Centers 
(neighborhood offices of the OEO) that 
we're not up to the size of the job we've 
projected. It has meant recognizing 
painfully that traditional church struc- 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 9 


tures are so demanding of budget money 
that mission gets a bitesize allotment. 
It has meant facing weekly the demands 
of enlisting from the congregation people 
willing to be involved. It has meant 
living continually with an idea that is 
bigger than we are and wondering 
whether with our limited commitment we 
are really giving these boys a significant 
male image or sense of responsibility. It 
has meant resisting experimentation, 
chafing at being stirred up, wondering 
whether "to worship rightly is to love 
each other." 

But I could not help wondering about 
how this concept came to find expression 
in this particular man. This concern 
about a church built around its \arious 
mission responses sounds more like some 
contemporary theologian than a man 
raised in a blacksmith shop and gradu- 
ated only from high school. It sounds 
more like the musings of a scholar than a 
man pushed by the depression from 
attempts in the grocery business to a 
development of his mechanical and trade 
skills to support his eleven children. 

Actually, I discovered that the concept 
has various beginnings. Carl's personal 
concern about finding a way to stop 
national conflict and mass destruction 

had something to do with it, nearly 
thirty years ago. An acquaintance with 
Christians whose convictions moved them 
to ser\ice and the alleviation of human 
need provided some cultivation of the 
concept as a Brethren work camp moved 
into his neighborhood in 1943. Brethren 
service and the Heifer Project made their 
impact. A thorough study of the Roman 
Catholic Church and participating in it 
for several years failed to satisfy the 
budding concerns about servant expres- 
sions of the church. The disillusionment 
of being involved in the devisiveness of 
Protestant groups more concerned about 
maintaining their image than about in- 
volving themselves in mission deepened 
the growing conviction. Being actually 
involved in a local congregation which 
was spht asunder by doctrinal arguments 
and battles over buildings brought about 
an even further and even deeper concern 
about how the church actually expresses 
the spirit of Christ in the world. 

It also happened that Carl was unique- 
ly qualified to work at expressions of 
mission dealing with poverty because of 
his own firsthand acquaintance with 
poverty. In the depression years Carl 
and his wife, Martha, reared their chil- 
dren in the two-room house beside which 

the Brethren work campers eventually 
pitched their vacation Bible school tent. 
Knowing poverty from the inside out 
contributed to his understanding of the 
deep dynamics involved when a person 
is caught in the poverty cycle and built ' 
into him a sensitivity to the evergrowingi 
needs of the world around him. That 
beans and potatoes could be stretched to 
give food to that many growing children 
is eloquent testimony to the contribution 
which his wife, Martha, makes to their 
shared concerns. Probably not at all 
strangely, one gets the feeling that this 
must have been something of the strength 
of the original community of faith which 
God used so uniquely — not many rich, 
not many mighty, not many of noble 

The painting contractor sitting op- 
posite me squirmed uncomfortably at the 
idea of being "written up." Modestly, 
he resisted the idea of even passing 
recognition. But when confronted with 
the thought of what other sons of black-| 
smiths or farmers or shopworkers might 
do to make the church the church in 
other communities, experimenting with 
other expressions of mission, his re- 
sistance faded. And so you have this 
story. D 


"ii^'- ^ ■ ' 


hat does retirement mean to me? I 
worked for thirty years in a sewing 
factory, and the last ten years I dreamed 
of what I would do when I didn't need 
to be awakened by an alarm clock and 
then rush to punch the time clock on 
time. I knew that this could not be a 
time when I would just sit and hold my 
hands, so I took a good look at them — 
and you may have done the same thing. 
No other part of my body is as vital as 
my hands — every finger on them is 
important to the others. For example, 
without my thumb I would be greatly 
handicapped. If I lost aU three fingers 
and kept my first finger and my thumb, 
I stiU could do fairly well. I want to 
keep my fingers limber. These hands were 
given to me to use by my creator for 
good to my fellowmen — not just for 

It is not so important that the hands 
of us senior citizens are callused by hard 
labor although there is something noble 
in such hands. No matter how callused 
our hands become or how weakened our 
physical powers become — there is 
always a part we can do. 

We can help by just being cheerful in 
our meetings, warm and gracious in our 
manners. Keep up interest and smile. 
Did you know that it takes only fourteen 
muscles to smile and seventy-two to 
frown? Let us not overwork the wrong 
muscles. We should be ready and willing 
to help others by doing for them those 
things that they are unable to do for 

As we pass sixty-five, all of us have 
pains and aches and could just sit and 
let them grow worse. I don't want to 
accept the boredom of life. That is not 
living. That is wasting the most precious 
thing we have — time — and that's the 
stuff life is made of. I want to be 
submerged into something that is not 
mine, so I can forget all my aches and 
pains. I want to reach out and belong in 



by Mary Volland 

heart and soul to something. I want to 
enjoy the present and not worry about 
the future. The future is ours because it 
was in part made by us. I want to 
extract every bit of sweetness and flavor 
the present offers me. 

I want to have faith in my fellowmen 
and in our country, because this we have 
built for ourselves through the years. 
Today is ours. I don't want to worry 
about tomorrow. 

Yes, there is much fun in store for us 
seniors if we lend ourselves. At our age 
we need to be loved and to love. We 
need to belong. We must have a strong 
sense of loyalty to our families and to 
our friends because if we retire from 

work and life, it will retire from us. We 
must not just sit around and complain, 
but get out and live. Empty our 
memory chest of our disappointments 
and assess our assets. As someone has 
written, "Dig a hole in your garden of 
thought and into it put all your disillu- 
sions, disappointments, regrets, worries, 
troubles, doubts, and fears, and forget 
them. Cover them well with the earth 
of fruitfulness; water it from the well of 
content. Sow on the top again the seeds 
of hope, courage, strength, patience, and 
love. There, when the time of gathering 
come, may yom- harvest be a rich and 
plentiful one." 

How can I stay young, when I shall 
soon celebrate my seventieth birthday? I 
read recently that to stay young is to 
keep a love for the beauty of the world — 
not counting the years but your friends; 
keeping an open mind to new theories, 
fresh opinions, changing impressions; 
being willing to use yom- hands to create 
new things. 

I want to learn new things. I want to 
keep alive my sense of curiosity, of 
wonder, and of concern. For learning is 
a form of living. 

I believe the opportunity to live a 
dignified, productive, and satisfying life 
is within the reach of us all; but like 
everything else that is worth having in 
life, it comes only as I pursue it. I must 
have a goal and convert it into action. 
I want to look good for my husband and 
children, but I also know that real beauty 
comes from within. We all know persons 
who have that look of serenity on their 
faces because they have kept love ahve 
in their hearts for each other. These 
folk have developed an inner beauty that 
can do much to soften wrinkles and 
sagging chins. We must keep this inner 
light alive among our senior citizens by 
helping and encouraging each other. □ 

Reprinted from Garment Worker, July 1968, 
and used with permission. 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 11 


For delegate action 

Delegates to the Louis\ille Annual Con- 
ference June 25-29 will have a series of 
items on their agenda resulting from re- 
cent developments in the Brotherhood 

In November, the General Bo;ird rec- 
ommended for approval by Annual Con- 
ference a study-policy paper on civil 
disobedience, a change in the \ote re- 
quired for the calling of a pastor, a new 
set of Five-Year Goals for Brotherhood 
Fund support, and an amendment regard- 
ing the composition of the General Board. 
Functioning as the Pension Board, the 
General Board members also processed 
an amendment regarding Pension Plan 
benefits. And still another recommenda- 
tion was advanced by a board-related 
committee proposing the updating of the 
salary scale for pastors. 

Civil disobedience: The study-policy 
paper on "Obedience to God and Civil 
Disobedience" treats the biblical and his- 
torical background of civil disobedience 
and points up its relevance to the present 
day "as a last resort after all legal means 
to correct injustice have failed." The pa- 
per stresses that while Cliristians should 
view the state as an instrument for serv- 
ing God and should help mold it as such, 
when conflict arises the Christian's su- 
preme loyalty, his beginning point and 
plumb line for decision making is obedi- 
ence to God rather than to the state. 

Commended to congregations for study 
prior to Annual Conference, the state- 
ment will be published in full in a 
forthcoming Messenger. 

Congregational vote: Another recom- 
mendation to Annual Conference pro- 
poses that pastors may be called or their 
tenn of service extended by a two-thirds 
vote of the congregational business meet- 
ing. A three-fourths majority vote now 
is required. Under the present policy a 
fairly small majority — 26 percent — can 
determine whether a pastor is called or 
continued. Many major institutions, pro- 
ponents of the change point out, regard 

a simple majority' — .51 percent — as a suf- 
ficient expression of support. 

Five-Year Goals: In gearing up for 
Self Allocation in 1970-75, a new set of 
Fi\e-Year Goals is recommended for use 
b\' congregations as guidelines for Broth- 
erhood Fund giving. 

Included in the New Brotherhood 
Fund goals are a per member average of 
$18 a year; for churches already attaining 
the $18 per member goal, a five percent 
a year increase beyond their current level; 
and for churches unable to tackle the 
larger goals, a minimum goal of $10 per 
member a year. 

Board composition: To clarify what 
is to happen in board representation 
when a member of the General Board 
moves, an amendment is proposed to the 
restructuring plan adopted by Annual 
Conference in 1968. 

The amendment provides that when a 
board member moves to an area where 
there already are three members of the 
board from his new district or one from 
his new congregation, he shall not be 
replaced on the board until his term 

Pension Amendment: The amend- 
ment to the Pension Plan needing appro\- 
al of Annual Conference extends the same 
survivor benefits to a man whose wife is 
a member of the plan as presently is of- 
fered to a woman whose husband is 

The Pension Board, acting on the 
findings of its consultant actuaries, in- 
creased benefits five percent to all retirees 
on the roster as of Aug. 31. The hike is 
retroactive to Sept. I. 

Salary scale: As called for in an 
earlier Annual Conference action, a com- 
mittee of laymen has reviewed the Pas- 
toral Salary Scale and is recommending 
several changes. In the salai-y schedule 
itself, increases of from $1,400 to $2,900 
are proposed. 

The committee's revisions also suggest 
that the new table be adjusted annually 
to reflect the cost-of-living index, that the 
vacation time granted beginning pastors 

by a previous action be reduced, that in 
figuring a minister's total compensation \ 
an amount of 25 percent of basic salary : 
be added to cover the value of the par- 
sonage, and that reimbursement for travel 
be increased. 

These six recommendations will take 
their place as new business items on the * 
docket for the Louisville conference, a 
docket which at this juncture appears to I 
be the lightest in several years. 

Facing the '70s: In addition to hand- i 
ling the above series of recommendations, 
delegates will have a unique involvement 
in another area of General Board pro- 
gram, the review and shaping of goals 
and program plans for the '70s. 

This step, to be earned out in a major 
session planned jointly by the General 
Board and the Annual Conference Central 
Committee, comes as a follow-up to work 
initiated by the Goals and Program Com- 
mittee. Over the past 18 months a 
number of "think teams" across the 
Brotherhood have shared in the process of 
looking at needs and objectives for mis- 
sion in the decade ahead. 

Special events: 1969 i 

Hk.^dline events in the Church of the > 
Brethren in 1969 will include a national I 
consultation on issues related to con- 1 
science and conscription, the denomina- j 
tion's Third Theological Conference, a 
peace seminar with the Russian Orthodox 
Church, and a consultation on "The High 
School World." 

Still tentative, the national consulta- 
tion of Brethren to examine matters of 
conscience, the draft, and conscription 
is projected for sometime this spring at 
New Windsor, Md. Among issues to be 
treated will be consideration of the vari- 
ous stands taken on the draft because of 
conscience (military service, civilian serv- 
ice, noncooperation, emigration, civil dis- 
obedience ) , the degree of compromise 
at stake in the church's functioning as 
a civilian work agency, draft counseling, 
selective objection, repeal of Selective 

12 MESSENGER 1-2-69 


Service laws, and possibilities for a re- 
sisters' service corps. 

A second special event is the July 14- 
18 Theological Conference to be held 
at Bethany Theological Seminary, Oak 
Brook, 111., under auspices of the General 
Board. Some 60 persons will be involved, 
representing, as have the preceding two 
conferences, a cross-section of the 

The peace seminar planned by the 
Church of the Brethren and the Russian 
Orthodox Church for July 22-31 is the 
outgrowth of previous exchanges between 
the two groups. The seminar will take 
place at a Roman Catholic retreat center 
in Switzerland and involve 20 persons — 
churchmen and college and seminary 
students — from the two sponsoring 
bodies. A second encounter is slated a 
year later in the Soviet Union. 

A consultation on "Youth in the High 
School World" is planned Aug. 7-10 at 
New Windsor, Md. As one of a series 
of issue-centered experiences projected 
by the Youth Ministry staff in heu of 
a National Youth Conference, the con- 
sultation will examine youth culture, 
changing attitudes on the role of educa- 
tion, and potential ministries of the 
church in these areas. From 80 to 100 
students, teachers, and administrators will 

Five staff aides named 

Restructuring of the Brotherhood staff 
continues, with decisions rendered at 
the November meeting of the General 
Board regarding the selection of admin- 
istrative assistants in five major offices. 

Gwendolyn Bobb, since 1959 adminis- 
trative assistant of the Ministry and 
Home Mission Commission, will serve in 
the same capacity under the General 
Services Commission. Miss Bobb came 
to the General Offices from St. Paul, 

Ruby H. Linkous, since 1965 adminis- 
trative assistant in the Christian Educa- 
tion Commission, will serve in the same 

capacity under the Parish Ministries 
Commission. A native of Weyers Cave, 
Va., Mrs. Linkous came to the General 
Offices from district administrative posts. 
Her husband, Oliver J. Linkous, is an 

Jean V. Wissman, since 1963 adminis- 
trative assistant of the Foreign Mission 
Commission, will serve in the same ca- 
pacity under the World Ministries Com- 
mission. A native Chicagoan and a 
Methodist, Mrs. Wissman is the only non- 
Brethren on the staff of the General 
Board. She and her husband, Herbert 
A Wissman, a district sales manager, 
have two daughters. 

Helen I. Smith, since 1952 administia- 
tive assistant in the Finance Commission, 
will serve as administrative assistant to 
the treasurer. Miss Smith was reared 
in China, where her parents were 

All four of the above appointments are 
effective Jan. 1. 

Hazel M. Peters, administrative as- 
sistant in the Brethren Service Commis- 
sion since 1953, will become the admin- 
istrative assistant to the general secretary 
beginning March 1. Miss Peters is from 
Roanoke, Va., and is a former Brethren 
Service worker in Europe. 

Announced previously by the board 
were the appointments of general secre- 
tary, three associate general secretaries 
to head commissions, and treasurerer. 

Further staffing will continue through- 
out 1969 as the board proceeds to im- 
plement the restructuring plan approved 
last June by Annual Conference. 

Updating recruitment 

Brethren interested in church-related 
service overseas will have opportunity 
to consider not only assignments offered 
by their own denomination, but by at 
least seven other denominations or agen- 
cies as well. 

Similarly, members of other bodies 
may consider service under the Church 
of the Brethren through a new joint re- 

cruitment effort now being inaugurated. 

Called the Overseas Personnel Recruit- 
ment Office (OPRO), the new venture is 
based on several needs experienced in 
common by the churches. One is to find 
an adequate number of qualified persons 
for overseas posts. A second is to utilize 
such contemporary approaches in re- 
cruiting as data processing, interpretation 
and public relations, and association with 
professional agencies. And a third is to 
recognize the specialized nature of some 
of the assignments i^erformed overseas 
by the churches. 

AfFiliates: The eight Protestant bodies 
or agencies aligned with OPRO from the 
outset are the Church of the Brethren, 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, the 
United Methodist Church, the Reformed 
Church in America, the United Church 
of Christ, the United Presbyterian 
Church, the Division of Overseas Min- 
istries of the National Council of 
Churches, and the United Board for 
Higher Education in Asia. Other groups 
may participate in the plan at a later 

Myler Walburn, former teacher of 
theology in Indonesia and more recently 
personnel secretary for the United 
Church of Christ, has been named direc- 
tor of the new program. 

The Church of the Brethren was re- 
lated to the formation of OPRO pri- 
marily through the Foreign Mission 
Commission, but in concert with the 
Brethren Service Commission. The Gen- 
eral Board's Executive Committee ap- 
proved Brethren entry into the program 
last September. 

Joel K. Thompson, head of the World 
Ministries Commission under the Gen- 
eral Board's new structure, described 
OPRO as offering "an expansion of pro- 
gram opportunities" to Brethren and to 
members of other participating bodies. 
At the same time, he said recruitment of 
Brethren would be broadened well be- 
yond the church's colleges and seminary 
and two state universities — Ohio State 
and Purdue — where efforts up to this 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 13 

time have been largely centered. 

Tasks: One of the early hopes of the 
new office is to develop research pro- 
grams designed to bring about more ef- 
fecti\'e practices in personnel recruit- 
ment. Involved will be up-to-date test- 
ing and selection procedures. Other 
prime tasks of the office will be to pro- 
vide information through seminars, ad- 
vertising, literature, and college and 
seminary visits as to the nature of over- 
seas mission today and openings for serv- 
ice. The office also will work with po- 
tential candidates who require more 
preparation before they are appointed. 

Status: The missionary force of work- 
ers from the United States and Canada 
is at an all-time high and still growing, 
according to figures released at the trien- 
nial meeting of the National Council of 
Churches Division of Overseas Ministries. 
The number of mission workers from the 
two countries on location overseas in 
1968 totaled 33,270 persons. Income for 
overseas programs of all U.S. -based 
churches increased between I960 and 
1968 from $170 million to $299 million. 

Still with the growth in numbers and 
support, the enterprise has left unre- 
solved many questions as to the effective- 
ness of the missionary in a foreign coun- 
try, the NCC's David M. Stowe told the 
Overseas Ministries assembly. In part the 
joint recruitment office will seek to re- 
search some of these basic questions, 
among them the type of persons who 
might work most helpfully in missionary 

The Church of the Bretliren will name 
two persons to the board of directors and 
representatives to key committees of the 
new organization. 

Fellowship of the free 

God's purpose in all his deahngs with 
his people is to help them to live in 
ti'ue freedom. 

This is the premise around which ecu- 
menical observances will be held in local 
communities during the Week of Prayer 
for Christian Unity, Jan. 18 through 25. 

Based on a text from Galatians 5; 13, 

the theme, "Called to Freedom," reflects 
a biblical perspective that extends from 
the exodus of the Jews from Egypt to 
fellowship with Christ in the New 

Denial: Among the theme materials is 
a background leaflet which asserts that 
churches throughout their history have 
denied the freedom God wills for his 
people through the misuse of services, 
doctrines, or systems of behavior so as 
to reject those who differ; through the 
narrowing of outlook so as to become 
closed to fellow Christians of other tra- 
ditions and closed to God's action in the 
world; and through a one-sidedness either 
of proclaiming only a gospel for society 
or a gospel of individualistic conversion. 

Christ has set us free and at the same 
time called into partnership with him all 
those whom he is making free, the inter- 
pretive statement notes. It concludes that 
the fellowship of the free will define the 
scope of its service not at the boundaries 
of the churches but at the boundaries of 

Sponsored in the United States by the 
National Council of Churches Depart- 
ment of Faith and Order and recom- 
mended by the Roman Catholic Bishops' 
Committee for Ecumenical and Interreli- 

Called to Freedom 

gious Affairs, the Week of Prayer today 
has changed significantly from its origin i 
in 1908. ] 

Deletion: Then the Chair of Unity 
Octaxe was begun in the Roman Catholic ! 
Church to pray for the "return" of all I 
separated Christians to the Holy See. 
By 1964, the Chair of Unity Octave re- 
vised its prayer intentions, omitting all 
reference to "return" to the Holy See. 
In the Protestant world, the Faith and 
Order movement began the observance 
in commemoration of Pentecost. 

Today Protestants, Orthodox and Cath- 
olics use the same prayer leaflets, alter- 
nately preparing the material. 

God and evolution 

A CEASE-FIRE has been achieved in one 
of the major battlefields of two longtime 
antagonists, religion and science. 

The U.S. Supreme Court's November 
ruling that a state cannot forbid the 
teaching of evolution on religious grounds 
underlined the fact that the once-spectac- 
ular dispute is, for most Americans, now 
a minor issue. 

In a unanimous decision the Court said 
that when the state of Arkansas enforced 
a forty-year-old law that forbade the 
teaching of any theory that man evolved 
from other species of life, it was not being 
neutral with respect to religion. Rather, | 
the opinion said the state ostensibly wasj 
showing favor toward fundamentalist! 
points of view on the origin of man. 

Justice Abe Fortas, writing the opinion, | 
said Arkansas' "undoubted right to pre-| 
scribe the curriculum for its public i 
schools does not carry with it the right 
to prohibit, on pain of criminal penalty, 
the teaching of a scientific theory or doc- 
trine where that prohibition is based upon 
reasons that violate the first Amendment." 

Anachronism: The "monkey law," as 
it is sometimes called, is one of three 
such statutes remaining in the states, car- 
ryovers from religious zeal against the 
theories of Charles Darwin. Tennessee 
and Mississippi still have such laws, 
termed "anachronistic" by Justice John 
Harlan in a separate supporting opinion. 

14 MESSENGER 1-2-69 



current happenings 
on the Brethren scene 

The theory of evolution, by its content 
as well as by its novelty in the history 
of human thought, is particularly disturb- 
ing to those who favor a static, unchang- 
ing view of reality. A disturbing aspect 
of evolutionary theory to such persons 
is the concept of enormous changes tak- 
ing place in forms of life which have 
seemed highly stable. Another emotional 
blow to many is the idea that man may 
be related to lower forms of life. 

Evolutionary theory confronts tradi- 
tional religious belief most clearly in the 
area of bibhcal interpretation. Many in- 
terpreters have seen contradictions be- 
tween the account of creation given in 
Genesis and the chronology of the devel- 
opment of life worked out by scientists. 
Yet others, with growing unanimity, have 
said that it is possible to interpret Genesis 
in a way compatible with the theory of 

Ongoing: In fact, evolutionary the- 
ories are advocated by theologians as well 
as scientists. A man who was both, Jesuit 
scholar Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, pre- 
sented a vision of mankind as still in a 
process of collective, evolutionary devel- 
opment toward a more Godlike condition. 
His view is thus not of the past but of 
the future in evolution. 

Teilhard's view, like some details of 
standard evolutionary theory, cannot be 
verified to the satisfaction of all observ- 
ers. Still, in examining such hypotheses, 
theologians tend to deepen their aware- 
ness of themselves, their world, and the 
Creator who made them. 
. Other tensions between religion and 
science presumably will remain as long 
as both retain their distinctive views of 
reality. But head-on collisions have be- 
come increasingly rare in the centuries 
since the Gahleo case, and many church- 
men and scientists seek a meeting of 
minds. Or they proceed at least with 
nonhostile attitudes on issues related to 
the mystery of life. 

Susan Epperson, a biology teacher in 
Little Rock, initiated the suit in 1965, 
shordy after Governor Orval Faubas ex- 
pressed opposition to a drive by edu- 
cators to have the law repealed. 

Youth priorities: Ten young per- 
sons at the council meeting of the 
Bridgewater, Va., Church of the Breth- 
ren changed the vote on a budget 

The Music and Worship Commission 
and Board of Administration had pro- 
posed an expenditure of $1,000 for 
robes for the youths' Chancel Choir. 
Three of the young people expressed 
their concern that the money should be 
spent instead for feeding the hungry, 
reducing the church debt, or filling 
some other urgent need rather than for 
"our personal display." 

The council voted, without dissent, 
to ask the Finance Commission to re- 
allocate the $1,000 to other uses "in 
keeping with the concerns expressed by 
the young people." 

Aid to Vietnam: Funds are being 
collected by the Brethren Action Move- 
ment, headquartered at North Man- 
chester, Ind., to aid Vietnamese war 
victims. Along with Young Friends, a 
parallel Quaker group, BAM representa- 
tives plan to take funds received from 
Brethren and Quaker donors across the 
Canadian border at Buffalo, N.Y., late 
in January. Through Canadian Quakers 
it is anticipated that the money can 
be channeled to provide aid to the 
needy in both North and South 

In transition: CROP, the Community 
Hunger Appeal of Church World Serv- 
ice, has for more than a decade had 
one man as chairman of its governing 
committee. He is W. Harold Row of 
the Church of the Brethren. 

Dr. Row presided over the commit- 
tee's final session this fall. Beginning 
Jan. 1, an enlarged CROP committee 
is being formed, to serve as one of three 
major units within Church World 

Dr. Row recently was reelected chair- 
man of the National Service Board for 
Religious Objectors, a post he has held 
for the past 1.5 years. 

The Singing Brethren: The Men's 
Chorus of the Downsville Church of the 

The Singing Brethren of Downsville 

Brethren in Maryland this fall released 
an album, "Rise Up, O Men of God." 
The seven-member chorus, which also 
is the church's choir, undertook the 
project in behalf of the church's build- 
ing fund for new classrooms. 

The group, pictured above, includes 
from the left, first row, Bernard Wam- 
pler, Charles Litten, and Ben Litten, 
and second row, William Litten, Row- 
land Litten, George Stambaugh, man- 
ager, and Jimmy Ross, director and 

The album is comprised of hymns, 
anthems, spirituals, and gospels, sung 
mostly a cappella but some with guitar 
and bass accompaniment. 

Self-Help venture: Faim laborers 
using their spare time to construct new 
homes is a going thing in Stanislaus 
County in California. 

Joe Dell, Brethren layman at Modesto 
and director of the county's Self-Help 
Enterprises, recently arranged a public 
tour of 14 new homes built by families 
at Keyes, a projected new subdivision 
of 48 homes to be erected on 10 acres 
at Patterson, and an entire block of 
homes completed at Grayson. 

The sponsoring agency headed by 
Mr. Dell is a federally funded nonprofit 
corporation originally begun by the 
American Friends Service Committee. 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 15 



In church circles, as in most other 
spheres these days, assessments aheady 
are being made of the next administi^ation 
in Washington. Two of the questions 
are. What will be President Nixon's re- 
actions to the influence of organized 
religion? And what is his own religious 

In the former question, it is to be 
noted that churchmen's calls at the White 
House on matters of national and inter- 
national import have been almost routine 
in the last eight years. Such activity was 
especially heavy early in the administra- 
tions of both John F. Kennedy and 
Lyndon B. Johnson. 

Detachment: In the case of Mr. Nixon, 
however, he has had but little contact 
with religious agencies invoked in the 
issues of the day. There is no record, 
for example, of his having been invited 
to be the speaker at any major or national 
Protestant or Catholic conference on the 
U.S. crisis since the day he left the vice- 
presidency on Jan. 20, 1961. 

But in spite of this, observers believe 
that the trend of dialogue between 
churchmen and the President, begun by 
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, will be 

In this decade, both Mr. Kennedy and 
Mr. Johnson seemed to receive far more 
calls from churchmen and church groups 
in the early days of their administration 
than later. For Mr. Kennedy, a Catholic, 
far more Protestant contingents were re- 
ceived than Catholic. For Mr. Johnson, 
engaged in sweeping social and civil re- 
forms, many religious groups came to 
express concerns and support, with an 
exchange of views regarded as beneficial 
both ways. 

But as clergymen began to become 
vocal against the war policies of Mr. 
Johnson in Vietnam, partially because of 
their concern for suffering humanity and 
partially because they questioned the 
morality of escalation and continued 
American fighting, the visits with the 

President tapered off. 

Stance: What will be Mr. Nixon's 
relationship with the churches is not 
known. His own religious affiliation, the 
Society of Friends, operates one of the 
most vocal of the religiously affiliated 
legislative offices in Washington. Seem- 
ingly on several issues, among them 
Vietnam, armaments, and the nonpro- 
liferation treaty, Mr. Nixon and the 
Quaker position would be some distance 

Like his three successive predecessors, 
.Mr. Nixon has a common religious in- 
fluence in the friendship of evangelist 
Billy Graham. Mr. Graham had, and has, 
a first-name relationship with Eisenhower, 
Kennedy, Johnson, and now Nixon. 

Mr. Nixon readily admitted that par- 
tially it was the "inspiration" instilled in 
him by Billy Graham that caused him 
to begin his successful quest of the presi- 
dency, a quest delayed by defeat at the 
hands of John Kennedy and the debacle 
which attended Mr. Nixon's bid for the 
governorship of Califomia. 

But even with President Johnson, for 
whom Mr. Graham preached the inaugu- 
ration sermon, the frequency of the 
evangelist's visits to the White House 
lessened with time. Some observers felt 
that Mr. Graham balked at projecting 
the image of White House aide for Mr. 
Johnson in a quasireligious capacity, a 
type of White House chaplain. 

Influences: When he was vice-presi- 
dent, Mr. Ni.xon and his family attended 
the Metropolitan Memorial Methodist 
Church in Washington. In his home towni 
of Whittier, Calif., he attended local 
Friends meetings. The family also has 
attended services at Congregational 
churches at times. 

In his youth Mr. Nixon was active 
in Christian Endeavor work, attending 
state and county conventions in Cali- 
fornia. He also played the organ in 
church. His mother wanted him to be a 
musician or a preacher. 

In an inter\iew with the London Ob- 
server, Mr. Ni.xon said of his family, 
"I do not have my parents' passivity, 
and I do not go along entirely with their 
philosoph>'; but the sight of their pa- 
tience, courage, and determination not to 
break down, whatever the physical and 
emotional strain, has been one of the 
finest things I have ever known. It cer- I 
tainh' held me together at times when 
I have been under pressure. And it al- 
ways will." 

Billy Graham, in a postelection inter- 
view on CBS radio, described Mr. Nixon's 
"deep religious past" and said he was 
certain it will have a great bearing on 
liis presidential leadership. "As you 
know, Quakers are a little reticent to 
talk about their religious faith in public, 
and I believe that Mr. Nixon, as a 
Quaker, has inherited a little bit of this 
tendency. He never wanted to use. for 
example, religion politically. He was al- 
ways afraid that people would interpret 
even going to church during a campaign 
as trying to use religion ... to gain 
political strength." 

Issues: As for any leader, the real test 
tor .Mr. Nixon will come not only in 
relationships but in stands taken on key I 
issues. ; 

It is expected that strong overtures i 
will be made by church agencies and 
individual spoke.smen in behalf of con- 1 
tinuation of the social welfare programs | 
initiated by the Kennedy and Johnson I 

Of human rights in the United States, 
.Mr. Nixon has supported all civil rights 
legislation enacted since 1957. He has 
denounced racial discrimination, advo- 
cated tax incenti\'es to industries in pov- 
erty areas, and called for greater private 
enterprise in rebuilding the cities. 

He warned against Congress' giving in 
to the demands of the Poor People's Cam- 
paign in Washington last summer, al- 
though he said that the "genuine need 
for better income, better standards of 

16 MESSENGER 1-2m59 


A look at 
the next Presi- 
dent from the 
vantage point 
of the church 

living, and better medical care . . . call 
forth our compassion and a renewed 
commitment to social justice." 

The President-elect has made plain 
that he supports aid for private and 
parochial schools — tlu'ough the states, 
using federal funds, and under state 

He said in July 1968 that the U.S. 
government should act to save Biafrans 
from starvation in the Nigerian-Biafran 
civil war. 

On still other issues of concern to 
religious leaders, Mr. Nixon has opposed 
U.S. recognition of mainland China, has 
called for the U.S. sale of jets to Israel, 
and has favored the establishment of a 
volunteer armed services after the Viet- 
nam war ends. 

While viewed in times past as hawk- 
ish on Vietnam, Mr. Nixon stood staunch- 
ly by President Johnson in the calling of 
the bombing halt in North \'ietnam just 
prior to the election. Earlier in the cam- 
paign Mr. Nixon said the South Viet- 
namese government should take a more 
active role in the fighting. He also ex- 
pressed opposition to a coalition govern- 
ment in Saigon. 

Unity: Of the challenges ahead, the 
President-elect said the one objective of 

his administration will be to unify the 
nation, carr\ing out the request he saw 
on a sign displayed by an Ohio teen-ager 
at a rally: "Bring Us Together." 

Faced by a Congress whose majority 
is of the opposition party, and by a pub- 
lic deeply perplexed over issues and 
directions, Mr. Nixon has pledged him- 
self to a formidable but pressing task. — 
From RNS sources 

Surge of the military 

Of all the issues facing the nation and 
its new administration in Washington, 
none is more crucial than the role of the 
military in policy making. And in this 
regard, there are signals that give cause 
for concern. 

This was the position taken by Norman 
Cousins, editor of Saturday Review, as 
he and two other prominent public affairs 
analysts on a panel in Chicago assessed 
the implications of the national election. 
Mr. Cousins read his signals from Uvo 
prime sources, the Johnson experience in 
Vietnam and the Nixon pronouncement 
on armaments. 

Field policy: On Vietnam, so far as 
Hanoi's readiness to talk goes, Mr. 
Cousins said serious explorations for a 

President-elect Nixon after 

service in Manhattan Baptist Church. 

At left is Pastor Stephen F. Olford, 

at right, Billy Graham 

settlement might well have begun two 
years ago — late in 1966 — had the U.S. 
military in Vietnam not countered the 
peace initiatives then taken by President 
Johnson. On t\vo occasions, Mr. Cousins 
contended, Polish intermediaries had 
brought about agreements in which 
Ho Chi Minh expressed willingiiess to 
talk with U.S. representatives in Warsaw, 
only to have the agreements nullified b>' 
the U.S. extension of bombing to Hanoi. 

One is led to conclude, Mr. Cousins 
said, that the bombing at that time and 
of that place was a field decision. More- 
over, he suggested that perhaps Vietnam 
has been largely a series of field decisions 
which, in efl^ect, have created foreign 
policy on the field. 

The relevance of this episode to more 
recent peace efforts is the possibility that 
the U.S. military, much of it intent on 
resolving the Vietnam conflict b\' military 
means, may have given encouragement 
to the South Vietnamese government to 
oppose new attempts at negotiation. 

When American foreign policy turns 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 17 

from peace and responds more to military 
power than to human, social, economic, 
and other factors, survival itself is at 
stake, Mr. Cousins warned. 

Campaign pledge: Though a change 
of administration is soon to occur in 
Washington, there is no assurance that 
the role of the military in the coming 
years will be significantly lessened. In 
fact there are some observers who fear 
that if President-elect Richard M. Nixon 
is consistent with his campaign rhetoric 
the voice of the military in government 
may be amplified. 

Specifically, the concern as reflected 
by Mr. Cousins and others stems from 
the pledge of Mr. Ni.xon for "military 
superiority." What this means when the 
United States reportedly now has the 
power to destroy the Soviet Union 200 
times over, and the Soviet Union the 
power to destroy the United States 132 
times over, appears, as one columnist 
pointed out, little short of "a perilous 
game of thermonuclear Russian roulette." 

CBS news analyst Eric Sevareid, a co- 
panelist on the postelection discussion 
with Norman Cousins, said it was his 
"hopeful guess" that Mr. Nixon will 
abandon the campaign promise to achieve 
nuclear superiority over the Russians. 
Sevareid said to carry out that pledge 
would "strain federal financial resources 
almost unendurably . . . make impossible 
any massive federal attack on domestic 
ills," and thwart possibilities for this 
country and Russia to halt the nuclear 
arms race, 

Economic factor: A third panelist, 
economist Walter Heller, said he was 
more concerned over possible vast spend- 
ing for arms by the new administration 
than he was over any other trends he 
foresaw in Nixon economic policy. The 
University of Minnesota professor and 
former chairman of the President's Coun- 
cil of Economic Advisers lamented that 
Congressional leaders tend to act on re- 
quests for military appropriations with 
far less scrutiny than civilian expendi- 
tures. He said the war in Vietnam has 
indeed brought an imbalance in the 
American economy, adding, "War is hell 

economically as well as morally and 
politically and every other wise." 

Many other issues also will help define 
the stance of the new President's peace 
and international policies; his position 
on the treaty to control the spread of 
nuclear weapons, how developments in 
Vietnam and other tension areas will be 
handled, the international overtures that 
will be made in nonmilitary realms, even 
the proposed shift to a volunteer army 
in place of the Selective Service System. 

But what the pundits in Chicago were 
expressing was that, given the already 
determinative position which military 
spokesmen have in government and add 
to this the potential of a still greater 
stress on armament superiority, military 
imbalance is an increasing threat. 

In Mr. Cousins' view, only an informed 
public opinion will assure a balance be- 
tween the military and the nonmihtary 
in the policy-making branches of govern- 
ment. And if the pubhc is to be re- 
sponsible in its opinion, it must be aware 
that security henceforth rests not only 
on the massing of force but on the control 
of force. 

To peace churches, the message is not 
new. The timeliness is. 

One man's mold 

Carl McIntire in person-to-person en- 
counter is about as congenial a gentle- 
man as you could meet. But give him 
a pen or a microphone and an ecumenical 
event or a peace movement to assail, and 
the suavity turns caustic. 

For years, innumerable church and 
public leaders attacked by the forceful 
20th Century Reformation Hour speaker 
and skillful Christian Beacon editor have 
never known quite how to respond. More 
often than not no rebuttal was offered 
simply because the accused chose not to 
repeat or dignify what they saw as the 
distortions of the accuser. 

Static: But recently Dr. McIntire, who 
sees apostasy in the World Council and 
National Council of Churches and even 
in the reconciling ministries of the peace 
churches, has come under open fire from 

within his own domain. The static j 
originated at high levels in the Interna- 1 
tional Council of Christian Churches 
(ICCC) which the Bible Presbyterian 
minister heads. It is also expressed in 
the American Council of Christian 
Churches (ACCC), of which Dr. McIntire 
is the founder but of which the president 
is now Dr. J. Phifip Clark. 

Associated Missions, the mission arm 
of the ICCC, in a private letter charged i 
that Mclntire's widely heard broadcast I 
and widely circulated periodical are do- I 
ing "irreparable harm" to the missionary I 
effort of the ICCC. Picked up by Dr. I 
McIntire and published in the Nov. 7 
Christian Beacon, the charges were dealt 
with in line-by-line refutation. Above all, 
Dr. McIntire denied that the broadcast 
and the newspaper were separate from 
the ICCC. "They are affiliated with the 
ICCC and a blessed part of it," he said. 
And he outUned in a multipage response 
his defense to charges that he was con- 
stantly purporting to speak for the ICCC; 
that he was involved in political issues; 
that he frequently criticized the U.S. 
government and other governments of 
the free world; that he participated in 
protest marches; and that his activity was 
causing missionaries abroad, national 
churches, and independent missions to 
disassociate themselves from the ICCC. 

Undercutting: The evangelical weekly, 
Christianity Today, in its Nov. 22 issue 
publicized the anti-McIntire movement, . 
which it said Dr. McIntire explained as | 
"colleagues trying to undercut him." The , 
apparent issue, the magazine said, grows j 
out of a desire of the separatist, funda- ' 
mentalist council "to break out of the \ 
one-man mold," along with "embarrass- 
ment over Mclntire's hard-line methods 
in his radio and publishing work." 

Particular targets of the McIntire 
media have been not only the World 
and National Councils of Churches and 
numerous Protestant bodies, but church- 
men from behind the Iron Curtain, the 
Roman Catholic Church, the Consultation 
on Church Union, and religious journal- 
ists of the mass media as well. Among 
the more recent subjects of criticism have 

18 MESSENGER 1-2-69 


perspectives for the 
beginning of a new year 

been evangelist Billy Graham and Carl 
Henry, former editor of Christianity 

Long march: It was at the 1966 World 
Congress on Evangelism in Berlin that 
Dr. Mclntire and Dr. Henry exchanged 
words. When Dr. Mclntire's late applica- 
tion for press credentials failed to pro- 
duce a pass, he led a march protesting the 
Congress and also attacked "ecumenical 
evangelism" in a written document. 

Dr. Henry suggested then that the 
Mclntire group march right to and past 
the Berlin Wall "so it will be clear to 
the Christian world what you are pro- 
testing against." 

The evangelical journalist also re- 
marked that Dr. Mclntire "thri\es on 
thrusting himself uninvited into the lime- 
light of major religious conferences not 
identified with his owii agency." 

New locus: In October, the Christi- 
anity Today report stated, the ACCC 
voted to set up permanent headquarters 
at Valley Forge, Pa., bringing the internal 
clash to a head. "Mclntire opposed this 
and other moves, and the discussion con- 
sumed most of the three-day meeting," 
the report stated. 

It identified as one of the anti-McIntire 
leaders John Millheim, ACCC general 
secretary, who "denies any matters of 
doctrine are involved." Mr. Millheim, 
Dr. Clark, ACCC president, and Donald 
Waite, radio-television director, are con- 
sidered by Dr. Mclntire as leading the 
effort against him, the report added. 

Floodtide: Dismayed but not dis- 
spirited by the breach, the mihtant Mr. 
Mclntire asked in his Christian Beacon 
article, "What did men think that they 
were going to gain by all this? Discredit 
me? Weaken the ICCC? Never!" 

And as scriptural support he cited: 

"When the enemy shall come in like 
a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift 
up a standard against him" (Is. .59:19). 

Plus the theme of the ICCC Congress 
set for 1972: 

"Worthy is the Lamb that was slain 
-o receive power, and riches, and wis- 
iom, and strength, and honor, and glory, 
and blessing" (Rev. 5:12). 

Rosemary Reuther, chairman of the 
religion department of Howard Uni- 
versity, in a symposium on pastoral re- 
newal: "The church is happening today 
wherever the spirit is stirring the waters 
of humanity and groups of men are on 
the rise to overcome alienating and false 
modes of existence and to form new, 
more authentic modes of fellowship and 
life together. 

". . . The church is not so much a 
fixed structure, much less institution or 
organization, as it is a process, or a 
happening. The church is just wherever 
reconcihation is being built up in the 

Daniel Berrigan, Jesuit priest and 
poet convicted of destroying Selective 
Service files, in the hook, "Night Flight 
to Hanoi": "We say killing is di.sorder; 
'-<>u>^^>_i ^'^^ ^^^ gentleness 
* •^'^'■i'^^^^S ^^^ community and 
unselfishness is the 
only order we recog- 
nize. For the sake of 
that order, we risk 
our liberty, our good 
name. The time is 
past when good men 
can remain silent, 
when obedience can 
segregate men from public risk, when 
the poor can die without defense." 

The Christian Century, editorial- 
izing on the "no compromise" attitude 
on social change, with particular refer- 
ence to lasi spring's student strike lead- 
ers at Columbia University: "Those who 
are blind to the dark side of their own 
motives and to the continual com- 
promise within themselves tend to de- 
velop a self-righteous aversion to all 
compromise and thus undercut the pos- 
sibility of any real political existence 
as we have known it. 

"If there can be no compromise, if 
no one will accept defeat on any issue, 
if whenever we think the majority is 
morally wrong or misled we hurl ulti- 
matums and mount insurrections, we 
will destroy ourselves as a viable 


Norman Cousins, in an article in 
Saturday Review on "Needed: A New 
World Theme Song": "If the world is 
to go on and if meaningful life is to be 
sustained, the place to begin is with 
the awareness that men themselves, and 
not their governments, have the prime 
obligations to create the institutions that 
can bring law and order among the 

Terence F. Cook, archbishop of New 
York and first member of the U.S. Cath- 
olic hierarchy to address the General 
Board of the National Council of 
Churches: "1 believe Christian miity de- 
pends far more on charity and mutual 
affection than it does on deeper knowl- 
edge. Love is the driving force behind 
all our efforts toward unity. Love has 
its own way of shai"pening and clearing 
our vision so that we can recognize 
the truth more readily. 

"Those who love one another always 
see the good qualities which those who 
are indifferent overlook. Love makes 
us more perceptive. This is why the 
future looks bright and promising for 
us — because despite om- doctrinal dif- 
ferences, we are now walking together, 
praying together, working together, 
trusting and respecting one another." 

John J. Dougherty, Newark bishop, 
in addressing college .students: "We 
pass on to you the Christian heritage 
and ask you to see not only our limita- 
tions and our failings but our small suc- 
cesses. See not only our blindness but 
our visions and our hope. Leani by 
our successes as well as by our failures. 
Believe that we have believed and have 
tried to love. 

"Judge not our generation too harsh- 
ly, lest yours be judged as harshly by 
that which comes after you. Our best 
gift to you is not a new world but an 
old faith, ever old and ever new, be- 
cause it is really the gift of the eternal 
Spirit who reminds every generation of 
the word of Jesus: 'In the world you 
will have trouble, but be brave: I have 
conquered the world.' " 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 19 

If a child is to develop a constructive 
attitude toward work, he will need to 
build a firm foundation of habit, 
with encouragement from his parents 

f I illy is a popular and efficient baby- 
sitter; Tony is in demand for garden- 
ing and yardwork; Christine earns 
money as a mother's helper; George 
has a successful paper route; and 
Paul operates a flourishing bike repair 
business in his garage. It is no acci- 
dent that these five teen-agers are 
good workers. They were encouraged 
early in life not onl>' to accept re- 
sponsibility but also to enjoy it. 

Dr. Ernest Osborne, noted educator 
at Columbia University, feels that the 
importance of effectively introducing 
children and young people to work 
is quite obvious. "If we believe in 
the dignity and worth of labor," says 
Osborne, "and e.xpect our children to 
believe in that democratic ideal, we 
must provide the experiences that will 
permit future generations to develop 
a constructi\e attitude toward work." 

Years ago children had meaningful 
work right in the family and training 
began early. Mom, Dad, and the 
youngsters worked as a team to sur- 
vive. Farm children milked cows, cut 
firewood, and assisted widi other 
chores in the home and the fields. 
City youngsters often worked in a 
family-owned store from sunrise to 
sundown. Just as soon as a son or 
daughter could be put to good use, 

he began to work. 

Persons brought up in this work 
attitude of yesteryear often feel that 
today's children are a soft lot. On 
the other hand, before child-labor 
laws were put into effect early in 
the century, millions of youngsters 
were exploited by parents and guard- 
ians, being cut off from their school- 
ing to work not just at home but 
in local mills, factories, canneries, and 
other places of business. Pushed 
beyond their physical capacity, many 
of these boys and girls became sick, 
and some died. 

Today, laws protect children from 
exploitation, educating them at least 
through age sixteen, and instituting 
play activitx' as a vital part of child 
de\elopment. Unless parents provide 
work experiences for the modern 
child, he may grow up feeling that 
life is one big playground, and school, 
a necessary evil. 

when is a child capable of learning 
the value of work? 

Psychologists tell us that a cluld's 
work attitude is formed by the time 
he is twelve years of age. At twelve 
he is capable of seeing a job through 
from start to finish, provided liis 
parents have instilled good work 
habits in him. 

Does Your Child 

Know the Value of Work? 

by Pearl Gibbs 

A recent study of 500 Boston boy- 
workers bears this out, revealing that 
behind each successful worker between 
the ages of ten and sixteen was a 
parent who had actively shared and 
in\ented work, literally propelling his 
child into work projects from early 

Another interesting factor in this 
study was incentive. Contrary to 
popular belief aiiout doles, allowances, 
and payments, money was not the 
main objective with the boys in the 
Boston study. It was proven that 
simple chores in and about the home, 
where the parent worked alongside 
the child and showed him the best 
ways of doing things, motivated good 
work habits. Abilities developed with 
the youngster until he became profi- 
cient enough to carry out a task by 

But organizing a child's work has 
a bearing on his efficiency too. Dr. 
Addreen Nichols of the College of 
Human Development at Pennsylvania 
State University made a study of 120 
hardworking mothers, concluding that 
it was the woman adept at schedules, 
assigning chores, inspecting the work 
of her children regularly, and rotating 
the jobs who got the maximum of good 
help out of her children. 

These children worked efficiently 
and in good spirits because they were 
made to feel that their efforts were 
contributing to the family welfare. 
On the other hand, the study also 
showed that youngsters who reneged 
on the job did so because of poor 
organization. Parents of poor workers 
gave them so much freedom in their 
tasks that the children were hazy as 
to what was expected of them. 

Mothers of poor workers contributed 
to the situation by saying they did 
not think it necessary to stand over a 
child as he worked. Such children 

20 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

were allowed to walk away from the 
job whenever other interests beckoned. 
Work was seldom rotated in these 
families, leaving the most dependable 
child stuck with it all. 

How can a parent instill good work 

According to Dr. Joyce Brothers, 
nationally known psychologist and 
child-development expert, merely re- 
quiring a child to do chores will not 
automatically instill a responsible 
character in him. She feels a child 
must build upon a firm foundation 
of habit, receiving plenty of encour- 
agement from his parents. 

Training a child to do a job nicely 
requires work on the part of the 
parent, says Dr. Brothers. Children 
bungle their tasks in the learning 
process. Dishes may not shine, beds 
are lumpy, and floors will have places 
that have been missed by the mop. 
But if the youngsters are excused from 
their chores on this account, they will 
never become good workers. 

What can work do for your child? 

Dr. Ernest Osborne feels there are 
four assets that work will add to the 
life experience of any youngster. They 
lare; a sense of achievement not de- 
rived in any other way; a form of 
acceptance from grown-ups; an appre- 
ciation of what work contributes to 
normal well-being; and a testing 
ground in choosing a life vocation. 

Dr. Osborne and others point out 
that a child's work efficiency lies in 
doing a job systematically, and to do 
this the youngster must learn five 
things: (1) what the job is about; 
(2) how to do the task; (3) how to 
see it to completion; (4) how to re- 
peat the job; and (.5) how to perfect 
his skill. Here's how it works. 

Betty Marie is only two years old, 
but she is learning to work. After a 
trip to the supermarket with mother. 

Betty Marie and Mommy put the 
groceries away together, mostly on 
low sheKes where the child can reach 
them. This is Betty Marie's job. 
Painstakingly her mother shows her 
ho\N' to do it, working with the tot 
until all the "bo.xes" are put away. 

Everytime Betty Marie goes shop- 
ping with mother she has a chance 
to repeat this performance and to 
perfect it. After many times the child 
becomes so efficient that when mother 
cooks she can ask Betty Marie to 
bring her "the red box" or "the box 
with the animal on it" from the shelf. 
And in this way tiny Betty Marie finds 
a meaningful, organized work experi- 

Naturally, chores must not be too 
difficult for the young child. Children 
must be able to be proud of what 
they do and not be scolded for mis- 
takes. Two may be far too young 
for some childj-en to start. The idea 
is, of course, to begin as early as is 
humanly possible. 

Each age has its own work ac- 
complishment level, with girls adapting 
themselves sooner than boys, who seem 
to lag about six months behind their 
feminine counterparts in development. 
Keep in mind, too, that children are 
individuals with varying abilities and 
temperaments. But by the time a 
child is four or five years old he 
should have definite duties to perform 
in the line of meaningful work in and 
about the home. 

What kind of work grows with a 

The following examples of graded 
work come from observing children 
in the homes of friends, neighbors, 
relatives, and acquaintances of mine. 
Perhaps they will be helpful in lining 
up tasks for youngsters in your family. 

Henry, aged five, is assigned to tak- 
ing out the wrapped parcel of garbage. 

emptying the wastebaskets, and set- 
ting the table at mealtime. Andrew, 
his six-year-old brother, dusts furni- 
ture, picks up books and magazines, 
runs errands, and dries the dishes. 
Both boys keep their room in order, 
making a stab at pulling the bed 

Mary Ann has learned to prepare 
a simple meal, bake a box-cake, and 
mix up a pudding. Mary Ann is only 
seven, but her older sisters, Patricia, 
eight, and Marilyn, nine, set the ex- 
ample. All three girls have been 
taught to make beds, polish shoes, 
scrub the kitchen, wash out the bath- 
room sink, and keep their personal 
items clean and neat. Marilyn has 
had more practice, of course. But the 
other two are following in her foot- 

Diane, aged ten, and John, aged 
eleven, are capable of performing 
many adult jobs. Together this 
brother and sister mow lawns, sho\'el 
snow, wax the floors, and vacuum 
the rugs, handling mechanized equip- 
ment to get the job done. Washing 
the car and the family's two pets is 
also accomplished by this work team. 

Mike and Tom, twelve-year-old 
twins, have tackled almost any job 
one might name which is necessary 
in maintaining a home. Crossing 
boundaries of "what's male and 
what's female," these well-muscled 
boys have ironed, laundered, cooked, 
baked, and sewed on their own but- 
tons, as well as cleaned out the ga- 
rage, basement, attic, and other places 
needing a strong arm. 

Knowing how to work is a blessing 
no child should be denied. Calvin 
Coolidge once put it this way; "Work 
is not a curse. It is the prerogative 
of intelligence, and the only means 
to manhood, and the measure of 
civilization." □ 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 21 

L^SSl day liif day 

What will 1969 bring? No one knows 
for sure. You can start the year by think- 
ing about calendars, observing the way 
the days fall in each month, counting up 
holidays and vacation weeks. But your 
hope for 1969 is not in the faithfulness of 
the calendar (which is quite dependable, 
of course), but in the faithfulness of God 
whose "steadfast love never ceases" and 
whose mercies are "new every morning." 

The suggested readings for the next 
two weeks, most of them selected from 
Psalm 90 and from some of the servant 
songs in the prophecy of Isaiah, empha- 
size the power and might of the eternal 
God. But at the same time they declare 
that he is concerned about persons. Not 
only that, they insist also that God, in 
turn, calls upon servants who will e.\- 
hibit this same concern for people and 
for all that affects them, including such 
important things as justice and freedom 
and peace. 

Why not use this time at the beginning 
of a new year as a time to think about 
God's everlasting love for all his children 
and for his faithfulness in creating each 
new day so that it becomes another op- 
portunity to make "all things new"? Some 
of the suggestions that follow may help 
you to make use of available resources 
for family worship experiences. 

Suggested activities 

1. First of all, here is a reminder of 
a new calendar feature that will appear 
once a month thi-oughout the year in 
Messenger. The editors asked Janie 
Russell, an artist who has helped to il- 
lustrate many features for children and 
adults, to prepare a calendar for each 
month. Though it will not be a large 
calendar, there will be room enough for 
readers to make some notations about 
coming events — or e\en to mark off the 
days as they pass. 

Take a good look at the calendar page 
for January that appeared on page 23 of 

22 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

the last issue of Messenger. Do you 
ha\'e a place in your home where you 
would like to post this calendar during 
the month? Would you like to collect 
each month's drawing so that you have a 
kind of diary for the year? Or would 
you prefer to look every now and then at 
the words about snowHakes and stars 
that appeal- there? No matter how you 
decide to use it, the calendar will be 
ready a few days before each month so 
that you can look at it before that month 

2. Why has God been so generous in 
giving us the days of our lives? According 
to some of the Bible readings listed be- 
low, the purpose of our living each day 
is to be of help to other persons, especial- 
ly those who are poor, enslaved, im- 
prisoned, sick, hungry, or deprived in 
some way. You can dramatize that pur- 
pose for living by selecting pictures from 
this magazine and others of children and 
adults who really need your help. You 
could even compile your own picture 
calendar for January by selecting a per- 
son for whom you would often pray, but 
also for whom you would try to find some 
way to be of help. Consider children in 
Biafra and Vietnam. Think of elderly 
people who are lonely and discouraged. 

Don't o%erlook the persons who lack the 
freedom you enjoy. 

•3. Every new day in the new year has 
twenty-four hours. This means that each 
person in your family has the same time 
available to use well — or perhaps to 
waste. Have you ever kept a record of 
the time you spend in activities like work- 
ing, studying, eating, sleeping, going to 
school, playing or loafing during any one 
day? Do all your days look alike? Are 
they crowded with duties you dislike? 
How can they become "new every morn- 

4. Several hymns in The Brethren 
Hymnal seem to be especially appro- 
priate for the beginning of the year. "O 
God, Our Help in Ages Past" (No. 70) 
is based upon Psalm 90 and emphasizes 
the fact that God is always here and his 
love is everlasting. Another hymn, not so 
well known, refers to "God of the Mov- 
ing Years" (No. 72). Still another (No. 
68) views the activity and faithfulness 
of God "through all the circling years." 
And perhaps the most familiar of the 
hymns devoted to this theme is "Great Is 
Thy Faithfulness" (No. 429). You may 
want to read the words also of "All Beau- 
tiful the March of Days" (No. .586). 


Sunday. Ps. 90; 1-4. Calendars change, but God is present in all generations. 
Monday. Ps. 90:5-8. Man is overawed by the thought of God's eternity. 
Tuesday. Ps. 90:9-12. There is value in numbering days and years. 
Wednesday. Ps. 90:13-17. God's love can cause rejoicing in "all our days." 
Thursday. Is. 40:28-31. A great God gives pov^er to faint-hearted men. 
Friday. Is. 42:1-4. God's servants are chosen for a purpose. 
Saturday. Is. 42:5-9. The servant lives to be of help to other persons. 
Sunday. Is. 52:7-10. The servant is also a messenger of peace. 
Monday. Is. 53:4-6. The servant takes on himself the sorrows of others. 
Tuesday. Is. 55:6-9. Though God Is greater than man, he is still near to man. 
Wednesday. Is. 55:10-13. God wants the whole world to be made new. 
Thursday. Is. 61:1-4. God has a program of action for men to follow. 
Friday. Is. 61:8-11. God loves justice and hates wrong. 
Saturday, Lam. 3:19-24. Every morning Is new. 

four ' '° f/'e /as, ^"^ '/>sf 
^'^ TJoves? ^. ®^ Word 




~ I8" | 


Fill in the numbers from 1 to 9 in 
the boxes to make each of the 
seven rows add to the totals shown. 


1-2-69 MESSENGER 23 



1st year on Christmas eve, my wife and 
I were in the city of Madras, India. 
Friends took us to a college campus 
where more than 2,000 people had come 
to sing Christmas carols. They repre- 
sented all walks of life, from lowly la- 
borers to statesmen and professional men 
and women. The singing, some of the 
finest we have ever heard, was led by 
the music director of the All India Broad- 
casting Company. 

For us it was a time for reflection. Such 
an event does not just happen. We 
thought of the great milestones of history 
that mark the efforts of the church in its 
world mission. May I mention only a 

First, the Lord commanded his follow- 
ers to "teach all nations." Tradition tells 
us that the apostle Thomas journeyed to 
South India in the year 60 a.d. There he 
established the great church that still 
bears his name. David E. Livingstone 
gave his life to Africa in the nineteenth 
century. From our own church, Wilbui' 
Stover and others went to India in 1894. 
Frank Crumpacker entered China in 
1920. H. Stover Kulp proceeded to Ni- 
geria in 1922, while in 1948 several 
young people began work in Ecuador. 

24 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

But more important than these are the 
rich contributions of national leaders, pas- 
tors, teachers, and lay volunteers whose 
sacrifice and selfless efforts are the real 
pillars of the churches we see today. 

We may well ask, what do we mean 
by "world missions"? During journeys 
abroad I have discussed this with scores 
of workers. If we ask the minister-evange- 
list, he will say it is "to proclaim the 
gospel so that all may know of Christ 
and God's love." The agricultural mis- 
sionary will say, "The greatest problem 
of the developing world is food. We must 
use justly and well the resources that the 
Creator has provided for all. In Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America the village is 
the growing edge of the church. But mil- 
lions are starving for lack of food." If 
we ask the medical missionary, he will say 
that his mission is "to lift and to heal as 
did the Great Physician." The educa- 
tional worker tells us that a "reasonable 
amount of education is the birthright of 
all God's children." The replies vary but 
all are correct, for the church's mission is 
to lift, strengthen, and heal as an expres- 
sion of God's love. 

Although Brethren are a small group, 
it has been given us to pioneer in several 

ways. The hospital at Dahanu, India, 
has for many years pioneered in surgery. 
The Kulp Bible School in Nigeria has 
come forward with a unique form of 
training for ministers. This school com- 
Ijines training in agriculture and com- 
munity development with top-gcade min- 
isterial ti-aining. Those so trained are 
better qualified to serve more effectively 
among village people. In India the Voca- 
tional Training College has long pio- 
neered in the training of village teachers. 
All students must have knowledge of 
agriculture and skill in handicrafts in 
addition to the conventional teacher 
training. The government of India took 
note of this and adopted in general that 
method of training for its All India Pro- 
gram for Basic Education. In some 
twelve different countries Brethren Serv- 
ice has completed significant work de- 
signed for relief, reconciliation, and re- 

God has blessed the church in its world 
mission and we now find local churches 
established in many areas. Some are 
weak, struggling under the burdens of 
hunger, ill-health, and illiteracy. Others 
are strong and self-supportive, giving as- 
sistance to the weaker ones. Hospitals, 



schools, and colleges have been estab- 
lished. There are many examples of 
capable national leadership. Thus, one 
period in the life of the world church 
draws to completion and we are at the 
threshold of a new day. 

In the early years nearly all of the 
countries which missionaries entered were 
under colonial rule. Now colonialism 
has largely ended. More than eighty new 
nations have been born since World War 
ill. In most nations has emerged a healthy 
spirit of national pride. In some places 
there is resentment against the West. As 
people try to rebuild their countries since 
gaining independence, they realize that 
during the colonial years the Western 
nations enriched themselves by hauling 
away natural resources and the products 
oi cheap labor. Those old colonial trade 
patterns are still strong. Western nations 
grow richer while many of the newborn 
nations become poorer. This generates a 
smoldering bitterness. 

We have always maintained strong re- 
strictions on immigrants admitted to oui 
shores. We ruled against such men as 
[ndia's poet-laureate, Rabindranath 
Pagore, and against Japan's Christian 
statesman, Toyohiko Kagawa — largely 

because they were oriental. Now the 
newborn nations have their own immigra- 
tion policies. Visas for the admission of 
missionaries and others are sometimes 
difficult to secure. 

In nearly all of the new nations there 
is a spirit of reform. In some it is revolu- 
tion. Deprived peoples have come to 
believe that they need not remain im- 
poverished forever. Students, peasants, 
and a new breed of leaders are challeng- 
ing the evils of landlordism, usury, and 
oppression. Hunger, ilhteracy, and 
bhghting poverty ai'e seen as enemies 
that can and must be overcome. Into 
this turmoil the agents of totalitarism 
move with their promises of help. 

With understanding and constructive 
assistance these revolutions could avoid 
violence and lead toward a peaceful 
solution. If they are merely obstructed 
by force, as in Vietnam, the results can be 

Again, technology has opened new 
doors. We travel to the far corners of the 
earth in a matter of hours. Through 
television we see events in the remotest 
village. The "foreign" world of David 
Livingstone or of Wilbur Stover has be- 
come small. The Ecuadorian shepherd. 

the Indian farmer, or the Vietnamese 
scholar are now our neighbors. Tech- 
nology offers possible solutions to the 
problems of land use, hunger, and dis- 

There is another factor that is painful 
to us all. One would prefer to omit it. 
But I would be remiss in my duty if I 
did not refer to the fact that our Ameri- 
can honor abroad is badly tarnished. 

Once we could go abroad with om- 
heads Ufted high. The American spirit 
of generosity and concern for the op- 
pressed was admired among all free peo- 
ple. Now we are under judgment by the 
enlightened nations of the world, as our 
political and militaiy arms pour dovNTi fire 
and employ brutality without precedent 
against the people of Vietnam. We rea- 
lize the tendency for some nations to be 
critical of us. The Bombay Times of 
India, long a friend of United States, 
spoke moderately among the great news- 
papers of the world on June 8, 1968: 
"The over-arching question is, does 
America have the moral strength to cure 
itself of the sickness of which we have 


1-2-69 MESSENGER 25 

NEW HORIZONS / continued 

seen so many symptoms during recent 


Some people may see on the world 
horizon only despair and ask, "What have 
we to offer the world as our mission?" 
To others this dark hour becomes a 
springtime of hope. They realize that 
God is already in the cities and villages 
of the world working for peace, justice, 
and merc\'. He works only through per- 
sons and he invites us to join, not with 
our own message or as bearers of a new 
culture, but as partners in his anguished 
efforts to build a better world. 

New horizons and world missions 

May I suggest several guideposts that 
appear on the horizon. Some of these are 
new. Others in evidence for a long time 
have now moved to a central position of 

We are called to a new sense of part- 
nership. This must now include the 
whole church, not merely those who go 
abroad. We will need to be well informed 
about world issues and the relevance of 
the gospel when applied to them. Our 
literature on world mission could be less 
promotional and more objective and in- 
formative. Our schools of missions can 
become exciting events where world is- 
sues will be considered in the spirit of the 
Prince of Peace. 

Again, early missionaries often worked 
alone. Now those who go serve as equal 
partners with national leaders in church 
and community. One example of this is a 
new agency in India called Action for 
Food Production. Realizing India's im- 
mense food problem, agricultural mission- 
aries, Catholic and Protestant, joined 
with government workers in a unified 
effort to grow more food. Viewing this 
partnership one of India's State Ministers 
remarked, "I had not known before of 
the genuineness of Christian concern." 

We should relate our efforts more di- 
rectly to human need, especially in the 

villages. We speak glibly of our era as 
the space age or the atomic age — but in 
a true sense it is the age of anguish, the 
age of the hungiy and the dispossessed. 
In the United States we .speak of our 
"urban crisis." We fail to realize that 
this is to a large extent only the symptom 
of unplanned mechanization of agricul- 
ture which forces land laborers and small 
farmers to leave the land or starve. 

There are signs of an awakened world 
conscience, a beUef that the needs of dis- 
tressed people can be met if all wiD do 
their part. We realize that there is much 
that only go\ernments can do, because of 
their large resources. However, there is 
a unique contribution that only the 
churches can provide. This places before 
the church the greatest challenge of its 
long history. 

Personnel is probably the major issue 
as we look to the future. Whom to offer? 
How many? We appreciate the fine ef- 
forts of om- mission staff in securing and 
offering capable and dedicated people. 
We are grateful to the scores of fine 
young persons who have gone abroad. 

From now on we may be expected to 
send fewer people and only those of 
tested experience and abihty. They will 
go only on invitation from the church 
overseas or offered in special cases. 

In addition to young people will be 
need for persons of ripe experience in 
fields such as Bible teaching, land use, 
food production, cooperatives, and pub- 
lic health. Some of our most able persons 
may be invited to retire early and to give 
five to ten years in voluntary service. 

Their qualifications must be such that 
their selection will be obvious to church 
and national leaders abroad. We give 
just one example. Land reform is an ex- 
plosive issue in at least twenty different 
countries. Must it be resolved only by 
bloody revolutions? Or can the church, 
from its long Judeo-Christian tradition 
of land stewardship, assist by offering 

several persons who because of their pro- 
fessional stature can bring a Christian 
presence of conciliation and justice into 
such situations? 

A new attitude to\\'ard the sharing of 
both funds and personnel is reqtiired. 
Hungei", illiteracy, and poverty are not 
alone problems of the underdeveloped 
peoples. In the one world and one-world 
church that we have all helped to create 
these are our problems as well. From 
our favored economic position it becomes 
a solemn obligation for us to approach 
these problems in a spirit of Christian 
statesmanship rather than as mere charity 
or benevolence. 

Let the church not minimize the im- 
portance of its world mission nor its 
power in confronting world issues in 
practical ways. 

A few years ago the great British mo- 
tion picture, Ben Hur, portraying the life 
of Christ, was being shown in New Delhi, 
India. There was a distinguished audi- 
ence of students and professional persons. 
In one scene Ben Hur's Roman captors 
drag him across the desert in chains. 
They come at last to a well where the 
captors drink. When Ben Hur begs for 
water one officer scornfully throws a dip 
per of water on the ground before him. 

We next see the arm of the carpenter 
of Galilee sawing timber. The arm stops. 
The muscles become tense. Then the 
hand moves over, lifting a dipper of water 
to Ben Hur's parched hps. The Romans 
look to the ground in shame. The sword 
of one soldier drops to the ground. A few 
people in the front of the audience stood 
Then more and more, until all present 
stood and paid tribute to the power of a 
dipper of water and the Prince of Peace 
in the presence of Roman might. 

I covet for the Church of the Brethren, 
small as it may be, its summons to move 
forward and take its place among all 
who are working for the healing of the 
nations. Q 

26 MESSENGER 1-2-69 


A Link Between Theology and Psychology 

IN PSYCHOTHERAPY, by A. J. Ungersma. 
Westminster, 1968. 188 pages, $1.95 

THERAPY, by Thomas C. Oden. Westminster, 
1967. 137 pages, $4.95 

In Contemporary Theology and Psycho- 
therapy, Thomas Oden elaborates the dia- 
logue pioneered in his companion volume, 
Kerygma and Counseling (1966). As a 
systematic theologian, he is unique in 
focusing biblical exegesis and historical 
research on the relationship between rev- 
elation and the way Christ takes shape 
in the world. He discovers a striking and 
exciting analogy between God's dis- 
closures in history and human self- 

disclosure in therapy. He states that the 
acceptance communicated by the thera- 
pist is a manifestation of Clirist, the 
healing person, taking shape, incognito, 
in the world. Incognito means "having 
a concealed identity or an identity not 
calling for special recognition." This 
seems to be closely akin to Jesus' attitude 
when he performed miracles or healing 
events and admonished persons to tell 
no one about the healing. Is it possible 
that his living Spirit might continue to 
heal in a concealed or incognito way? 

Oden defines the church as that self- 
conscious section of humanity where 
Christ is taking shape. The therapeutic 
process is another setting where Christ 

is taking shape. This shape is not a mal- 
formation of Chi-ist but rather is in- 
complete because it lacks the naming 
(kerygma) and the worship celebration 
(sacraments) of the healing j>erson pres- 
ent in the therapeutic relationship. 

Oden sides with the existential analysts 
in seeing the center of healing or salva- 
tion in authentic human community. 
The goal of psychotherapy is human 
growth toward authenticity. The church 
is called to proclaim that authentic life 
is giounded in the Christ-centered com- 
munity of faith. Christians are called to 
celebrate the living Christ person in the 
community of faith. Throughout the 
ages the kerygma has named the healing 


In a Mission Twelve study two years ago I was challenged 
with the idea that possibly there may be a chance for a very 
untrained (except by the needs of a family) person to witness 
in some way, somewhere other than in his own church, to the 
love of God. I can say, after being in Adult Volunteer work 
for one year, that there is such an opportunity, and it is 

How can I express it so that others may find the fulfillment 
it has brought to me? Think of little churches that need 
leadership but can neither pay for nor find a pastor. These 
people need someone even as strong churches need pastors, 
ind their response to any help is very rewarding. 

As a volunteer in Tennessee I clean the little church, visit 
n homes, and act as a helper to mothers, trying to show 
Christ's love to all. I assist with services twice a week and 
fiad in Bible study. 

Most adults have children and grandchildren as I have; 
/et this does not take away the joy of serving in Jesus' name, 
vhen volunteering means leaving one's family. One of my 
Irandchildren remarked, "I wish they would fire Grandma 
lown there; then she would come home." This does have a 
ipecial tug at the heart, but I know that they have love 
showered on them each day, and mail comes regularly to let 
ne hear from them. Possibly the testimony one makes in this 
vay strengthens loved ones more than they realize in their 

own lives and witness. 

The need to study hard to fill all the necessary plans for 
Bible school, church school, worship services, and meditations 
keeps one occupied and giving a helping hand where needed 
is also a means of witness. 

When a small boy of four years tells his father that you 
are "his woman," you know that you are accepted in the 
fullest sense. In many other ways the people with whom I 
live and serve have given me real and lasting expressions of 
their love and appreciation. There is some ina-ease in at- 
tendance at chm-ch. I hope and pray that the remaining 
months will be fi-uitful for his kingdom and bring some to 
confess him as Lord and Savior. I commit my time to his 

In a recent listing of Brethren volunteers I noted that there 
were only six adults listed. I appeal to other adults to in- 
crease the number. 

REBECCA SWICK, serving now as a volun- 
teer toorker in the Midway church in the 
Tennessee and Alabama district, is a mem- 
ber of the Pleasant Hill congregation near 
Johnstown, Pa. A widow since 1962, she 
has four sons and seventeen grandchildren. 
For thirty years she carried many responsi- 
bilities in her home church, working with 
nursery classes and serving on ministerial 
and education committees. 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 27 

REVIEWS / continued 

person or being in the community as 
Jesus Christ. 

At this point Oden's work comes into 
juxtaposition with Ungersma's book. 
Ungersma speaks as a pastoral counselor 
informed by the work of Dr. \'iktor 
Frankl and the clinical technique of 
logotherapy. It is Frankl's premise that 
authentic human life comes from the dis- 
covery of meaning in life and the shap- 
ing of creative human values. Frankl, a 
highly respected psychiatrist, demon- 
strates that responsibility, meaning, and 
values are effective clinical means to heal 


devotional ^ 


• Waiting, by Joel D. McDavid 

• Live Now! by Mahlwyn Edwards 

• Faith and 

Health, by O. ,V. Hutchinson. Jr. 

• Building Now for 
Kternity, by Cecil Norlhcolt 

Set of 4 books, 65c; single copy, 20it; 
10 or more. 17c each. 


Carols, hymns and worship services 
for Holy Week. Single copy, 20c; 10 
or more, 17c each. 


By Howard W. Ellis 
Meditations by students and youth 
workers, interpreting the passion of 
our Lord. Single copy, 35c; ten or 
more. 30c each. 

H'orld's Most Widely Used Daily De\ olional Guide 

1908 Grand Ave. Nashville, Tenn. 37203 


NOTICE — Will give room, board, and care to 
^vjo elderly Christian ladies in my private home. 
Write for more Information to; Mrs. Raymond 
Altice, Route 4, Rocky Mount, Va. 24151. 

28 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

human brokenness. In the dialogue be- 
tween theology and therapy, Frankl 
stands as a man professionally and 
philosophically prepared to discuss the 
incognito Clvist. 

Oden's critique of the pastoral-care 
movement is based on the priority he 
gives to God's self-disclosures in history. 
Frankly, his christological stance is a 
healthy corrective and begins to reestab- 
lish the integrity of theology in the de- 
bate with ps\chotherapy. He brings a 
candid and comprehensive evaluation of 
pastoral-care literature. By his own ad- 
mission the literature in the field, while 
copious, has unfortunately been largely 
de\oid of solid biblical and theological 
grounding. He enumerates three basic 
approaches in the pastoral-care field: the- 
ology of culture, identified with Paul 
Tillich; kerygmatic Seelsorge, identified 
with Eduard Thurneysen; and operation- 
centered pastoral theology, identified 
with Seward Hiltner. Kerygmatic Seel- 
sorge as de\eloped by the German pastor 
Thmiieysen draws a sharp distinction be- 
tween the heahng events within the 
chuirh and healing in secular professions 
such as psychotherapy. He sees no 
connections between pastoral care and 
ps\ chotherapy. His position represents 
two-sphere thinking — that is, sacred/sec- 
ular — within the pastoral-care field. Hilt- 
ner, representing the operation-centered 
pastoral theology, stands as a convinced 
pragmatist who draws fully upon the re- 
sources of psychotherapy and pastoral 
care, with little concern about obedience 
to an\- theological model. He stands as 
the liberal with the field of pastoral care. 

For Tillich the focus is on the existen- 
tial condition of man, and the healing 
event in Jesus Christ hinges upon its re- 
ception by man. For Oden this raises 
serious questions about the autonomy of 
God's action in Christ. It is Oden's ob- 
servation that Tillich is preoccupied with 
extreme "boundaiy " situations in hfe. 
This implies that God is primarily at work 
on the edge of life or in crisis situations 
and not at the center of ordinary ex- 

In his own radical christology, Oden 

calls for a serious encounter with Karl 
Barth, Dietrich BonhoeflFer, and Pierre! 
Teilhard de Chardin. He sees Bonhoeffer: 
as calling Christians to listen to the dis-l 
closures of God not simply in crisis! 
moments but at the center of human ex- 
istence; not only at points of weakness 
but also at points of strength. 

In contemporary society Oden sees psy- 
chotherapy as a means of presenting 
modern man with solutions to the dilem-j 
mas of anxiety, fear, guilt, bondage, de-' 
pression, and meaninglessness. And ini 
contrast to earlier forms of therapy, the! 
current emphasis is not on abstractly! 
speaking about healing and authenticity.: 
Rather, therapists are consciously medi-i 
ating and embodying acceptance and 
love. It is Oden's contention that psy- 
chotherapy now stands in the same rela-! 
tion to Christianity that gnosticism die 
in the first century. On the current scene 
psychotherapy rivals Christianity as ar 
interpreter and deliverer of man. Man) 
persons are learning to accept diemselves 
to find meaning in life, to overcome guilt 
and to live creatively under condition! 
of stress — frequently apart from the tra 
ditional church, but not apart from thi 
disclosure of God in Jesus Chj-ist. 

The early Christians used the languag( 
of gnosticism to name and celebrate th( 
religious events in their worship experi 
ences. 'We are urged to learn the Ian 
guage of psychotherapy to identify anc 
name the heaUng events in our corporati 
worship e.xperiences. Let there be nc 
doubt that, like the early Christians, we 
too, are to affirm that it is the objectivi 
self-disclosure of God in Jesus Chris 
which clarifies the internal reality of 
healing event and is its source of beinj 
and vitality, even if it is not recognizee 
in its incognito shape. Oden calls oi 
Christians to rejoice at all evidence tha 
Christ is taking shape in the world anc 
to talk with therapists and counselor 
about healing events which occur ii 

Oden suggests that the best frameworl 
for such dialogue would be the world!; 
theology put forth by Bonhoeffer and thi 
universal humanism propounded by Teil 


hard. Bonhoeffer clearly posits that God 
and the world are one in Jesus Christ 
and rejects any attempt to engage in 
two-sphere thinking. Bonhoeffer explains 
the three dimensions of worldly theolog>' 
in diis way. First, he was aware that 
an unconscious faith often existed among 
imen who did not realize it or never con- 
ceptuahzed it but nonetheless were 
grounded in the objective event of reve- 
lation in Christ. Oden senses this same 
unconscious reliance upon the events of 
self-disclosure and acceptance in psycho- 
therapy. He affirms that this trusting or 
unconscious faith is evidence of the in- 
cognito Christ — the healing one at work. 

Secondly, Bonhoeffer is eager to re- 
establish the worth of the natural events 
in life. He asserts that what is natural 
in human lives moves them toward health 
and the ability to function fully. He 
insists, as does Genesis, that life is good 
and of value. Oden is impressed by 
the similar orientation of Carl Rogers, 
who hinges therapy upon the tenacious 
ibihty of the hfe processes within the 
person to seek and move toward whole- 
aess, if given a trustworthy environment 
in which to explore and grow. Oden 
sees that in specific ways the therapeutic 
relationship works with the natural forces 
jf fife and death and seeks to bring about 
ivhat Bonhoeffer, as the third dimension, 
called the concrete formation of incarnate 
lOve in human lives. It isn't announced 
Ji this way, but the faithful Christian 
.lames this as the incognito Christ. It is 
it this point where Bonhoeffer's position 
^ )n the ethics of concrete formation — 
Ilhrist's taking form in us — is appropriate 
ind potentially fruitful for dialogue with 

The New Testament talks of God's love 
aldng shape in our midst, becoming em- 
)odied in interpersonal relationships and 
issuming living form in the flesh. We 
lo not transform ourselves into his image, 
t is rather the form of Christ which 
eeks to grow in us (Gal. 4:19) and to 
le manifest in us. Many therapists are 
ware of participating in healing events 
vhich occurred in ways they did not 
ontrol or produce. More evidence of 

the incognito Christ at work? I believe 
so! In Ethics Bonhoeffer writes, "Forma- 
tion is not a question of applying to the 
world" the teaching of Christ, or what 
are referred to as Christian principles, so 
that the \\orld might be foiTned in ac- 
cordance with these and not an ideal 
to be striven for, but simply "being drawn 
into the form of Jesus Christ." At anoth- 
er point Bonhoeffer writes that we are 
to be "conformed with the Incarnate — 
that is, to be a real man." Frankl would 
say that, as Christians and as a Cliristian 
community, we are to use Clirist as our 
model — "to grow up into the form of 
Christ, who is the Head." 

Teilhard, in liis poetic fashion, speaks 
with unalloyed joy about "an unquench- 
able thirst for discovery of the reality 
that God is embodying in us in the here 
and now." At another point, Teilhard 
as the Christian humanist describes effec- 
tive therapeutic interaction as uniquelv 
suggestive of "a mass on the altar of 
the world." Suffering is being rehearsed, 
death and resurrection are embodied in 
speech, blood is being symbolically shed, 
a communion is being enacted, bodies are 
broken and healed. Above all, psycho- 
therapy is an act of remembrance. 

Oden presents these theological in- 
sights to invigorate the dialogue between 
psychotherapy and theology. He sug- 
gests that the therapist continually relies 
upon the trustworthy nature of self- 
disclosure and the healing qualities of 
acceptance and love. Oden says, let us 
engage therapists about the fundamental 
nature of these healing events, confident 
that the source of such heaUng is the 
living God revealed in Jesus Christ. As 
Christians we need to celebrate and to 
affirm that not only is the person ac- 
cepted by the therapist but, more sig- 
nificantly, that the person is accepted by 
God, within the universe which God loves 
and sustains. 

Oden's work is to be applauded. Hope- 
fully, it will trigger creative dialogue and 
cooperative ventures between all profes- 
sions and vocations concerned about 
Christ taking shape in the world. — Cahl 


The widow's mite 
guide to the 
Holy Land. 

T^ow only $70 can send you on your 
way to julfilUng a dream. Jbat's the 
low down-payment on a magnificent 
9-day An 'Trance tour of the Xoly 
Land and Qreece. 3'oii can take up to 
24 months to pay, or make one pay- 
ment of only $696— little enough to 
make a dream come true. 

le Voyage par 
Air France 

Come aboard the 707 jef im T^ewyork 
and let us take care of everything. 
Stretch your legs, enjoy the food, the 
service, the attention to detail that 
means so much when you fly. After a 
brief stop in Varis, you'll arrive in— 

la Terre saint e 

7he yioly Land, you'll visit the places 
where Jesus was born, where !He lived 
and died, as well as many places men- 
tioned in the Old Jestament. Com- 
pletely guided tour of Jerusalem and 

Dans les pas de Paul 

After a brief flight, you and your 
guide luill follow the footsteps of Paul 
and the other Apostles through Athens 
and Corinth. 

Air 'Jrance will he pleased to describe 
the full tour to you and your pastor— a 
tour we think is one of the most in- 
spiring we've ever offered. 

Air France, Box 707, New York, NY. I00I1 

□ Please send me more information on your 
group tours of the Holy Land. I under- 
stand the down payment is only &^ r\ 


Q Please have one of your representatives 
call me My telephone number is 



City State Zip_ 


Wc know where you're going. 


1-2-69 MESSENGER 29 



A member of Roanoke's Central church 
in the First V'iiginia District, Mrs. Ralph 
Shober, was cited by Radford College 
as Outstanding Alumna of the Year. The 
award marked Mrs. Shober 's work in 

Two pastors have announced changes 
in location. Harry E. Thomas has re- 
signed his post at the First Community 
church, Columbus, Ohio, where he had 
been assistant director of the pastoral 
counseling center and one of the staff 
counselors. He anticipates temporary re- 
tirement in Southern California. . . . 
Formerly pastor of the Roxbury church 
at Jolinstown, Pa., Levi J. Ziegler has 
accepted the pastorate of the Erie (Pa.) 
Community United Church, a federation 
of the Erie Church of the Brethren and 
a United Church of Christ there. 
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

A former executive director of the 
American Council of Voluntary Agencies 
for Foreign Service and a friend of the 
Church of the Brethren, Charlotte E. 
Owen, died suddenly Nov. 28, 1968, at 
Stamford, Conn., where she made her 
home. She served with the Council from 
1945 until 1964. 

Southern Ohio native and a free minis- 
ter in the Church of the Brethren, John 
B. Gump, died Nov. 25, 1968. He was 

^ ^ ^ ^ 4. 

Our congiatulations go to couples cele- 
brating golden wedding anniversaries: 
Mr. and Mrs. Perry Williams, Upland, 
Calif.; Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Bowers, 
Dixon, 111.; Mr. and Mrs. Jesse H. Ziegler, 
Hershey, Pa.; and Mr. and Mrs. 
Chauncey F. Trimmer, York, Pa. . . . 
Couples marking more than fifty years of 
maniage are Mr. and Mrs. John 
Brightbill, Lebanon, Pa., fifty-three; and 
Mr. and Mrs. Emerson G. Wolfe, Med- 
ford, Oregon, fifty-six. 


La Verne College was one of thirty- 
two California colleges and universities 
which have received a share in grants 
totaling $67,500 by the Sears Roebuck 
Foundation. ... A grant of $50,000 has 
been received by Manchester College 
from Lilly Endowment, Inc., of Indian- 
apolis, Ind. President A. Blair Helman 

noted that the funds will be used in 
connection with the new academic 
program at the college. 


At its November meeting, the General 
Board appropriated funds to the Crisis 
in the Nation program of the National 
Council of Churches; to the Midwest 
Office of Draft Counseling; and to the 
F'irst and Southern districts of Virginia, 
for an expanded joint district program. 

To .seven congregations the board 
granted loans, mostly for the construction 
of new or added facilities. The congrega- 
tions: Martinsburg, W. Va.; Mt. Hermon, 
Va.; New Paris, Ind.; Ivy Farms, New- 
port News, \'a.; Tucson, ,\riz.; We- 
natchce Valley, Wash.; and West York 
fellowship in Pennsylvania. 


The future of unity talks between the 
Church of the Brethren and the American 
Baptist Convention will be weighed at 
a Jan. 7-8 meeting of representatives of 
the two bodies. The Church of the 
Brethren's Committee on Interchurch 
Relations will host the sessions at Elgin, 

Proposed agenda items include a prog- 
ress report on reactions from two-way 
conversations now taking place at local, 
district, and state levels, areas of concern 
seen as needing further study, steps for 
broadening understanding between con- 
stituents of the two bodies, and a look 
at future relations should the prospect of 
union not appear feasible. 

In Pennsylvania a Nov. 24 worship 
service celebrated the affiliation of Uni- 
versity Baptist Church at State College 
with the Church of the Brethren and the 
American Baptist Convention. Located 
in the Middle District of Pennsylvania, 
the church will draw from the worship 
resources, practices, and heritage of both 
churches. Churchmen from both de- 
nominations were present at the service. 

The Paint Creek church at Fort Scott, 
Kansas, last month marked its one hun- 
dredth anniversaiT with a special after- 
noon service. . . . Northern Ohio's 
Defiance church celebrated its fiftieth 
anniversary in December. . . . The Mad- 
ison Avenue congregation, York, Pa., 


dedicated a new addition to the building 
in a week-long series of special services in 
November. Chmch school classrooms, 
pastor's study, and nursery are among 
facilities provided in the annex. 

A December homecoming and the 
dedication of a new parsonage involved 
members of the Blue River church in 11 

Northern Indiana. ... In the same district 
Beacon Heights and Agape churches of 
Fort Wayne have purchased a building 
(used by the Church of the Brethren 
between Fort Wayne and Chmubusco) 
for renovation as the Pleasant Hill Re- 
treat Center. 

A Western Pennsylvania community 
seeks a doctor to serve the surrounding" 
farming and industrial region. Six^ 
churches, including a Church of the' 
Brethren; an elementary school; and^ 
good hospital facilities nearby are among' 
benefits of the community. Interested' 
persons may contact Mrs. Ronald Fish,i ■' 
Box 425, Hooversville, Pa. 15936. ' 

The Des Moines Valley congregation 
in Iowa dedicated its new building Dec.! 
8, with Dale W. Brown of Bethany The-! 
ological Seminary as guest speaker. 

tS* ^* »t* •+• tXt 

CROP reports 1968 was a banner year 
for Friendship Acres, with nearly 4,000( i 
acres tlirougliout the country harvested ■ 
in behalf of the hunger appeal of Church 
World Service. . . . Conversations of : 
the American Baptists and the Church, ! 
of the Brethren in Des Moines, Iowa, ) 
early in November brought together 185 . 
persons from across the state. A lunch-i I 
eon for pastors of the two bodies wasi 1 
held Nov. 20 at the Pennsylvania State' I 
Pastors Conference. 1 


Assignments have been made from tlu 
October 1968 BVS unit. They include: 
Betty Bane, Brethren Home for the Ag- 
ing, Bridgewater, Va.; Nancy Barnhart, 
Nigeria; Gaynell Beaver, City Church of 
the Brethren, Washington, D.C.; 
Hleiderose Braun, Douglas Park Church 
of the Brethren, Chicago, 111.; Karen 
DiGirolamo, Sebring Manor, Sebring, 
Fla.; John Ecker, Interchurch Medical 
Assistance, New Windsor, Md.; j 

Prudence Engle, pending; Steve 
Esbensen, National Service Board for 

30 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

Religious Objectors (NSBRO), Washing- 
ton, D.C.; Bonnie Esbensen, City Church 
of the Brethren, Washington, D.C.; 
Emery Fernow, Brethren Home, Green- 
ville, Ohio; Harold Furr, Nigeria; Stan 
Gilbert, National Institutes of Health 
(NIH), Bethesda, Md.; 

Ron Good, United Church of Christ 
Neighborhood Houses, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Larry and Mary Ann Gregory, Milton 
Wright Home for Children, Chambers- 
burg, Pa.; Steve Harris, pending; Rod and 
Linda Haugh, Cecil County Opportunity 
Center for the Handicapped, Elkton, 

Volker Hauswald, California Migrant 
Ministry, Lamont, Calif.; Paul Hossler, 
NIH; Gordon Jacobsen, Friendship 
House, Washington, D.C.; Mike Jaquish, 
NIH; Dean and Diane Kieffaber, Cass 
Community Methodist Church and Cen- 
ter, Detroit, Mich.; 

Randy Krug, pending; Kathleen 
Lemmon, East Side Christian Center, 
Indianapolis, Ind.; Catherine Logan, 
I First Church of the Brethren, Harrisburg, 
Pa.; Linda Long, Bethany Brethren 
Hospital, Chicago, 111.; Dennis Metzger, 
pending; Gertrud Michaelis, NIH; Cathy 
Parks, NSBRO; Deloris Pepple, West 
View Manor, Wooster, Ohio; Harold 
Randall, NIH; Linda Rusmisel, Hunting- 
'don Community Center, Huntingdon, 
Pa.; Andrea Siple, Bar 41 Ranch, Keller, 
'Wash.; Byron Smith, NIH; 

Ernst Sondemann, NIH; Bruce Stam- 
'baugh. Friendship Manor, Roanoke, Va.; 
Dave Switzer, Brotherhood Pilot House, 
Baltimore, Md.; Debbie Weaver, Lend-A- 
Hand Center, Walker, Ky.; Mike Welch, 
the Youth Project, Lorain, Ohio. 


Jan. 5-12 

Universal Week of Prayer 

Jan. 6 


Jan. 19-26 

Church and Economic Life Week 

Jan. 26 

Youth Sunday 

Feb. 9 

Race Relations Sunday 

Feb. 16-23 

Brotherhood Week 

Feb. 19 

Ash Wednesday 

Feb. 23 

First Sunday in Lent 

March 7 

World Day of Prayer 

V\arch 18-21 

Church of the Brethren General 


March 23 

Passion Sunday 

March 30 

Palm Sunday 


Congressman, diplomats, and leaders 
of labor, management, agriculture, press 
and racial groups will be among resource 
persons helping youth understand the 
processes of government at the Christian 
Citizenship Seminar for Youth Jan. 25-31 
at Washington, D.C., and the United 
Nations. Registration deadline is Jan. 10. 
Interested high school youth and adults 
in the church's youth ministry may see 
local pastors for registration blanks. 

McPherson College alumna Juanita 
Fike has been selected as an outstanding 
yoimg woman of America for 1968. Her 
name will appear in the annual bio- 
graphical compilation, Outstanding Young 
Women of America. She has taught at 
the Hillcrest School, Jos, Nigeria, and 
completed work for the B.S. degree in 
nursing at Goshen College in Indiana. 

Dr. Robert Eshleman, chairman of the 
sociology department at Franklin and 
Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa., and 
a Church of the Brethren minister, urged 
theologians to listen to sociologists as 
well as to Bible scholars, when he par- 
ticipated in the second Pennsylvania 
Faith and Order Conference. 

He stated, "Whenever you talk about 
human freedom, you should consider 
what culture does to individuals, and 
sociology can tell you about this." He 
and two theologians led 200 persons in 
a discussion on "Divine Sovereignty 
and Human Creativity" at the Confer- 
ence, sponsored by the Pennsylvania 
Council of Churches. 


"A recital of my educational activities" 
is the way Vernon F. Schwalm describes 
his most recent writing venture. My 
Educational Pilgrimage. Now retired, 
the educator associated with two Church 
of the Brethren-related colleges, Man- 
chester and McPherson, recalls his ex- 
periences from grammar school to uni- 
versity. A limited edition has been 
printed, and one volume will be kept in 
tlie historical library at the Church of 
the Brethren General Offices. 


Angle, Ernest D., Wirtz, Va., on Sept. 4, 1968, 
aged 68 

Bowser, Rachel. York, Pa., on Sept. 7, 1968, 

aged 77 
Brilhart, Mamie, New Oxford, Pa., on Sept. 15, 

1968, aged 79 
Bryan, William. Decatur, Ind., on Aug. 29, 1968, 

aged 65 
Carter, Michael R., Greenville, Ohio, on Nov. 

2, 1968, aged 17 
Cottle, Flora M., Everett, Pa., on Sept. 12, 

1968, aged 63 
Cronkrite, Janet L., Rockford, 111., on Nov. 16, 

1968, aged 37 
Crusey, Margie E.. Huntsdale, Pa., on Oct. 23, 

1968, aged 72 
Diehl, Glenn, Sebring. Fla., on July 14. 1968. 

aged 73 
Essick, Emma. Circleville, Ohio, on Nov. 10, 

1968. aged 71 
Greenawalt, Katherine S., Everett. Pa., on Sept. 

21, 1968, aged 78 
Kohne, Mayme B., W^oodstock, Va., on Oct. 10, 

1968. aged 72 
Line, Clark E.. Huntsdale, Pa., on Oct. 20, 1968, 

aged 58 
Litten, Emily Y., Brookville, Ohio, on May 16, 

1968, aged 85 
I.ockman. Daniel L.. Lawrcnceville, 111., on Oct. 

4, 1968, aged 86 
I.udwick, Ruth, Keyser. \V. Va., on Sept. 8. 

1968, aged 75 
McFarren, Marjolaine. New Paris. Ind., on May 

I, 1968 

Marker, William A., Greenville, Ohio, on Nov. 

4, 1968, aged 91 
Meyer. Lizzie, Newmanstown, Pa., on Nov. 8, 

1968. aged 82 
Myers, Nora E., Hanover, Pa., on Jan. 14, 1968, 

aged 51 
Patches. Henry W. Sr., Lebanon, Pa., on Nov. 

II. 1968, aged 71 

Rule, Eldon, Ottawa, Kansas, on Sept. 29, 1968, 

aged 80 
Simmons, Mrs. Judah, Colorado Springs, Colo., 

on May 16, 1958 
Stambaugh, Lawrence, Grundy Center, Iowa, on 

Sept. 10. 1968, aged 82 
Stanislaw, Emily, Quakcrtown. Pa., on Oct, 16, 

1968, aged 78 
Stull, Clara. Kansas City, Kansas, on Aug. 24, 

Teeter. Mn. Rex. Silver Lake, Ind., on Oct. 

10, 1968. aged 41 
Utz. Mrs. Jacob, Union Bridge, Md., on Oct. 25, 

1968, aged 38 
Vought. Carolyn Bowman, Salisbury, Pa., on Aug. 

18, 1968, aged 47 
Waters, Maurice, Luray, Va., on Sept. 25, 1968, 

aged 77 
Welch. Otis C. Modesto, Calif., on Aug. 10, 

1968. aged 82 
Witmer, Elizabeth, Manheim. Pa., on July 10. 

Yoke, Lydia, .'\rcanum. Ohio, on Oct. 21. 1968, 

aged 73 
Zellers. Minnie B.. Lititz. Pa., on May 19, 1968, 

aged 84 

1-2-69 MESSENGER 31 


The Year of the Stranger 

#t's over and gone now — the year when King and Ken- 
nedy were assassinated, the year of another presidential 
election, the year when university campuses resembled 
battlegrounds, the year when sections of cities went up 
in flames, the year when hidden hostilities broke out into 
the open, the year when disorder spread and gaps be- 
tween generations widened to the breaking point. It was 
the year when people who lived side by side and thought 
of themselves as neighbors were not so sure that they 
belonged together. 

It was the )'car 1968, a year of confrontation and con- 
flict, a time of dissent and disobedience, a period of dis- 
ruption and destruction, an era when people who used to 
think of themselves as fellow citizens were drawn apart 
by polarization. It was a time of alienation and separa- 
tion, a time of suspicion, with many votes of "no con- 
fidence." It was 1968, the year of the stranger. 

That was the year that was, but it is over and finished 
now — at least by the calendar; and the new year is still 
young enough that, if we will, we can give it another 
name. We should take the recent past quite seriously; we 
need not close our eyes to what it was and what it did 
to us. And yet at the same time we can hope for a switch 
from hostility to helpfulness and a turn from alienation 
to the discovery that we are meant to be brothers and 
not strangers. 

Instead of making a speech about the new year, let us 
offer you instead a text — a te.xt so clear you can hang 
)'Our own sermon on it. You can find the words near the 
end of the first chapter of Hosea. You remember how 
that man of deep feeling found meaning in his domestic 
tragedies. He says that the Lord told him to call his son 
by the name of "stranger" because the people of Israel 
had become as strangers to God. Yet the prophet looked 
beyond the estrangement of his people to hear these 
words of the Lord: "And in the very place where they 
were called strangers to me, they shall be called Sons of 
the living God" (Phillips). 

Once strangers. Now sons. And in the same place. 
There you have a text to ponder. As for us, the meaning 
must be something like this. God is ahve and he is still 
in the act. His purpose today is just as much reconcilia- 

32 MESSENGER 1-2-69 

tion as it was years ago. He is all for breaking down 
barriers, not by engineering some sort of shaky compro- 
mise that satisfies no one, but simply by letting the issues 
speak for themselves and yet insisting always on the im- 
portance of persons. In the very same place where people 
are most estranged, where the divisions are deepest, 
where the polarization has gone farthest, there God is 
alive and well, and there God is busy. 

Wherever desperate and frustrated people have been 
driven to rioting and burning, God is there. Wherever 
young persons, feeling uncomfortable in a world they 
never made, have tried to put it behind them or have 
thought they could set it right in a day, God has been 
there — in the streets, in the coffeehouses, in the public 
parks, in dormitories. Wherever frightened citizens, fear- 
ful of losing the privileges they have acquired at great 
effort, have invoked the assurances of law and order to 
protect them, God is there long before the policeman 
arrives. Wherever neighbors, once friendly, have been 
caught by dissension and families find their ties unravel- 
ing under the pressures of controversy, there God is also 
active. God has not given us up though we behave as 
strangers to him as well as to one another. 


rhat could happen among us is what did happen 
when Jews and Christians — in the early years of our era 

— discovered that God had a gift for them that could 
settle their differences. Paul tells us that the gift was a 
new kind of life — "life together with Ghrist" — a life that 
changed those who formerly were utter strangers, out- 
siders, and aliens into a community of brothers. It took 
sacrifice to do it; actually the way of the cross became 
the way of breaking down barriers. But once that way 
was taken, says Paul, the war between Jew and Chris- 
tian was over. 

May 1969 be the year when many such wars are over 

— ended not by one side overpowering another nor by 
submission to the will of a tyrant, but ended rather by 
the discovery that God is alive and well and still busily 
engaged in reconciling the world to himself and men toi 
one another. — k.m. 



Andre Parrot. $5.95 

Here is a fascinatingly different commentary on the Gospels, amply 
and beautifully illustrated. A renowned archaeologist offers a tour 
of the Holy Land with photographs, biblical texts, description, and 
archaeological and historical notes which bring the setting of the 
Gospels to life. His style is simple and straightforward. 


George A. Buttrick. $3.50 

Dr. Buttrick adds new depths of beauty and meaning to these familiar yet difTicuit 
passages. For him they invite us to joy; they open up on tomorrow. For him they raise 
agonizing questions for which there are no easy answers. Yet it is only in such mystery 
that we can come to know our need for God and be found in him. 


Gurdon C. Oxtoby. $2.25 paper 

Is there such a thing as a changeless Gospel? This study for laymen looks at Biblical 
doctrines and aligns them with the changing conditions of the modern church. The 
six significant themes range from the creation to the ultimate goal of society in the 
Kingdom of God. Here the reader will find a sound basis for action in an age pre- 
dominated by confusing change. 


John Wick Bowman. $1.75 paper 

A reprint of THE DRAMA OF THE BOOK OF REVELATION, this book presents a new 

translation in the modern idiom, and a commentary on the book of Revelation directed 

to the layman. The Revelation is both a letter and a drama in seven acts, each with 

seven scenes. The author says that his interpretation "makes of Revelation John's 
philosophy of history." 

Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 60120 



What Will You Do With Sunday Morning? Because man cannot do with- 
out worship, the church is currenthj tempted to try out new ways of "speaking 
unspeakable truths." But is the church then in danger of corrupting the sub- 
stance of its faith? by Inez Long, page 4 

Car! Stephens' Experiment in Mission. For one Kansas layman experimen- 
tal tnission means icorking witli thiiii/-fivc hoys, mosth/ black, mostly from fam- 
ilies with no father, many of w]i0}n know poverty as he once knew it, "from tlie 
inside out." by Walter D. Bowman, page 8 

Mr. Nixon and the Presidency. A Quaker home. Christian Endeavor ac- 
tivitij, friendship with Bilhj Graham — what influences will these factors have 
on the next resident of the White House? page 16 

Does Your Child Know the Value of Work? Children have varying abil- 
ities and each age has its own accomplishment level. But parents can instill 
work values with good work habits, by Pearl Gibbs. page 20 

New Horizons for World Missions. God invites Christians to join him, not 
as bearers of a new culture, but as partners in the work he is about in the cities 
and villages of the world, by Ira W. Moomaw. page 24 

Other featxires include "Hitch Your Camel to a Stai-," by Howard A. Miller (page 1); "Lit- 
any for Changing Times," by Ernest Bolz (page 2); "I Married a Catholic," by Catherine Witt- 
ier (page 7); "What Retirement Means to Me," by Mary Volland (page 11); "A Link Between 
Theology and Psychology," a review article by Carl W. Ziegler Jr. (page 27); and "Faith 
Looks Up," by Rebecca Swick (page 27). 


If Christians arc called to service fn the world, ichat kind of litnrs,y is most appropriate for 
their acts of worship? Wayne Zunkel suggests several ivays of relating worship to life. . . . 
In an Annual Conference message, abridged for publication. Ralph Smcltzer looks at the need 
for the Christian gospel — and the Christian church — to participate in the making of "The 
New Society.". . . An anonymous writer offers a series of imaginary reports from an operator 
to his chief-of-staff in the "demon division," telling of his efforts to .subvert Christians. 

PHOTO CREDITS: Cover Rohn Engh; 1 H. Armstrong Roberls; 2-3 artwork by Mark Stockstill; 4 Dcvaney; 9, 10 
Gery Buehler; 15 courtesy of the Hagerstown (Md.) Daily Mail; 17, 19 Religious News Sendee 

Kenneth I. Morse, editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh. 
managing editor: Howard E. Rover, director of news 
service; Linda Czaplinski. assistant to ilie editors. Mes- 
senger is the official publication of the Church of the 
Brethren. Messenger is copyright 1968 by the Church of 
the Brethren General Board. Entered .as second-class 
matter .^ug. 20. 1918 under Act of Congress of Oct. 
17, 1917. Filing date, Oct. 1. 1968. Messenger is a 
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VOL. 118 N 





11 , - ji 




Beverly Madison Currin. "In 
our own lives, as in His, there 
can be no Easter Day without 
a Good Friday ... no benefits of 
the Passion-without sacrifice, 
dedication, and commitment . . ." 
— a forceful interpretation 
of the Atonement. $3.50 


James T. Cleland. Brief medi- 
tations which show the Seven 
Last Words as an echo of what 
Jesus said many times during 
his teaching ministry. $2 



Emerson S. Colaw. A kaleido- 
scopic view of Christ's life, 
which draws together his prin- 
ciples and discusses their 
implications for today. $2.50 


Carlyle Marney. With his com- 
mand of the historical present 
tense. Dr. Marney helps us see 
Jesus and those closest to 
Him. Easily read, yet a chal- 
lenge to deeper faith. $2.25 


Carlyle Marney. Stringent 
messages reaffirm the vitality 
of Easter as the essential 
affirmation of a valid Christian 
faith. $2.25 


W. E. Sangster. An examination 
of Calvary through a look at 
those involved — the Pharisees, 
the Sadducees, Judas, Pilate, 
the thieves, and others. $2 


Kenneth O. Eaton. Seven in- 
cisive messages highlight as- 
pects of Jesus' ministry and 
provide personal guidance and 
inspiration for mission and 
ministry. $2.75 



Kay M. Baxter. For group or 
private reading . . . this work 
finds counterparts for the 
Seven Last Words in the works 
of modern playwrights. $2.25 



Charles C. Wise, jr. Six poetic 
meditations on the events 
of Passion Week reflect per- 
sonal viewpoints of those 
who were there. $2.75 


Wa//ace T. Viets. Eight stimulat- 
ing messages built around 
the timeless yet timely questions 
asked by participants in the 
closing days of Jesus' ministry. 



Clovis G. Chappell. A vivid 
portrayal of the love and 
strength of our Saviour against 
the background of human weak- 
ness and sin — at Golgotha and 
in the world today. I 


Ralph W. Sockman. Special 
attention is given to the idea 
that Jesus' victory over death 
is proof of Cod's love for 
his children. $2.25 



Leslie D. Weatherhead. A 
discussion of the Resurrection 
in relation to psychical re- 
search is certain to be thought 
provoking. Paper, $1 

At your local bookstore 

Abingdon Press 


m^i^mm mm wnie 


Readers may wonder why more active 
church leaders do not promote the Dirksen 
Prayer Amendment (See Readers Write, 
Nov. 7). First of all, the Supreme Court 
decision does not really eliminate the read- 
ing of the Bible in public schools if it is 
done as a school activity. Churchmen op- 
pose any effort to make the school a place 
3f worship or of sectarian reUgious teaching. 
To do so would run the risk of destroying 
■ religious freedom in this country, because 
in many communities an aggressive denom- 
ination would push forward its own type of 
religious belief to the exclusion of others. 
Rehgious freedom would therefore be great- 
ly endangered and we would risk having 
Jiat community promote one religious 

• faith in the same manner that state churches 
did in 1708 when the Church of the Breth- 
ren, among others, organized in rebellion 
igainst such a state church. 

Tliis will explain why tliere has been such 
strong support given to the covui: decision 
;o keep the schools free of domination by a 
itrong denominational viewpoint of rehgion. 
While some feel like supporting the Dirk- 

* ien Amendment, the majority of the Chris- 
nan people of our country will likely not 
mpport it. Our rehgious faith should be 
<ept in the churches and strongly taught 
here, while the public schools will have 
inore than they can accomplish in taking 
?are of the educational needs of our young 

' leople. There is nodiing to prevent a 
lighly motivated Christian teacher from 
;arrying all his faith into the classroom of 
he public school if he uses the school for 
'ducation and if he supports the church for 
lis religious nurture. 

John H. Eberly 
A'ashington, D.C. 


Surely some of your readers will rise to 
hallenge the article in the Oct. 10 Messen- 
ger on "The Right to Die." The place to 
lo that is not in the author's conclusions, 
vhatever they may be, but in his premises, 
vhich are clear from the beginning. . . . 

The question here and elsewhere in tlie 
lew morality is whether or not egotistical 
eason is capable of estabUshing valid moral 
;uidelines. The universally ancient reh- 
;ious view is unanimous in saying that it 
s not. God's law, do not kill oneself or 
ithers, manifests itself to the vision of the 

imier man as a clear perception of truth 
not in any way subject to doubt. Here, as 
with all other difficulties in which Adam 
has involved himself, the commandment of 
God stands clear and unequivocable in the 
innermost ground of our nature; but tlie 
temptation always enters externally through 
reason supported by hidden fears, doubt, 
and lust. "Yea, hath God said?" Shall we 
eat of the forbidden tree? Is murder some- 
times merciful? Or is suicide oftentimes de- 
sirable? Would an affair with our neigh- 
bor's wife perhaps be a valuable experi- 
ence? . . . 

The real spiritual struggle is not to ration- 
alize great moral issues but rather to reach 
the innermost ground of our being where 
all truth stands clearly exposed to human 
vision. Here in our present situation, and if 
we would see the abundant life, we must 
struggle constantly and moment by mo- 
ment for divine mercy and guidance, and 
not dissipate our meager energies on ration- 
alizations impossible to digest and whose 
end is confusion. 

Yes, every man has both the right and the 
duty to die a natural death, precious in the 
sight of our Lord. 

Fred Smith 
Cedaredge, Colo. 


I was impressed with an article in the 
Oct. 10 Messenger. It seems that the 
Brethren Volunteer program has grown ht- 
tle o\'er the past twenty years. In fact, 
I'm appalled and amazed at the little em- 
phasis which B\'S receives in our local 
churches. Many of our churches are not in- 
terested enough to be bothered with an 
interpretation program to expose young 
people to BVS. It seems to me that the 
pacifist position in many of our congrega- 

tions is something of the past. 

I agree that shifting the alternative serv- 
ice program out of the BVS program might 
prove helpful, but a more aggressive in- 
formation and counseling service is needed 
throughout the entire church if this ap- 
proach is worth the efFort and change. 

The program seems to be social service, 
but social change can come out of the social 
service if the program is directed toward 
changing. It seems that the social change 
needed most is BVSers' aiming for a more 
drastic approach in the world of service. 

Recruitment for the three branches of 
our defense program is not unusual in our 
high schools across the country. It seems 
tliat churches across the Brotherhood have 
an obhgation and responsibility in recruiting 
\olimteers for BVS and I-W service. We as 
members of the Church of the Brethren who 
feel that we should be serving the cause of 
peace and social justice should either act 
on these convictions or stop playing around 
with being identified as a peace-loving 

It seems that we might need to begin by 
making this program more attractive and ac- 
ceptable to our youth. The Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints over the 
past years has doubled its mission program. 
Perhaps our church can leam a lesson from 
the LDS program. While I realize our pro- 
gram is diff^erent, social service rendered 
through love communicates more than lip 

It seems that as BVS moves toward the 
coming of age in the twenty-first century, 
it needs to assess its purpose more deeply 
in serving mankind through acts of kind- 
ness, humihty, love, and patience. 

David J. Morris 
Richmond, Va. 

More on page 25 

BYLINES: Two Pennsylvania pastors are among contributors to this MESSENGER: C. Wayne Zunkel, 
of Harrisburg's First church, and James S. Flora, who serves the Palmyra congregation. . . Gayle 
Wooters attends Colorado State College at Fort Collins, Colorado. . . Newton, Kansas, is the 
home of Maynard Shelly, editor of "The Mennonite," a weekly denominational publication. . . . 
Ralph Smeltzer, who delivered his address on a new society at the 1968 Annual Conference, is 
director of peace and social education for the Brotherhood. 

MESSENGER is owned and published c\ery other week by the Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Board 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, 111. 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 1 

' IJ" 

2 MESSENGER 1-16-69 


' In our kind of world God wants a witness to truth, peace, brotherhood, love, 
) and morality outside the walls of the meetinghouse — a liturgy that is lived 


an is a strange and interesting 
creature. As he walks through life he 
becomes aware of the workings of 
God. He gazes into the starry 
heavens and senses magnificent 
order and great power. He looks into 
the face of a tiny flower and feels 
warmth and beauty. In times of fear 
and danger he cries out for help and 
is sustained. At great moments of 
tragedy or the death of a dear friend, 
he reaches out for purpose and 
meaning; and, if he persists, to his 
troubled heart comes comfort. In 
moments of joy, at the birth of new 
life, he senses a Creative Source 
out beyond him. 

Through his experiences in the 
world, man comes to believe there is 
a God. And then, filled with awe 
and appreciation, man sets about to 
honor God. Like Jacob, he stands up 
a stone slab; he sets aside a special 
piece of land; he builds a simple 

And then, as he reflects on the 
wonders of God, he adds to the works 
of his hands. He spends time 
making his building lovely. He carves 
designs and imports special metals. 
He begins to develop ways for 
approaching God. He composes 
hymns and prayers and special rituals. 
His writings about his experience 
of God, which at first may be little 
more than letters or poems or stories, 
grow in importance and become 
sacred. The forms become rigid 
and unchanging. 

The Bible is the story of men who 
continue to experience God in the 
midst of life. Adam and Eve meet 
God in their garden in a moment of 
disobedience. Gain confronts God in 
the open field where Abel lies dead 
at his feet. Jacob also experiences 
God in an open field and in that 
rocky, forsaken spot he builds a 
simple altar and calls the place Beth 
El — the house of God — the very 
gate of heaven. Moses was going 
about his daily work tending sheep 
when he felt God's call as he saw 

a bush which seemed to him to be 

Nor can we confine the worship 
of God to patterns taken from a book 
or to set forms which have been 
developed. The prophets cried out 
in anguish, "Take away from me the 
noise of your songs and your worship. 
These do not please me. God wants 
justice and mercy and a humble, 
contrite heart." 

The apostle Paul said, "The God 
who made the world and everything in 
it, being the Lord of heaven and earth, 
does not live in shrines made by 
man." Though we seek to praise 
God through our own creations, God 
is not limited to these creations. 

Although Jesus went to the syna- 
gogue regularly and shared in the 
formal worship of his day, he seemed 
quite as reverent contemplating the 
lilies of the field as he did reading 
from the scriptures in the temple 
among the congregation of worship- 
ers. In the marketplace, on a hillside, 
with fishermen at work, or late at 
night in a garden in prayer, God's 
presence and God's power were very 
real to him. He valued the formal 
coming together. But his experience 
of God was in no way limited to this. 

God cannot be confined to build- 
ings. God wants much more than only 
correct words, properly intoned in 
prayer. He wants us, our total being. 

The early Brethren, in some of 
their emphases in the past, were say- 
ing this. They were reluctant to set 
aside special holy days. They were 
never enthusiastic about Lent or 
Advent. They believed that every day 
is a holy day. 

Our forefathers never had cate- 
chism classes. They believed that 
Christianity must be far more than 
setting children down in a row to 
memorize a set of answers to pre- 
determined questions. 

They were terribly "low church" 
in worship forms, refusing to use the 
word sanctuary. The church, for them, 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 3 

OUR SANCTUARY / continued 

was the meetinghouse, what those in 
the government would call "the situ- 
ation room," the place where we 
check signals and receive direction 
and renewal before going bacl< out to 
life. They felt we need this coming 
together, but they always insisted that 
what happens inside that building 
must always be judged by how well 
it prepares us for what happens 
outside the building. 

For Brethren, forms and creeds 
have not been central. Life has been 
central. The world is our sanctuary. 
And our liturgy is out in life. Far 
more important than the precise 
words to be repeated before a holy 
altar is the attitude behind the words 
repeated out in the world. 

How do we show our love to God? 
by the color of stoles the minister 
wears? by the shape of the cross up 
front? What kind of "ritual" are we 
concerned about? Here are some 
examples of the kind of thing I see 
our faith saying to us. 

In a world where truth is an un- 
certain virtue, letting speech be sim- 
ple and genuine is a way of affirming 
our love for God wherever we are. 
In every situation to speak as plainly 
as we know, to let our "yes" mean 
yes, and our "no," no, is a witness 
of our affection for Christ himself 
who asked this quality of speech from 
us. Simple honesty to our fellowman 
is as important a way to show our 
devotion to God as the repeating of 
any churchly litany. 

In a warring world, any word or 
action to bridge misunderstanding 
between persons or nations becomes 
an evidence of respect for God and 
his creation. He wants this far more 
than any pageantry in church. Peace- 
makers will find visible symbols, al- 
ternatives to the hate and fear. The 
BVSer for a year or two of his life, 
acting out a vivid demonstration of 
the message of love, speaks far more 
eloquently than all the sermons ever 
preached on peace put together. 

In a day of race hate, every act 
of friendship with those of another 
race tal<es on holy significance. To 
identify in this way is to bear witness 
to our beliefs in a far more positive 
way than simply to repeat a creed 
about brotherhood with our lips. 

In a needy world, one may gird 
himself with the towel and take the 
basin not only at love feast time but 
in fact many times in the course of 
every single day. The novel. The 
Nun's Story, catches this truth when 
the mother superior of the hospital, 
in her instruction of the beginning 
nurses, says to them, "All for Jesus . . . 
say it, my dear students, every time 
you are called upon for what seems 
an impossible task. Then you can do 
anything with serenity. . . . Say it for 
the bedpans you carry, for the old 
and dying you bathe, for every un- 
pleasant duty." Then, as the mother 
superior bent over a patient to change 
a very dirty dressing, she said to the 
sisters in charge, "You see how easy 
it is? All for Jesus. . . . This is no 
body picked from the gutter. This 
is the body of Christ and these sores 
are his wounds." 

This is the deeper ritual of praise, 
this is the more powerful expression 
of adoration before God to which we 
are called — not apart from life, but 
in the very midst of life. 

In a day of uncertain morality, love 
and fidelity within a marriage are a 
Christian witness. A young father, a 
friend of mine, said to me, "I'm often 
ridiculed at work. I'm the only man 
in my entire office who claims to love 
his wife. They all tell me it's out-of- 
date to be in love with your own wife. 
But I am, and I don't care who knows 

In our kind of world this is the 
expression God wants quite as much 
as words said in a sanctuary. He 
wants a witness to a morality which 
is unchanging even in the midst of 

Ours is a world where human life 

is cheap. Dr. Eldon Siebel, a Dallas 
chest surgeon, said recently, "Every 
cigarette smoked reduces the life 
span of the smoker eight to ten 

The church in the past has talked 
about alcohol and tobacco, and peo- 
ple become impatient. Why so spe- 
cific? Because these represent 
specific choices which almost every 
one of us who is living and working in 
the world must make every day. Even 
those who are ministers face this 
kind of question: Most of my pastoral 
friends in the city smoke and drink 
and most of those who don't ridicule 
those who have convictions against 
such things. 

We see a cross and we are re- 
minded of Christ's dying love. We see 
the picture of Jesus as the Good 
Shepherd and we are reminded of 
God's concern for us. And so it is that 
personal decisions — cocktails at an 
informal gathering, a cigarette or the 
absence of a cigarette — become 
symbolic out in the world of an atti- 
tude and of deep convictions about 
the preciousness of human life, about 
our stewardship of God's good gifts. 
The quiet, unassuming abstinence 
of a single winsome Christian is a 
simple but powerful witness against 
the massive economic and social pres- 
sures, the tremendous mobilization 
of advertising, which would exploit 
human beings, which would fasten on 
chains which become difficult to 
throw off, which would make huge 
profits at the expense of people and 
their well-being. 

The church is not our sanctuary. 
The world is our sanctuary. And while 
we need the church — while without 
it we would soon begin to lose direc- 
tion and purpose — it must fit us for 
what we are in the world. For as 
soon as we leave, we begin to partake 
of fellowship with God in a larger 
sense. Wherever we go, whatever we 
do, we act out our faith or we deny 
our faith daily! D 

4 MESSENGER 1-16-69 


...o generation of the same . 
■, Snowing^;';. : . - 
^ pun my tracks homewarti: ^ij^lgfr 
Fwetting on my hair. Snowh 
rning hair writhes melting e- ' 

armer,*snowing| white-abSOlUte, " " 



Ilim Whitman was a 
Bretliren boy who might 
have grown up to launch 
a career in professional 
baseball if he hadn't liked 
to sing. Instead he 
became a gold-record 
winner in the country- 
western music field. 

During high school Slim's abilities on 
the diamond were noteworthy. As a 
matter of fact, he tmned "professional" 
in 1946, playing with the Plant City 
Berries of Tampa, Florida, his hometo\vn. 
A year later SHm hit .360 as pitcher for 
the team, winning eleven games and los- 
ing only one. 

His musical career actually began 
when Slim was in the Navy. While on 

ship he found an old guitar and started 
to strum it. Later on he began singing. 
Being as good a bo.xer as he was a vocal- 
ist, he became a favorite of his shipmates 
and was in constant demand as an en- 
tertainer — so popular that once his cap- 
tain refused to let him be transfen-ed to 
another ship. 

After the war, Slim returned to a job 
as a shipfitter and laid plans for a pro- 
fessional baseball career. Everyone 
thought he would go on to the big time. 
But he still hked to sing, and in 1948 he 
gave up baseball for an opening at a 
Tampa radio station. It was here that Slim 
met Jerry Crist, the girl announcer who 

was to become his wife. Later Slim | 

joined the Mutual Network and a group ' 
known as the "Lightcrust Doughboys"; 
from that to the famous "Louisiana | 

Hayride ' in Shreveport. 

His association with the Hayride led 
him to his first record. Since then he has 
recorded thirty-six albums and over one 
hundred singles. Two of his singles 
(which broke into the pop field as well 
as into the countiy-westem market), 
"Indian Love Call" and "Rose Marie," 
each earned him a gold record for selling 
over a milhon copies. Two albums 
brought him two other gold disks, proudh 
displayed in his Jacksonville home. 

6 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

Far left: Slim listens to 
a play-back of new 
recording. Above: Slim 
points out special award 
and two of his gold 
records. Left: at work in a 
Nashville recording studio 

Slim was the first country-western per- 
)former to play the London Palladium. In 
(1965 he toured South Africa, where his 
recordings are in great demand, for six 
j weeks appearing in thirty-seven towns. 
; Today he regularly ti-avels over the 
United States singing and yodeling coun- 
try songs. 

Having been trained in the classical 
music tradition, I first listened to Slim's 
country-western records with some 
reservation. To my pleasant surprise, I 
found the sound to be relaxing and 
listenable. There is no twang, hog call- 
ing, or sobbing in one's beverage — just 
straightfonvard, clear song — with a sub- 

tle styling in the Nashville manner. 

Slim won't sing for the barroom juke- 
box. Ballads mourning lost loves are 
about as "sad" as he gets. One of his 
latest albums includes a number with a 
surprising tango beat. He even whistles. 

His rehgious albums include such 
songs as "With God's Hand in Mine," 
"How Great Thou Art," "He'll Under- 
stand and Say "Well Done,' " "Who at My 
Door Is Standing," and "My Father 
Watches Over Me." 

Like most country performers. Slim 
doesn't read a note of music; instead, he 
sings a tune intuitively. Wife Jerry some- 
times plays a new melody for him to 

learn by only hearing it. And he tries to 
predict a song's success by ear. He lis- 
tens to a new recording by turning the 
volume high (as it would be played on 
a jukebox) to see if he can "hear money." 
After all, if one's sense of success is right, 
he could be rewarded with another gold 

Slim refuses both to sing hillbilly num- 
bers and to copy the mountaineers' st>le. 
"Their songs are pitiful," he says. To 
capture the NashvUle Sound, Slim goes to 
that country music capital of the world to 
record for Imperial Records. Here he 
combines his talents with the studio 
musicians and back-up voices who have 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 7 

SLIM WHITMAN / continued 

Above: Wife Jerry helps SUm pick up the tune of a new 
song. Right: His favorite sports are boating and fishing 

helped give Nashville its fame. 

Country-western music was born in 
the Great Depression. Though it began 
as a mixture of gospel, folk, English bal- 
lad, and "soul," eventually it evolved 
into a style of its own. It is much hghter 
than blues and softer than rock, a happy, 
natural sound. Its music and message 
appeal to the less sophisticated (of whom 
there are plent>' — country music is a 
booming business with devotees around 
the world ) . 

Slim is an unassuming man with strong 
moral principles. He shuns endorsement 
or use of alcoholic drinks or tobacco. He 
has lived among entertainers who have 

8 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

used drugs and alcohol "first to face the 
crowd, then to face the niglit, and then 
to face the morning." He wants no part 
of it. 

Slim was reared in a Brethren home 
with his two brothers and sisters. He is 
a member of the Church of the Brethren 
and, with his wife Jerry and son Byron, 
attends the Jacksonville church. He often 
sings there, as well as at the Clay Count) 
church nearby. 

He and his family live on a pine-cov- 
ered forty-acre site where Jeny's father, 
the late A. D. Crist, an early Brethren 
minister, established his home, and reared 
his children. The sign over the front 

gate reads "Woodpecker's Paradise. 

When not on the road, Slim likes to 
fish in his nineteen-foot sonar-equipped 
Johnson Surfer. JeiTy has little patienci 
for sitting in a boat and often searches 
the shore for shells while Slim fishes. 
Her collection of shells is on display in a 
cofiee table specially designed for her. 

During my overnight stay at the Para- 
dise I found Slim Whitman so much lik 
the "fellow next door" that I had to keej 
reminding myself that this man is a gold 
record musical success. Of course, the 
best way to do that is to listen to his 
music. That is all it takes to convince 
you. D 



June Clark and her six children hve in 
an Illinois city. Becaiise they were so 
poor, her husband John technically de- 
serted the family recently so that it could 
go on Aid to Dependent Children to 
increase its income. He had been able to 
get only odd jobs because he lacked a 
high school education. John became dis- 
couraged, lost confidence and respect in 
himself. He and June enjoyed children 
and this was one thing they could have. 

June Clark and her children were left 
in a crowded three-room apartment. 
The family tried to get into public 
housing but there was a two-year waiting 
list. They receive a monthly income 
check of $260 from ADC. Ninety-five 
dollars of it goes for rent. Their yearly 
income is still over $3000 below the 
poverty line. The township relief super- 
visor frequently gives some extra money, 
but June is always uncertain about this 
because the supervisor is capricious and 
won't give help if he doesn't like some- 
thing a member of the family has done. 
Even the ADC supervisor threatens to 
discontinue her allowance, June says, 
when he suspects that John may have 
visited her. Occasionally the family re- 
ceives food baskets and used clothing 
from a big church across town. 

June's children are falling behind in 
school because there is no place to study 
at home, because their diet and clothing 
are inadequate, and because they must 
stay home frequently due to colds and 
infections. June says she rarely takes 
them to a doctor because she cannot 
afford it and there is no public health 
program in the county. The children 
don't mind staying home from school 
anyway because they say other kids look 
down on them and make fun of them. 
They seem to be losing confidence and 
respect in themselves like their father. 
June becomes downhearted at times, 
though she tries not to show it. She 
saves her crying until the children are 

asleep. Trying her best to be both 
mother and father is tough. She consoles 
her children when they complain and 
become upset because their father is 
never around. 

What bothers June most of all, how- 
ever, is that no agency seems really to 
understand her family's plight — not the 
To\vnship Welfare Ofiice, the ADC Su- 
pervisor, the State Employment Office, 
nor the City Council member she met. A 
community worker from the local Office 
of Economic Opportunity comes closest 
to being sympathetic and helpful. 

On top of all their poverty problems, 
the Clarks are black. Before John de- 
serted, he lost two good job possibilities 
because the boss was not an equal op- 
portunity employer and chose whites 
instead. Members from some white 
churches offered to help John find a job 
and better housing, but their interest was 
short-lived. A Negro businessman 
wanted to employ John as a maintenance 
man, but he already had more Negro 
applicants than he could use. 

The Clarks live in a crowded four- 
apartment building in the ghetto. The 
white landlord divided an old larger 

apartment into two small ones. He said 
he was doing it just for them; but later 
they discovered that the division had 
increased his income from the space from 
SI 00 to $160 per month. Occasionally 
the landlord has threatened to raise their 
rent if they ever complain. So they keep 
silent about needed repairs. They don't 
know where else they could go. 

Their school is over half Negro, yet 
there are only two Negro teachers. John 
and June had felt the school had even 
fewer capable white teachers than some 
other schools. The Clarks had wished 
most of the teachers and the principal 
were black. Then there would be a 
better understanding of their feelings. 
Many parents also complain that their 
school receives older and cast-off equip- 
ment. John and June had once found 
enough courage to talk to a school board 
member about the whole situation. He 
promised to look into it, but nothing ever 
happened. Since all the administrators 
and board members were white, the 
Clarks hadn't really expected anything 
to be done anyway. 

In the Clarks' apartment building and 
neighborhood are many children. Much 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 9 

NEW SOCIETY / continued 

noise. Many intenuptions. No situation 
conducive for study, even if the children 
had incenti\'e. Because there is no play- 
ground nearby, the children pla>' around 
the building and in the street. Police 
driving up in squad cars frequently 
"chew out" the chilchen for this unless 
one of the few black pohceinen is in the 

Mrs. Clark shops at a nearby super- 
market and recently discovered that it 
charges more for some items than a 
branch across town where whites shop. 
This really makes June angry. What a 
price for being a poor black, she says. 

A look at John Clark's family illustrates 
still a third set of problems. John's next- 
to-youngest brother. Bill, was drafted 
because he dropped out of school. He 
wrote John what he liked about Army 
life: regular duties, good food, clothing, 
housing, medical care, and especially the 
PX. But he gi'iped about more blacks 
being drafted proportionately than 
whites, saying one third of his outfit were 
Negi^oes. Last year Bill was assigned to 
an intelligence unit in Vietnam. He 
wrote that he drove an interpreter on a 
mission to a jungle village one day. In 
talking with the peasants he was sur- 
prised to discover, he said, that they were 
no more sympathetic to the South 
Vietnamese government than to Ho Chi 
Minh or the Viet Cong. Bill concluded 
that the freedom and justice he was 
fighting for there were not needed as 
much as at home. He wrote John about 
his disillusionment and vowed that as 
soon as he could get out of the Army, 
he'd be home to demand a fair deal for 
his family and all blacks in the city, even 
if it meant organizing an anned com- 
mando group to do it. 

Bill wrote his younger brother to stay 
out of the draft in any way he could. 
"And get our black precinct captain to 
help stop this war," he said. "We ought 
to use all this monev at home." 

Bill wrote that as he visited other 
villages he realized how many Vietna- 
mese people were poor and struggling 
hard to get ahead like his own family. 
To cheer up some whose homes had been 
destroyed, he said he told them, "Just 
you wait; we'll come back after the war 
and help rebuild \'our places." 

The Clark famiK- well illustrates the 
triple crisis of po\erty, racism, and war 
in our present society. 

Poverty is unnecessary in affluent 
America, yet one fifth of our people are 
poor. They now realize that they no 
longer need to live this way. 

White racism is a bitter blight. Non- 
whites are tired of being treated like 
second-class citizens. of housing 
segregation and other reasons, almost as 
man>' children attend segregated classes 
today — and in some places more — than 
did at the time of the 19.54 Supreme 
Court decision. Civil rights legislation 
for schools, employment, housing, and 
voting have not been adequately en- 
forced. The Negio unemployment rate 
runs at least twice as high as with whites. 
Well over one half of the substandard 
housing in our cities is occupied by Ne- 
groes and other non whites. The great 
percentage of businesses in the Negro 
ghettos are owned or operated by whites, 
who take the profits out of the Negro 
community and impoverish it still more. 
Nonwhites are conspicuous by their ab- 
sence on the policy-making boards of our 
communities. This whole system of 
racial discrimination produces bitterness 
and frustration which express themselves 
at times in irrational rioting. 

War and violence threaten our whole 
society. The Bulletin of Atomic Sci- 
entists says we are only seven minutes 
away from nuclear holocaust, from mans 
midnight, from doomsday. At least 
sixty percent of our national budget and 
taxes goes for war. The draft upsets the 
li\es of most of our young men. The 

continued slaughter of Americans, 
Vietnamese, and others brings us anguish 
daOy and shocks the world's conscience. 
We have already dropped more ex- 
plosives on tiny Vietnam than in all of 
World War II. "We are the world's 
greatest piuve\'or of violence, " said the 
late Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Our 
American virus of violence continues to 
break out in assassinations and riots. 
While .5,000 Americans were killed in 
combat in \'ietnam in 1966, about 
17,000 — over three times as many — 
were killed by guns alone in the United 
States. No wonder Stokely Carmichael 
says, "The use of violence is as American 
as apple pie." 

Poverty, racism, and war are interie- 
lated. They affect and reenforce one 
another. Our poor people and our non- 
white citizens resent most vigorously the 
diversion of most of the nation's resources 
and attention to the war in Vietnam 
rather than to the war against poverty 
and racism in America. An expensive 
military war abroad cannot be waged 
simultaneousK' with an all-out effort 
against poverty and racism at home, 
even by a great and rich country like the 
United States. Although we might have 
the resources to do both, we won't. 
Realistically, it is guns or butter, not 
guns and butter. The Great Society is 
another \ ictim of \'ietnam. 

If poverty, racism, and war blight 
present society, our first question is. 
What will be some marks of the new 

We belie\e that God acted through 
Jesus Christ to help reveal the new 
society and that God continues to act and 
speak through his prophets today and 
through our social situations. 

As we turn to Jesus for clues to the 
new society, so did he turn to the prophet 
Isaiah. "The Spirit of the Lord is upon 
me," he said, "because he has anointed 
me to preach good news to the poor. He 

10 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

The gospel and our faith offer 

an unmatched motivation for renewal in society 

has sent me to proclaim release to the 
capti\es, and recovering of sight to the 
bhnd, to set at liberty those who are 
oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable 
year of the Lord." 

"Good news to the poor" means a 
decent life for all; decent income, decent 
job, decent housing, decent health, 
decent respect. It means the elimination 
of poverty. 

"Release to the captives" means free- 
dom and justice for all; freedom to live 
wherever one can afford; freedom of 
job opportunity; a fair share of power in 
political, economic, and educational 
decision making. It means the elimina- 
tion of racism. 

"Liberty for the oppressed" means 
peace and nonviolence for all; ending the 
war and oppression in Vietnam and 
preventing the "gunning down" that goes 
on in our domestic life. It means the 
elimination of war and violence. 

"The Spirit of the Lord" means love; 
that which undergirds decency, justice, 
freedom, and peace; that which impels 
us to build a new world without poverty, 
I racism, and war. It means God's love 
I for the world, even for our "messed up" 
' society; God's love for all of us individu- 
. ally, even amid our unjust social struc- 
I tures. The Spirit of the Lord is God's 
1 love calling for better men, better social 
structures, a new societv. 


Imerican society must change rapidly 
if it is to survive and grow, if it is to 
become the new community. Change is 
good insofar as it forces us to think new 
thoughts, do new deeds, reappraise our 
goals, devise new methods. Ghange 
challenges us to be creative, flexible, 
enterprising. The eagle deliberately 
tears up its nest at the right time to force 
its young to fly. Perhaps God at times 
tears up some of our comfortable ways 
and some of our social structures to force 

us to develop new ones. After a nest is 
once torn apart it is never possible to put 
it back together like it was. But if God 
tears up oui- nests, he also helps us build 
new ones. He does not leave us alone 
to fall and die. Deuteronomy 32; 11 says, 
the Lord is "like an eagle that stirs up 
its nest, that flutters over its young, 
spreading out its wings, catching them, 
bearing them on its pinions." 

Jesus Christ not only understood and 
accepted social change, he precipitated 
it. He upset tradition; opposed injustice; 
brought good news to the poor, release 
to the captives, liberty to the oppressed. 

Jesus Christ helped to guide social 
change in his day. He didn't try to stop 
change but initiated and encouraged it. 
Remember how he deliberately talked 
with the Samaritan woman at the well 
of Sychar. He did not assume that social 
concern was none of his business; he 
made it his business. Note how he 
steadfastly set out toward Jerusalem in 
his last bold effort to reform it, knowing 
and predicting his probable fate. He was 
not a do-nothing in the face of wrong 
and injustice; he acted. Remember how 
he drove the money changers from the 
temple. He didn't cop out of society and 
join the Essene monastic order. Nor did 
he join the revolutionary Zealots and try 
to overturn society. It seems clear that 
Jesus called for major reforms in the 
social and religious institutions of his 
day, not for a rejection of the social 
structures or their foundations. "I have 
come to fulfill the law and the prophets, 
not to abolish them," he said (Matt. 
5; 17). "My house shall be a house of 
prayer, but you have made it a den of 
robbers" (Matt. 19;4.5). His was a 
prophetic mission to guide social change 
toward the new society, the new Jerusa- 
lem, a new heaven and new earth. 

There is a scandalous gulf in our 
churches between oui' profession and our 
performance in stimulating and guiding 

social change toward a new world. 

We in the church often think glibly 
that we can eliminate the problems of 
poverty, racism, and war. Yet in a very 
real sense we are the problem, for it is 
we who are the affluent establishment; 
the Whitey landlord, employers and 
decisions makers; the inheritors and 
carriers of colonialism in Vietnam. 

On the one hand the gospel ;md our 
faith offer an unmatched motivation for 
renewal in society; but on the other 
hand, many of us condemn committed 
Cln-istian leaders like Dr. King and Dr. 
Abernathy for responding to the call to 
help lead the way. We have thought 
that our white chuiches possessed the 
leadership needed for the new commu- 
nity, but we are discovering that the 
black churches are producing this lead- 
ership. We have thought it was our 
destiny to save our black brothers, but 
it may be the other way around. An 
ironic symbol of this possibility was the 
heart transplant in South Africa in which 
a low -caste black literally gave his heart 
to save the life of a high-caste white. 

The church possesses the most potent 
power in the world for change toward a 
new order, but at the same time it 
represents the strongest resistance and 
reaction to change — a perplexing para- 
dox! Is the church as well as the nation 
a house divided against itself? Is the 
church its own worst enemy? 

If we have eyes to see and ears to hear, 
we will discern on today's stage that 
God is the star actor in our three-act 
crisis. It is he, not June Clark or the 
perverse poor crying, "Provide a decent 
life for all." It is he, not John Clark and 
the blatant blacks, shouting, "All men 
deserve freedom and justice." It is he, 
not the suffering Vietnamese, groaning, 
"Give us peace at last." It is he, not the 
preacher, proclaiming, "Brethren, inas- 
much as you serve these, you serve 
me." D 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 11 

"Is THE CONSCIENCE of the Quaker, the 
Mennonite, the Brethren more deserving 
of respect than the conscience of the 
Roman CathoUc?" 

Pointed though it is, this basic concern 
about the nation's di-aft laws as presently 
constituted was raised by the editor of 
Catholic World magazine. Father John B. 
Sheerin. In a speech to university stu- 
dents, he raised the question not because 
Catholics are ineligible for classification 
as conscientious objectors, but rather be- 
cause those Catholics and other persons 
who adhere to a "just war" theory are 
denied CO status. 

Selectivity: Father Sheerin and other 
Catholic clerics are among a host of re- 
ligious and secular leaders and groups 
calling for a change in Selective Service 
to recognize the conscience of those who 
object not to all war but to a particular 
war, such as the conflict in Vietnam. 

Under the current Selective Service 
laws, conscientious objection has three 
criteria: The individual's opposition must 
be religious in nature, held conscientious- 
ly, and be directed at all wars. 

In the Seeger case of 1965, the U.S. 
Supreme Court widened the interpreta- 
tion of "religious in nature" to extend to 
those who do not believe in a Supreme 
Being. In fact last month a lower court 
in Baltimore, upon applying the 1965 
Supreme Court ruling, declared that an 
avowed atheist qualified as a conscien- 
tious objector. 

What religious and secular spokesmen 
now are seeking is a change in the third 
criterion, that opposition must be to all 
wars. Particularly among those who up- 
hold the "just war" theory, which pre- 
sumes that some wars are good and 
some are evil, there is an appeal that in 
a given situation a person who is not a 
pacifist ought to have the right to op- 
pose a particular war or facet of war, if 
led by conscience to do so. The prin- 
ciple is known as "selective conscientious 

Alternatives: "If a man in conscience 
can go to war, we give him glorious al- 

12 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

Who determines wlien war is "unjust"? 


ternatives, " stated delegate Russell Full- 
er, Ann Arbor, Mich., when the matter 
of selective objection was debated at the 
convention of the Christian Churches 
(Disciples of Christ) last fall in Kansas 
City. "If a man cannot accept war at 
all, he can be assigned to another kind 
of service, such as working in a mental 

"But if a man cannot say for sure that 
he would never fight, we gi\e him tliree 
alternatives: He can turn his back on 
conscience, he can become a felon, or he 
can become a fugitive. 

"The Church of Jesus Christ must ask 
for something better. Give this man a 
place to serve society." 

By a 2 to 1 vote the Disciples dele- 
gates supported conscientious objection 
to "a particular war," reversing a posi- 
tion taken by the assembly a year earlier. 

Among other religious bodies urging 
government recognition of selective con- 
scientious objection in recent weeks were 
the American Jewish Congress and the 
National Conference of Catholic Bishops. 
The former body, sj^eaking to the pres- 
ent law's requirement that persons classi- 
fied as COs must object to all wars, stat- 
ed: "A number of widely held ethical 
systems — religious and nonreligious — 
distinguish between morally acceptable 
and morally unacceptable warfare. It 
runs counter to our national and religious 
principles to compel a man to carry and 
use a gun against another man in a 
cause that he regards as morally wrong." 

In a pastoral letter issued in November 
by the National Conference of Catholic 
Bishops, a plea was expressed that op- 
portunities not be overlooked for expand- 
ing justice — in Vietnam or among U.S. 
young men whose consciences cause them 
to dissent from established military pol- 

The bishops called on the U.S. govern- 
ment to revise the draft law and allow 
for selective conscientious objection. And 
because the letter urged a complete re- 
appraisal of war in light of "the hoiTor 
and perversity of technological warfare, " 
one spokesman declaied, "The Catholic 
conscientious objector is now in a much 
better position th;m he was before. " 

"Not easy": In noting that the present 
draft laws "provide only for those whose 
reasons of conscience are grounded in 
the total rejection of the use of military 
force," the bishops issued this appeal: 

"We recommend a modification of the 
Selective Service Act making it possible, 
although not easy, for so-called selective 
conscientious objectors to refuse — with- 
out fear of imprisonment or loss of citi- 
zenship — to serve in wars which they 
consider unjust or in branches of the 
service (e.g., the strategic nuclear forces) 
which would subject them to the per- 
formance of actions contrary to deeply 
held moral convictions about indiscrim- 
inate killing. Some other fonn of service 
to the human community should be re- 
quired of those so exempted." 

In a rebuttal characteristic of the stand 
taken by Selective Service on the legaliz- 
ing of selective conscientious objection, 
Lt. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey criticized the 
Roman Catholic bishops for venturing 
into a "{X)litical" rather than a "religious" 
field in issuing their appeal. "It's no 
longer a religious question but a political 
one," the general said. "If you say you 
object to all wars, I can't object to that. 
Religion is an individual thing. 

"But what kind of religious belief 
have you got that causes you to reject 
some wars and not otheis? This doesn't 
seem to me to be a religious question 
but a political one." 

Father Sheerin, in an address given 


prior to General Hershey's remark, took 
the position that in spite of the impres- 
sion given by Congress and the courts, 
the selective conscientious objector 
"speaks as a religious objector, not a 
political one. Yet he is presently denied 
the privilege of exemption that is being 
given to another kind of objector, the 

For others: If the traditional pacifist 
stance appears to have a kind of special 
favor in the present law, the peace 
churches do not feel possessive of that 
status. "We seek no special privileges 
from our government," the Church of 
the Brethren Statement on War has long 
maintained. "What we seek for our- 
selves, we seek for all — the right of in- 
dividual conscience." 

Last June, in updating the Statement 
on War, Annual Conference inserted: 

"We affirm that this conscientious ob- 
jection may include all war, declared or 
undeclared; particular wars; and partic- 
ular forms of warfare." It restated that 
conscientious objection may be based "on 
grounds more inclusive than institutional 

Quakers and others in the peace 
churches have expressed uneasiness that 
the channels normally open to them for 
legal exemption from military service 
may be denied "other men equally sin- 

Joining in suppwrt of the right of se- 
lective conscientious objection in recent 
months has been a wide range of other 
church bodies, the Lutheran Church in 
America, the Reformed Church in Amer- 
ica, the United Church of Christ, the 
World Council of Churches, and the 
General Board of the National Council 
of Churches among them. The American 
Civil Liberties Union and Americans for 
Democratic Action had previously ap- 

proved the principle. Taking stock of 
this growing support, there seems little 
doubt that opposition to particular wars 
has emerged as a pressing moral concern. 

Crux: Though not a new concern, se- 
lective objection poses a baffling question 
for religion and government, a question 
most backers of the principle have said 
little about. The crux is. Who decides 
if a particular war is just or unjust? 

The word selective implies ethical de- 
cision making about the use of military 
force. It also is linked inescapably with 
the just and unjust war theory, bringing 
a variable to morality which is not at 
stake to those who in principle condemn 
all war. 

Some of the complexities involved in 
the issue are dealt with in a new book 
by Princeton University ethics professor 
Paul Ramsey. Entitled The Just War 
(Scribners), the volume is not likely to 
win all legislators to the cause of selec- 
tive objection nor to gain approval of 
all religionists. But it should enhance the 
discussion needed on the issue. 

Right off, Mr. Ramsey is in disagree- 
ment with total pacifism and hence per- 
sonally upholds the concept of the just 
war. He further maintains that any 
form of conscientious objection in the 
United States is a provision which Con- 
gress "is not legally or constitutionally 
bound" to grant. At the same time he 
does not deny "that in the forum of 
conscience there is duty to a moral power 
higher than the state." 

Given as he is to the just war view. 
Dr. Ramsey cannot and does not wish 
to deny selective objection. His stress is 
on a legal structure for determining the 
justice or the injustice of a war. He sees 
the criterion of individual conscience as 
an unworkable giound, declaring, "No 
political society can be founded on a 

principle according absolute rights to 
possibly errant individual conscience." 

The theologian, who in his own esti- 
mation cannot conclusively term the 
Vietnam war as unjust, is disturbed that 
"extremism in action, reaction, and 
counterreaction" suiTOunding Vietnam 
has muddled the whole matter of selec- 
tive conscientious objection. He quotes 
the late Father John Courtney Murray 
as saying that "the issue of selective 
conscientious objection must be distin- 
guished from the issue of the justice of 
the South Vietnam war." 

Father Murray was a member of a 
citizen's panel appointed by President 
Jolinson to study revision of the Selec- 
tive Service Act. He termed the right 
of selective objection "incontestable" 
and saw the foundation for it in the "tra- 
ditional American political doctrine on 
the right of conscience." Doubtless, 
many churchmen would support this 

Dr. Ramsey, disallowing individual 
conscience as the total arbiter, seeks a 
legal base for granting conscientious ob- 
jection. The legal test he sets forth is 
allowing objector status when the 
claimant's conscientious belief is that 
"the war is in violation of international 
conventions and the 'laws of war' and 
in violation of agreements to which his 
nation was and is a party." 

Viable? This reasoning is certain to 
evoke dissent. Some churchmen are not 
inclined to believe a draft-age youth can 
have much success arguing international 
law with the Defense Department or can 
convince a local draft board that Presi- 
dential action in a declared or unde- 
clared war is illegal as well as immoral. 

Dr. Ramsey, emphasizing a point also 
lifted up by the U.S. Catholic Bishops, 
goes further and sees no reason "why 
conscientious objection to certain modes 
of warfare (such as nuclear) might not 
be allowable gi-ounds. . . . This would 
certainly become a ground if there were 
international conventions proscribing the 
use of nuclear weapons to which one's 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 13 

4- news 

nation was a party. 

Critics of this reasoning, however, 
might well point out that neither a 
fresh recruit nor an Army general is af- 
forded sufficient choice in a battlefield 
setting to react in a maimer envisioned 
by Dr. Ramsey. 

The theologian makes clear that be- 
fore selective and universal opposition 
to war are workable, the "discretion" of 
society must be dealt with by "forming 
and informing influences upon political 
consciences." He sees considerable up- 
grading in the level of political discourse 
as a necessary precondition for realiza- 
tion of the selective CO status. 

Whatever the outcome of attempts to 
determine who decides on the justice 
or injustice of wars, the discourse will 
go on. For the process. Father Muna\' 
offered a pertinent forewarning. If moral 
and political discourses are separated, he 
said, "the necessary public argument will 
degenerate into a useless and harmful 

Consensus? Meanwhile, Netv York 
Times religion writer Edward B. Fiske 
has noted that "if a consensus is de\elop- 
ing in the religious communit\', it seems 
to be that conscientious objection is not 
an individual right but a privilege 
granted by the state. At the same time, 
there is growing agreement that it is in 
the interests of the state to grant as 
much latitude as possible." — h.e.r. and 
1-iELiGious News SEn\'iCE 

Quest for faithfulness 

The Brethren Revival Fellowship is 
in one respect similar to the peace action 
and pro-merger groups which ha\'e arisen 
within the Church of the Brethren. The 
likeness comes in the fact that each 
group seeks to accent certain points of 
view, with hopes of influencing and shap- 
ing the wider church body. 

The point of view of the Brethren 
Revival Fellowship is that a "tide of 
unbelief and compromise" is discernible 
within the Church of the Brethren. To 
alter the direction and to keep concerned 
individuals from scattering into other 

churches, the Fellowship has set out 
"to encourage the return to a sound 
biblical position." Specifically, the Fel- 
lowship includes among its goals be- 
coming "a rallying point for those within 
the church who believe the Bible to be 
the infallible Word of God," and pre- 
senting "the truth as we see it, in love 
and charity." 

-^t the Fello\vship's annual mass meet- 
ing in the fall, convened at the Mount 
joy church in Western Pennsylvania, ap- 
pro.ximateK' 90 persons participated in 
the one-day proceedings. Church merger 
and the National Council of Churches 
were two focal points on the agenda. 

Incorporation: On the matter of 
merger, Howard Kreider and Graybill 
Hershey explained legal steps possible 
for incorporating a congregation and 
thus titling the church property to the 
congregation. In the event of merger 
at the denominational level, the men said 
the congregation, or corporation as it 
would be, then has the legal right to 
determine its owai course. 

In indicating that his own congrega- 
tion. White Oak, has so incoiporated, 
Graybill Hershey stated: "It's not that 
we want to tear away. That's not our 
purpose. We want to have some inde- 
pendence — if the denomination would 
decide not to ordain our ministers." 
Should merger come. Hershey said the 
congregation would continue to be the 
White Oak Church of the Brethren. 

NCC protest: As to relationships with 
the National Council of Churches, Fel- 
lowship spokesman Hartman Rice said 
that he saw no hope of getting the de- 
nomination out of the NCC, citing the 
Annual Conference decision last June 
which affinns denominational support for 
the interchurch agency. But he said he 
was gratified that for the first time there 
was recognition of a minority view among 
individuals and congregations "who can- 
not conscientiously support" NCC causes. 
Mr. Rice announced the availabilit>' of a 
suggested fonn letter by which a congre- 
gation may register with the General 
Board at Elgin its disapproval of NCC 
affiliation and its intent "not knowingly 

[to] support the NCC in any way." 

An exchange of correspondence with 
the General Offices, as reported b\' 
Kenneth Hershey, indicated that in in- 
stances in which a congregation chooses 
not to support the National Council ol 
Churches, Brotherhood Fund giving ma>' 
be designated and the wishes of the 
donors are respected. 

Feedback: Results of a survey of 
Church of the Brethren ministers, reflect- 
ing their assessment of the Brethren Re- 
vi\al Fellowship, was reported by Harold 
Martin, cun-ent chairman of the group. 
Of a 2.3 percent return, Mr. Martin re- 
\ealed that one in four of the congrega- 
tions responding were in sympath>' with 
the Fellowship's aims, and that 170 
pastors, scattered across each district, ex- 
pressed interest in distributing the Breth- 
ren Revival Fellowship Witness and other 
materials to the local parish. He fmther 
said that some replies commending the 
Fellowship caused him to weep. But so 
did some others, he added, which saw 
the Fellowship as being divisive. "This 
is not our intent," Mr. Martin said. 

A danger which dissenting individuals 
and congregations must guard against, 
some of the speakers noted, was in be- 
coming so totally negative as to off^er no 
hope. "It is possible to be as straight 
as a gun barrel and just as empty," Hart- 
man Rice stated. He emphasized that 
it is not right to withdraw into a corner 
to allow trends to turn one sour, nor to 
be preoccupied with "secondary things. 
The positive note, he said, is to be in- 
volved in soul winning. 

Contentions: During the proceedings, 
other cautions were sounded. Some peo- 
ple don't give because they are afraid 
it will not be used in the right way, 
commented Graybill Hershey. So, he 
added, they keep the money at hom? 
and it is not always used right there. 
To a lady who said she designated all 
her giving for the pastor and the gas 
bill at the church and who inquired if 
this was all right, Linford Rotenberger 
gave the assurance that it was proper 
if done in the right spirit. And two lead- 
ers clashed over whether affiliation with 

14 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

the National Association of E\'angelicals 
was any better than affihation with the 
National Council of Churches. 

While deliberate efforts were made to 
accentuate the positi\e, occasional darts 
sailed by. Among such comments; 

"We need a housecleaning at our head- 

"Doctrinal cancer is being taught in 
our seminary." 

"Faulty theology is the root of the 

Under frequent attack were intellectu- 
alism, liberalism, curriculum materials, 
the new morality, and civil disobedience. 

Warmth: Still, diati-ibes were more the 
exception than the rule, and in terms of 
overall impact a warmth in spirit was 
shown toward the denomination at large. 
Many speakers painstakingly affirmed 
their interest in unity in the chmxh and 
revealed their sensitivity over criticism 
that the Fellowship fostered disunit\'. 
The meeting evidenced a vitality and an 
intensity and above all an overriding con- 
cern that the church be faithful to its 

The concern is not unique to the 
Brethren Revival Fellowship; it is ex- 
pressed elsewhere. "Faithfulness in 
Change" is to be the theme of tvvo sig- 
nal events in coming months, the Louis- 
ville Annual Conference and the Third 
Theological Conference. In these situa- 
tions and others the perspective of the 
Brethren Revival Fellowship needs to be 
brought into full and open encounter. 

India's experiment 

church-related and voluntary agencies in 
1966 formed an experimental channel for 
working together. The new resource was 
named AFPRO - Action for Food Pro- 

As called for in the original plan, a 
formal evaluation of AFPRO was to take 
place within three years to determine the 
future of the agency. Occurring a few 
weeks ago in New Delhi, the evaluation 
conference took reasonable pride in the 
achievements of AFPRO and e.xpressed 

a desire that the program be extended. 
Among the achievements noted; 

— In two and a half years AFPRO has 
supplied 27 well-drilling rigs and 30 
blasting units to dig or improve 4,600 
wells in nine chronically water-deficient 
states. The water benefits an estimated 
one million persons with drinking water 
and irrigates 15,000 acres of crop land. 

-AFPRO has distaibuted 5,350 tons 
of fertilizer and set up six poultr\' growing 
and marketing projects. 

— AFPRO has published 25 "how to" 
papers on varioirs subjects and. with the 
help of a registered panel of 42 specialists 
from Ford Foundation, Food and Agri- 
culture Organization, departments of the 
India government, and industrial firms, 
serviced 3,900 requests for technical 

— Perhaps most significantly, AFPRO 
offered training to 920 nationals for work 
in areas ranging from drilHng technicjues 
to nutrition. The professional staff di- 
recting AFPRO — two adirdnisti^ators and 
eight technicians — come from India, 
Sweden, Austraha, New Zealand, Can- 
ada, and the United States. 

Trust: Significant, too, is the effect tlie 
cooperative endeavors ha\'e had upon the 
religious community participating in the 
program. Cliurch of the Brethren min- 
ister J. Benton Rhoades, official reporter 
of the New Delhi conference and execu- 
tive secretai-y of Agricultural Missions, 
Inc., cited the "growing sense of trust 
among Protestant, Catholic, and other 
voluntary agencies cooperating in AF- 
PRO." He noted fui-ther that the ex- 
perience has resulted in "a new working 
partnership between these agencies and 
the government of India at all levels." 

In beginning its efforts, the new 
agency has had some formidable hurdles 
in its way. For example, the evaluation 
conference noted that the well-drilling 
program, using high speed drills new in 
India, would have accomplished far more 
had the crews been more adequately 
trained and the lines of authority more 
clearly defined. Special attention is to 
be given to safeguarding the S2 million 
worth of equipment now in use. 

Recurring drought: At the conference 
it was made clear that while a bumper 
crop had been produced in 1967-68 
largely due to good rainfall, drought 
again has hit large areas. Adequate 
agricultural development in India must 
depend to a large degree on ii-rigation, 
especially from new underground water 
resources, according to AFPRO findings. 

The Church of the Brethren has bene- 
fited in its owai agricultural work in 
India through the distribution of fer- 
tilizer and equipment for well improve- 
ment. George Mason and Shantilal 
Bhagat at the Rural Service Center at 
Anklesvar worked particularly as con- 
sultants in the soil conservation and ex- 
tension progi-ams of AFPRO in its forma- 
tive stage. 

Included among the member and sup- 
porting organizations are Protestant and 
Catholic agencies, among them the 
World Council of Churches, Caritas In- 
ternational, Catholic Rehef Services 
(U.S.A.), and OXFAM, a British over- 
seas agency. The way was cleared at 
New Delhi to expand tlie membersliip to 
include Church World Service, for which 
Mr. Rhoades has been the representative. 

In gearing up for a second buenmal 
run, AFPRO proposed to take on new- 
pilot activities related to food develop- 
ment and to step up collaboration with 
governmental and other agencies. A spe- 
cial project under way in three distiicts 
of Maharastra, concerned with under- 
ground water sur\ey, well construction, 
and short-term production credit for fer- 
tilizers to farmers having 10 acres or less, 
will enlist church-related and voluntary 
efforts and local governments in joint ac- 

Validation: The 42 persons from nine 
countries wh.o met at the evaluation con- 
ference were to weigh whether the as- 
sumptions on which AFPRO was founded 
were still valid or whether a new and 
different sh'ucture was needed. In their 
estimation, the experiment has been 
sound. AFPRO has passed the entrance 
exam, so to speak. But toward making 
a major impact on India's food needs, 
hard tests are still ahead. 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 15 





"Our business" says John Yoder, 
'is to be turning the church right side up' 

Are the historic peace chxirches a 
footnote to history? 

And if they are, do they still have a 
chance to climb upstairs into the main 

Sixty persons pondered these questions 
in November at New Windsor, Md., in 
a consultation of Mennonites, Friends, 
and Brethren. They searched for their 
identity as peace churches who don't 
know whether they always want to be 
talking about peace. 

But they talked about the days when 
they were changing the course of world 
events. And since they don't seem to 
be doing that today, they talked about 
having missed the boat. To catch the 
boat would mean becoming the model 
of the new society that the whole world 
needs. That won't be easy, as the group 
discovered when it tiied to show how 
a new society treats dissent. 

An exciting option: John Howard 
Yoder, professor of theology at Associated 
Mennonite BibUcal Seminaries, Elkhart, 
Ind., raised some of these hard questions 
for the group and suggested some 
harder answers. 

"The boat which we have just missed" 
broke up in the Vietnam tryranny and 

ran agroimd in the shoals of the racial- 
urban crisis of America's cities. 

"These two great sores of our North 
American society," said Yoder, "have 
been in such a condition in the last 
years that a genuinely Christian testi- 
mony incarnated in a believers' church 
style of reconciling life would have been 
an exciting option to hosts of questing 
persons, not only youth." 

These people, a few years ago, held a 
simple and idealistic pacifist vision and 
had an uncomplicated dream of an inte- 
grated society. Neither worked out that 
way. Vietnam was escalated and tlie 
cities burned. Now many of the dreamers 
are bitterly committed to disruption and 
even violence to destroy the old society 
in hopes that a new order will rise from 
its ashes. 

Mennonites, Friends, and Brethren can 
trace their history back to the radical 
streams, of the Protestant Reformation. 
It was the Anabaptists who saw that 
neither Luther nor Zwingii went far 
enough in reforming the church. For 
they were content to continue the old 
ties of the church with the state. 

"Other Christian groups accept war 
because they assume the church is seek- 

ing to run society in collaboration with 
the state," said Yoder. 

But the peace churches have come to 
their position not only because they fol- 
low the teachings of Jesus for the way 
of love and against the way of violence 
hut because of their view of the church 
and the state. "They have refused to 
commit themselves to saving the sov- 
ereignty of a given form of government," 
Yoder said. 

He added, "What peiTnitted Friends, 
Brethren, and Mennonites in their forma- 
tive periods to come out with a definite 
position of refusal to bear the sword 
was not a particular reading on the ethi- 
cal (}uestion but a view of the church." 

A missionary minority: They saw the 
church as "free from the state as a mis- 
sionary minority in a society which they 
did not assume to be Christian when 
everyone else did." 

The radical ancestors of today's his- 
toric peace churches spread with wild 
contagion through Europe before perse- 
cution from the established churches cut 
them down in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. They had the course 
of history against them. 

But now things have changed. The 

16 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

alliance between church and state, which 
began with Constantine in 313, cracked 
in the Protestant RefoiTnation and all 
but completed its crumbling in the recent 
Vatican Council. 

Says Yoder, "There are Catholics cre- 
ating underground congregations which 
are in many ways Anabaptist cells. There 
are Lutheran pastors in Germany refus- 
ing to baptize the children of their pa- 
rishioners at the point of being dis- 
ciphned. There are Lutheran and Cath- 
olic peace movements with high cliristol- 
ogies and theological maturity. There is 
more openness to hear our wibiess than 
we have capacity to speak it to other 

The so-called mainstream of Christi- 
anity thus needs a radical Reformation 
type of church. Now is the season for 
the historic peace church that flourished 
best when it was out of season. 

"Should not those churches who have 
been arguing on theological grounds for 
the necessity of this position not be 
able to provide some guidance and 
testimony," asks Yoder, "when churches 
and theologians are coming around to the 
same conviction on practical grounds?" 

But when the time came for the peace 
churches to act, they couldn't even speak 
up. They could criticize the weaknesses 
of the Vietnam student pacifists and the 
Sebna integrationists, but they weren't 
providing any answers. 

Had the peace churches "invested their 
best creativity and personnel in the past 
five years," this frontier might have "been 
one of those fast-growing edges" and a 
ready-to-mine vein in our society where 
something like the original Anabaptism 
could have flamed up again." 

The church's business: Why did the 
peace churches miss the boat? "We were 
rewriting our constitutions. We were 
minding the store. We were providing 
for balance and continuity. But accord- 
ing to the radical reformation vision of 
the Mennonites, Quakers, and Brethren, 
minding the store is not the business of 
the church. The devil and the powers 
of the present age and the apostate 
churches take care of that," said Yoder. 

It was the Anabaptvsts who saw that 
neither Luther nor Zwingli went far 
enough in reforming the church 

"Our business is to be turning the 
church right side up." 

But the job doesn't get done, largely 
because the historic peace churches don't 
see this as their job. 

In calling the consultation to New 
Windsor, Lorton G. Heusel, chairman 
of the planning committee and general 
secretai-y of Friends United Meeting, 
Richmond, Ind., admitted that the peace 
churches had not lived up to their his- 
torical role of working as agents of 
change in society. 

"While we once shared the con\iction 
that our calling was to radical obedience," 
he said, "today we all find difficulty in 
maintaining unity within our traditions. 
In fact, acts of obedience acting out the 
gospel frequently become sources of dis- 

Dorothy Hutchinson, Jenkintown, Pa., 
a member of the Society of Friends, re- 
ported on one such act that has caused 
dissent in Quaker circles. And the New 
Windsor group had its own experiences of 

Now is the season for the historic peace 

church that flourished hesi when 

it was out of season 

how one person's obedience is another's 
bitter pill. 

Considerable friction has been experi- 
enced in Quaker groups o\er the matter 
of selecti\e conscientious objection to war 
and to draft resistance, "especially when 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 17 


it leads into law-breaking, the burning 
or returning of draft cards, the blocking 
of induction centers." 

Said Dorothy, "We are being taken 
back to a period in our career when we 
were not so respectable and when the 
law had not fitted itself to our needs as 
conscientious objectors." 

The most dramatic expression came to 
the Society of Friends and to all Ameri- 
cans in the Quaker Action Group's send- 
ing of medical supplies to North Vietnam, 
supplies which cost about what eleven 
seconds of the \'ietaam war costs the 
United States Government. 

"But what a hullabaloo there was 
about it because it was aid and comfort 
to the enemy," said Dorothy, "and how 
we liad to search our souls and still do; 
and we're di\ided within the Society of 
Friends as to whether this was a legiti- 
mate act of merc\' or not." 

Divisive obedience: But e\en words 
about obedience can be divisive. Spurred 
on by the youth delegates to the con- 
sultation, a group at New Windsor pre- 
pared a brief statement calHng for "crea- 
tive and Christian responses to people 
li\'ing in om- ghettos" and for "counsel- 
ing on the draft and nonpa\ment of war 
taxes for those who need it." 

More contro\'ersial was a suggestion 
of "support to those called to resist the 
draft or to lea\e the aimed forces, and 
to offer sanctuary for them if necessary." 

For one hour, the delegates to the 
consultation debated, indirectly, the 
statement but more directK- whether the 
statement might not rip the fabric of 
historic peace church fellowship. Meet- 
ings of the churches ha\e been infre- 
quent and for the first time nine members 
of the three traditions had come to- 
gether at one place. 

"If we make a statement," said Virgil 
Inghram of the Brethren Church, "there 
is no pro\ision for a \oice of dissent." 
He felt as did others that tlie groups with 
a recent history of less activism in the 
peace arena were being coerced and that 
their groups would be less willing to take 
part in future talks. Inghram lamented 
that there didn't seem to be room in the 
"hard core for those who are on the 

Supporters of the statement felt that 
it could open up a cutting edge of peace 
church witness to antiwar groups and 
students looking for help. Said Bill 
Medlin, a Quaker student from Kokomo, 
Ind., "The boat is here. Don't let it go 

Speaking for the Brethren in Christ, 
John E. Zercher, Nappanee, Ind., said he 
represented a group that would be un- 
happy if the statement were adopted. He 
asked, "Would it not be possible to re- 
ceive this as a report from a concerned 
group without giving it official approval?" 

And so it was laid into the record 
without a vote or note of consensus. 
Francis G. Browii, a Philadelphia Friend, 
noted that the discussion of the different 
views of the peace witness had been 
beneficial. But he added, "I would hope 
that the record would show that we did 
more than receive this thing. It almost 
broke us." 

And Walter Klaassen, a Mennonite 

"There is more openness to hear our 
witness than we have capacity to speak 
it to other Christians" 

from Ontario, observed, "I understand 
now what Jesus meant when he said, 'I 
ha\e not come to bring peace but a 
sword.' " 

What also seemed to be coming 
through was the implication that the 
peace witness may well be a minorit^• 
position even within the peace churches 
who themselves are minorit\- groups al- 

Ydder saw the inability of the peace 
churches to "move into a wihiess vacuum" 
such as the Vietnam and urban crises as 
a sign of uncertaint\' about evangelical 
pacifism. He asked, "Does it not suggest 
that, for many of us. the rejection of 
war is a negative, embarrassing legalism 
rather than a proclamation of the good 
news that God loves his enemies and 
carries irv along in his suffering ser\'ant- 
hood? Does it not suggest that we have 
ourseK es linked lo\e of enemies with non- 
drinking. ]iondancing, and other kinds of 
nonfun as a renunciation demanded by 
God but not really as a gift of the 

A gospel vision: But the consultation 
was still stirred b\ a gospel \ision. "The 
option for us as the radical reformation 
churches, ' said T. Canb\ Jones, a Quaker 
scholar from Wilmington, Ohio, "is to be 
the new society. This is not going to be 1 
any withdrawn cultural Quakerism, Men- 
nonitism, or Brethrenism out of which the ' 
flame and mission has died. It is going to 
be the revolutionaiy people of God." 

Dale Brown. Bethany Theological 
Seminary, Oak Brook, 111., saw the peace | 
churches with the "unique role of being 
a catalyst or gadfly or guerrilla-type | 
operation within Protestantism. " 

He added, "We do have a lot of 
dialogue that needs to take place with 
the evangelicals, because they take the 
Bible seriously. On the other hand, we 
have a lot of dialogue that needs to take 
place with those who are very much 
concerned about society — the so-called 
liberal Christians or mainstream Chris- 

Another dialogue would be with uni- 
versity students. G. Wayne Zunkel, 
Church of the Brethren pastor from 

18 MESSENGER 1-16-69 


Brethren personalities 
in the current scene 

Hairisburg, Pa., saw the possibiliU" of a 
witness program de\eloped as a "religious 
version of Students for a Democratic 
Society." Rather than sending chaplains 
to university campuses as most large 
denominations have done, he suggested 
that the peace churches help students 
come together for a shared life of study 
and action. "This would not simply be to 
nurture our own \outh but to become 
evangelistic for the free church style 
and the peace concern that we have on 
the unixersity campus." 

Common witness: The consultation 
looks forward to some common peace 
church efforts. They expressed the hope 
that Brethren, Friends, and Mennonites 
might work together to prepare a witness 
against military conscription. 

Hope was expressed that "a serious 
study be made of the economic structure 
that makes po\ert\' possible in our society 
and the kind of legislation that would 
alter the inequities." 

Bible stud\' conferences, youth meet- 
ings, and a study of what it means to 
be a historic peace church were placed 
on the list of futme projects. 

William G. Willoughby, Chm-ch of the 
Brethren professor from Bridgewater, Va., 
suggested a world conference of "lay 
people to speak to the governments of 
the world." He felt that at this critical 
juncture of history, "a gathering of people 
who might speak from , their hearts" 
might be the fulfillment of a prophetic 

Nine groups representing one of the 
three historic peace church traditions 
sent sixty representatives to the Novem- 
ber 19-21 meeting. The groups were: the 
Mennonite General Conference, Scott- 
dale, Pa.; the General Conference Men- 
nonite Church, Newton, Kan.; the 
Mennonite Brethren Churches, Hillsboro, 
Kan.; the Brethren in Christ, Nappanee, 
Ind.; the Friends General Conference, 
Philadelphia; Friends United Meeting, 
Richmond, Ind.; the Brethren Church, 
Ashland, Ohio; and the Church of the 
Brethren, Elgin, 111. The unaffiliated 
meetings of the Society of Friends were 
also represented. — Maynard Shelly 

Game creator 

DEPLOYED TO THE NIGERIA-BIAFRA war zone for medical relief min- 
istries to date have been se\'en Cliurch of tlie Brethren workers. Missionaries 
Grayce Brumbaugh and Mary Dadisman are scheduled to conclude a month's 
service in the Port Harcourt area in mid-January. Theological college students 
John Guli, Zira Diah, and Ishaku Kwambila, the latter also a pastor, have taken 
a two-month school holiday to serve on relief teams. 1-W Ron Bosserman, Peace 
Valley, Mo., was transferred from Garkida, Nigeria, to the conflict zone for at 
least a three-month stint with the International Red Cross. General Board membei- 
Charles M. Bieber, a Hummelstown, Pa. pastor, was the first Brethren to enter 
the area, having completed a three-month medical assignment there in the fall. 

IF THE NEW GAME OF "SNAG" came into your 
home this Christmas, \'ou may be interested in its origin. 
The game is tlie invention of Irvin K. Hauseman, Potts- 
town, Pa., who has had a hobby of creating games for 30 
years. Snag is his first to be marketed. The 55-year-old 
Hauseman, emplo>ed at a plating works, is a member of 
the Pottstown Church of the Brethren, chairman of 
its deacon board, and on the North Atlantic district 

LITERACY ON TELEVISION, actually teaching a 
group of adults to read, was a daily, three-week project 
in\olving Edna Switzer, Church of the Brethren mission- 
ary in Ecuador. "What eagerness to learn!" she said of 
the on-camera class. Sponsored h\ Alfalit, an adult literacy program, the venture 
was aimed at stimulating \iewer interest in learning to read. In another recent 
assignment for Alfalit, Miss Switzer and Ecuadorian aides prepared a bilingual 
primer in Quichua and Spanish, the foimcr the language most common to highland 
Indians in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru. 

WHILE CAMPAIGNING IN THE FALL, President-elect Richard U. Nixon 
was greeted b\' the Nick Farr Family Band as he opened his Pennsylvania tour. 
The candidate stepped across the laarriers to embrace Mrs. Farr and to talk with the 
children. The Farr family's concert appearances bax'e taken on even a greater pace 
in recent months, in part the outgrowth of an Aug. 29 Messenger stoiy. 

A TRIBUTE to the late K. O. Thralls was given in Gushing, Okla., by the 
community in designating its fall barbecue in honor of the former minister. The 
yearly event, begun by the nearby Big Creek Church of the Brethren and now for 
several years sponsored jointly with the Lions Club of Gushing, benefits two state 
projects, the lOA Ranch, and the Oklahoma Eye Bank, with proceeds of more than 
$2,000. Mr. Thralls was pastor of the Big Creek Church when the Men's Fellowship 
put on tlie first barbecue in 1961. The second >-ear was almost a disaster, when the 
pit was opened and a discovery made that the chunks of frozen meat, instead of 
cooking, had extinguished the coals. Rainchecks were issued for one day later, a 
Sunday, at which time pastors of neighboring churches exhorted theii- parishioners 
to go out and help the Brethren "get the ox out of the ditch." At the event this 
fall, a plaque was presented to Mrs. Thralls, the widow, in "memory of a humani- 
tarian, K. O. Thralls." 

"EVERYWHERE I WENT IN NIGERIA I was a.sked about my relationsliip 
to the late President Kennedy's family," commented Hazel M. Kemiedy, editor of 
children's publications currently on leave. "I always replied that the famous 
Kennedys are rich and I am poor." Then with only a slight pause she usually would 
add, "However, I am rich in the opportunities aft'orded me by this firsthand en- 
counter with churchmen of other lands." 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 19 

day by day 

As CHILDREN we Were thrilled when 
guests visited in our home. Some came 
for Sunday dinner, while others spent 
the night or even a week. These \isitors 
might be a traveling evangelist, a mis- 
sionai-y on furlough, district or Brother- 
hood staff persons, or relatives and 

Our minds were enriched as we en- 
gaged in dialogue with those outside the 
family circle. Our horizons were lifted 
as we listened to them talk of faraway 
places and different cultures. 

Hospitality is a commendable Chris- 
tian virtue. Jesus instructed his disciples 
in its use. It was practiced by the early 
church and recommended by the authors 
of the New Testament epistles. To be a 
widow in good standing, it was necessary 
to have entertained others of the faith 
in your home. 

Jet flights and superhighways have 
hastened our traveling pace. Many mo- 
tels and camp sites have lessened the 
need of practicing hospitality. 

In this impersonal world, many feel 
that they are just numbers on a card, or 
cogs in a machine. The face-to-face rela- 
tionships in which hosts and guests en- 
gage can be as a refreshing breeze on a 
humid day. 

Suggested activities 

1. In\'ite a new family in your commu- 
nity to your home for a meal. It is es- 
pecially appreciated if they are moving 
in and are still unpacking. 

2. Explore the possibility of having an 
exchange student in your home. Write 
the Brethren Service Center for informa- 
tion. Other groups also sponsor them. 

3. Have a brotherhood dinner by in- 
viting several guests of different social 
background. Plan a simple meal. Give 
attention to learning about the ideas and 
thoughts of others. 

4. Offer room and board to the visiting 
minister, missionary, evangelist, and dis- 

trict and Brotherhood staff persons when 
they are in your area. 

5. Let each child in the family invite 
a special guest to spend the night. This 
should be staggered so that all the chil- 
dren do not have company at the same 

6. Plan a part)' to which you invite 
those who are normally left out of such 
affairs. Persons in wheelchairs or others 
with limited disability appreciate such 

7. Open your home to an orphan child 
or some persons that need a place to 
live. Your local welfare office or pastor 
might suggest someone. 

8. Plan a progi-essive dinner for your 
church school class or circle. Place the 
emphasis on fellowship and hospitalit\ , 
not on the food. \ 

9. Invite a new family in the church 
to a meal. Have another family come to 
enlarge the circle of friendship. — Paul | 
AND Mary Lee White 

DAILY READING GUIDE January 19 -February 1 

Suntlay. Gen. 19:1-8. How to treat your guests 

Monday. Gen. 29:1-20. Guest help rWe host 

Tuesday. Gen. 47:1-12. Visitors in a foreign country 

Wednesday. 1 Kings 17:17-24. Keeping the preacher in your home 

Thursday, iulw 2:1-7. No room for Jesus 

rriday. Mark 14:3-9. Jesus, a guest at Simon's 

Saturday. Luke 10:5-12. Instructions for traveling evangelists 

Sunday. Luke 10:38-42. How to be a good hostess 

Monday. Luke 14:12-15. Whom to have as guests 

Tu'es'day. Luke 5:27-32. A banquet for Jesus 

Wednesday. Acts 10:1-16. Visiting with the outcast 

Thursday. Acts 16:25-32. Witness as you visit 

Friday. 1 Tim.. 3:1-5. Church leaders should entertain 

Saturday. Heb. 13:1-3. Surprise company 


20 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

Crossword Puzzle 

by John and Carol Conner 





Second of a series 




Stream of water 


Sleeping noise 




End of dress 


Small mass 


Royal (abbr.) 


Case in law 


Beastly man 






At present 


In favor of 


Word that says no 


Room for scientific work 






Palm fruits 


Roof edges 


Acceleration tester 











Or not 






Male singer 


Ostentatiously artistic 


Evergreen tree 


Detecting and ranging instrument 




To season skins 


More than nine 


Is in need of 


Prickly pear 


Talk grandly 


Kind of tree 


Transparent liquid 




Golf ball stand 




Warm color 


Drink like a dog 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 21 

Memos to the Chief of Demons from one of his operator^ 

Communique No. 1 

Dear Chief; 

Having been so recently assigned to this objective, I have 
only a few observations to make in this original report. My 
first IS that I would have preferred a not detail; that's 
where the action is. 

My next observation is that I must choose my victims 
carefully. Those who succumb to major temptations are not 
the greatest influence; in fact, it works quite the opposite. 
I thought 1 had scored a major victory when I persuaded a 
minister to leave his wife and family for a femme fatale, 
and at first it did seem to shake the faith of some of the 
members of his flock (especially the women; men, I find, 
are less critical; one even admitted he wished he had nerve 
enough to follow his pastor's example). However^ the 
overall effect was disappointing. If a man goes all the way 
in his sinning, he loses much of his following. But if he 
can be tempted to deviate just enough to be something less 
than the Christian ideal -say ninety-seven right and three 
wrong- he can continue to be a member in good standing 
and can usually convince his associates that they can 
safely follow the pattern of behavior he sets. 

If I can persuade a solid family man and devout church- 
goer to be just slightly prejudiced or slightly dishonest or 
slightly immoral, those who look to him as their model will 
eagerly excuse their own shortcomings and feel that they 
are doing a pretty good job of maintaining their Christian 
image. This is a slow process, of course, but eventually 
the percentages add up. 

My final observation is that people are often more 
original m their approach to sin than we devils ever 
dreamed of making them. For example, there's this recent 
convert ... but I'll save that for the next time. In 
another month I should be able to give you an in-depth re- 
port on the far-reaching effects of his particular hangup. 
-Operator 787 

This IS a. series of rrporls tuhtch fell ?nto our ha7ids 
wholly b !j arc ideiit . We have attetnptefi to ascerta/n 
the ndjne of Operator 787 but his, or her, identity re- 
mains hidden. — EDITOR 

Communique No. 2 

Dear Chief: 

In the last report I promised to give you the case history q 
a convert. I wish I could take credit for his deterioration,.' 
but as I mentioned previously, the human mind can con- 
ceive ways of sinning that often surpass our most advance 
logic. It's all very beautiful ... but humbling. 

Convert X was an eloquent swearer prior to his conver , 
sion. He had an amazing repertoire, especially when he w; 
angry- which was often -but he was also a do-gooder and| 
a nice family guy. He was an extraordinarily helpful hus-i 
band- the kind who wasn't afraid to be caught doing dishtj 
or cleaning the bathtub- and he enjoyed playing touch foq 
ball or going fishing with his teen-age sons. | 

His wife, a Christian since childhood, admitted he was| 
a good husband and father, but she was sure that anyone i 
with such a temper and bent for profanity could not expect 
favor at the judgment bar. And so she prayed ardently for 
his reform. When he finally consented to attend church wii 
her, she felt her prayers were at last being answered. 

Well . . . she's getting more than she bargained for. H^s 
had one of those rare experiences that changes lives. He 
given up his bad habits and goes to church every time the 
doors are open. Already he's been elected to serve on si>i 
committeesi When his wife reminds him that he is neglectjg 
her and his family he just says that he has much lost timfj 
to make up for and that she should be pleased that he is 
taking his religion seriously. She's not so sure she 
wouldn't rather have him the way he used to be . . . par- 
ticularly since the boys are beginning to hang around the 
pool hall evenings. 

You see. Chief, what I mean about human ingenuity? 
one on the staff would have thought of using the Opposi 
tion's own tools to wage war, but this convert did. And h 
feels very virtuous. He doesn't see that busywork is kee 
ing him from being a "Good Samaritan" ... and I have 
reason to believe he will eventually become a full-fledgeB;:".' 
Pharisee. Be that as it may, he is doing an excellent job 
of making three people lose their religion because he has 
found his. With this kind of revolution who needs riots? 
- Operator 787 


Communique No. 3 

iar Chief: 

osely related to tlie committee Christian who neglects 
mily and friends for church functions is the scholar-saint, 
n watching with pleasure the development of several in my 

For these eager academicians the whole point of religion 
to be an authority on scripture and history and all other 
bjects even remotely related to the theological scene. It 
n begin with a seemingly innocuous practice, like 
imorizing Bible verses in church school. Parents and 
stors alike are apt to equate good memory with goodness, 
d the child who can recite the most Psalms or list all the 
oks of the Old and New Testaments is often held up as 
example for other junior Christians- despite the fact he 
ly be the most obnoxious kid in the neightiorhood. It's not 
rprising that he may grow up believing that a knowledge of 
cred writ is the prime requirement for salvation. 
' It isn't always the child wonder, however, who gets off on 
academic tangent. An adult convert can be just as sus- 
ptible. A certain amount of study is mandatory for mem- 
fship in most churches. Like studying for finals, the 
jority of proselytes learn only what is required and then 
get it when the occasion is past. Not so with the 
tiolar. He studies all the fine points and treasures them, 
'enjoys being regarded as a savant, and in order to 
i:ablish himself in this role he will not hesitate to cor- 
;t others m his church school class ... or supply a vast 
ount of information without being asked. 
At the peak of the pile is the self-taught theologian who 
1 quote Barth through Tillich with complete confidence. 
w this in itself- from our point of view- is no big deal, 
;ept that it often irritates less scholarly Christians. What 
important is that his preoccupation with theological trivia 
;es all his spare time. He not only fails to develop com- 
nity consciousness but - for the most part - isn't even 
are of society around him. If there are human needs to be 
t on the street outside his window he never sees them, 
;ause his eyes are always on the book. 
I don't expect to claim many for our side by this distrac- 
n, but I do anticipate recruiting a few who could be won 
no other way. You know how it is. Boss. You've got to 
ly all the angles.- Operator 787 

Communique No. 4 

Dear Chief: 

Before I begin my report on the undermining of marriage, let 
me share with you an observation: The desired end of a miser- 
able marriage is not necessarily divorce. There's always the 
possibility that the disunited will find new partners with 
whom they'll be happier. The object, as I see it, is to keep 
two incompatible people living together and loathing each 
other more and more as the years go by. They will feel very 
noble about not dissolving their marriage, but they may well 
destroy their souls in the process of maintaining it. 

It can all begin very innocently. Opposites attract . . . 
fortunately! Before a man and woman marry they are too pre- 
occupied with being in love to notice their differences, but 
once they become immersed in making a living instead of 
making love the moment of truth is inevitable. He discovers 
that she is a lousy cook, and she realizes he is a snorer. Or 
maybe she likes the room temperature to be seventy-eight 
degrees- with no draft coming in the window, and he sleeps 
best at sixty degrees with plenty of fresh air. Or she prefers 
a soft mattress, but he insists on a firm one. 

These differences are sufficient to drive them to separate 
beds- or bedrooms. But it is best if they remain together. 
Then on nights when she is restless, she will pull the cover 
of self-pity over her and think, "If he really loved me he 
would shut that window and buy a new mattress and sleep 
on his stomach so he wouldn't snore." And when he is 
battling midnight indigestion brought on by eating soggy pie- 
crust, he will wistfully remember the other girl he dated 
whose pies were a gastronomic delight. 

Money is an excellent source of contention, too. I'm 
always elated to see a spendthrift and a careful budgeteer 
marry. This works especially well when both continue to 
work after marriage and then -just when they are thoroughly 
oriented to a double income- a baby arrives, and three have 
to get by on one inadequate paycheck. 

The list of possibilities is endless. All I have to do is 
plant the seed of irritation, and a rich harvest of unhappiness 
is sure to follow. Maybe it's beginner's luck. Maybe it's na- 
tive talent. Or maybe it's just that I'm a lucky deviH 
-OP^^^*°^^87 ^^„,.„„^^ 



Communique No. 5 

Dear Chief: 

You say that you detect signs of increasing egotism in my 
last report. Blame it on environment. After all, I operate in 
a society where ego is the major motivation; I could hardly 
be expected to remain uncontaminated. 

However harmful it may be to my infernal character, ego 
is my best stock in trade. One of its greatest assets is that 
people seldom recognize its influence. For example, the 
overzealous convert on whom I reported several months ago 
does not realize that the reason for his eagerness to serve 
IS actually self-gratification. Never did he receive as much 
adulation from his family or friends when he helped them as 
he gets from his brothers and sisters in the church. His con- 
version caused the first wave of commendation, of course. 
That was so rewarding that he eagerly accepts any oppor- 
tunity for further praise. And, oh, he's a climber! At first he 
was happy just to serve on a committee; now he has designs 
on the chairmanship. 

What- do you suppose- leads so many Christians to sing 
in the choir? You can't honestly believe it's their desire to 
praise the Lord! The robes, the stately marching in and 
marching out, the being part of a special group ... all these 
are status symbols. For that matter, so is ushering ... and 
teaching ... and even preaching. To be seen and heard and 
complimented ... how sweet it is! 

On the other hand, wounded ego can make the staunchest 
Christian look for beams in his brothers' eyes. Let him do a 
job for which someone else gets credit- or for which no one 
expresses appreciation- and his whole character can change. 

I haven't decided which is more effective- too much or 
too little attention. Either way, ego is my ally. Don' t knock 
it.- Operator 787 

Communique No. 6 

Dear Chief: 

I am just discovering the value of that simple garden tool, 

temptation. It's as good today as it was in Eden. 

1 wonder, sometimes, if the Opposition knew what he was 
doing when he made curiosity a part of the human composi- 
tion. I realize that it is responsible for many discoveries 
that have aided his Cause, but it is also the vulnerable spot 
into which the wedge of temptation can be driven to disinte- 
grate character. 

For instance, I have found that many adolescents try all 
sorts of ridiculous things- from sneaking smokes to sniffing 
glue-simply because they want to know "how it feels." 
The more they are told not to, the more they want to do it. In 
their teens they play around with stronger stuff- liquor and 
LSD. When the law joins forces with church and home in 
establishing limits, the urge to try off-limit temptations be- 
comes almost a compulsion. 

And what a lovely variety of enticements sex provides! 
It's one of the most enduring of all implements too. From the 
time a child discovers the dual division of humanity until he 
-or she- is too senile to think at all, I can arrange for some 
sort of temptation. Thanks to the monogamous system en- 
dorsed by Christians, 1 am able to tantalize a good fifty per- 
cent of my charges with forbidden pleasantries. Most of them 
only think about it, of course, but this pays its own variety 
of dividends. Frustration can disturb the emotions almost as 
much as outright infidelity. 

For some the temptation to possess things can undo years 
of Christian indoctrination. Few rob banks or forge checks to 
get these goodies- and this is as it should be; a man behind 
bars can be of little help to me. It's the subtle stealing- the 
not-quite-ethical-but-still-legal kind that I encourage. 

If I can find no other way to tempt the faithful, I can often 
get them to yield to meddling in other people's lives. This, 
too, is stimulated by curiosity. Many a churchgoer who un- 
compromisingly resists all the more obvious temptations can 
get hooked on busybodying ... and what delightful dissen- 
sion that can lead to! 

My work goes well. I envy no other devil his assignment. 
-Operator 787 

readers write 


The following prayer was composed and 
read by my husband for our family Thanks- 
giving dinner. I was so moved by it that 
I want to share it with others. 

"We pause, O Lord, to return thanks, 
each in his own way and for his own rea- 
sons. We are grateful for each person 
here, not alone for himself but as he repre- 
sents the kinship of all mankind. We are 
thankful for this meal, not only for the 
food itself but as it symbohzes all the 
blessings we have. Amen." 

Virginia Reader 


I have just finished reading the editorial 
"Everything Nailed Down Is Coming Loose" 
(Nov. 21), and I wonder if it couldn't also 
have been written by a Jew in the time 
of Christ. 

Indeed, Jesus spent his life shaking up 
the status quo and tearing loose that 
which was nailed down. He did not try 
to contain his love in a building or a 
system but tried to teach a way of life 
that is a fluid, changing, growing tiling. 
To how many of us has Christianity become 
a way of worship of a Christ who never 
wanted to be worshiped? Was it not he 
who said, "Why do you call me good? 
There is only One who is good"? 

In fact, did he not call us to lay aside 
our nets which snare security and follow 
him? In doing so, we receive the greatest 
of all security — the "pearl of great price" 
— inner peace which no man can tear 

Janet Swihaht 
Osceola, Iowa 


Having just returned from the Seventh 
Annual Laymen's Retreat of the Interdis- 
trict (Central Region) Church of the 
Brethren Men's Fellowship, held at Winona 
Lake, Ind., I am prompted to write some 
personal reactions. 

In the first place, to me this was one of 
the most profitable and inspiring of any 
such retreat that has been held. The ac- 
commodations were splendid; the fine spir- 
it and Christian fellowship which prevailed 
throughout the entire weekend left little 
to be desired. 

The cabinet, under the able leadership of 
Chnt I. Heckert of Elgin, 111., along with 

Continued from page 1 

his staff of assistants, had the program of 
activities so well organized that there was 
no lost time. Also, the leadership for the 
devotional and the lecture periods was well 

This retreat was not designed as a 
group dynamics or human relations lab 
but rather for the purpose of gaining new 
spiritual values and insights from one an- 
otlier. Our spiritual lives were deepened 
and enriched because of these experiences. 
Dr. Harper Will and Dr. Loren Bowman, 
serving as lecturers and resource leaders, 
were at their best as they stimulated our 
thinking and helped us to look at ourselves 
closely and to live with ourselves in these 
days of crisis. I can coiumend such a 
retreat to all who are in search of person- 
al enrichment. 

Allen Weldy 
North Manchester, Ind. 


I thank you for running a review of my 
book, Kierkegaard and Radical Disciple- 
ship, and Wayne Click for speaking as 
frankly and honestly as he did. He was, 
it must be admitted, rather rough on me, 
calling the book "a misconceived work," "a 
contrived thesis," "a tour de force" that 
foists upon Kierkegaard a perspective tliat 
is not true to the evidence. Wayne does 
say some complimentary things about my 
scholarship; thanks, but no thanks! If his 
main contention is true, then my scholarship 
is lousy to the core; good scholarship does 
not come to utterly false conclusions. 

I would love to speak to his analysis 
point by point, but this would extend the 
discussion inordinately. Let me, then, take 
another approach. Wayne, of course, has 
every right to his opinion, but it should 
be known that to diis point I have not en- 
coimtered anodier scholar who stands witli 
him. The book has been read, commented 
upon, and reviewed by a number of first- 
rank Kierkegaard scholars: Howard A. 
Johnson, Martin Heinecken, Ronald Gregor 
Smith, William A. Johnson, and the anony- 
mous readers representing several publish- 
ers. None of these men would be naturally 
predispo,sed to the idea of linking S.K. with 
classic Protestant sectarianism; in fact, their 
backgrounds would tend to make them less 
so disposed than Wayne's would. Yet al- 
though perhaps none of them buys my 
analysis one hundred percent and although 

many do raise reservations, they all have 
received my thesis as a legitimate proposi- 
tion and as a demonstration commanding 
respect and serious attention. 

Another class of reviewers are church 
historians whose specialty is sectarian stud- 
ies. Foremost among these is Franklin H. 
Littell. John Miller of the Mennonite 
Seminary at Elkhart is another — to say 
nothing of some of our own men from 
Bethany and Manchester. None of these 
would question my analysis of either S.K. 
or sectarianism in the way tliat Wayne does. 

Although his is not one of my reviewers 
( I am sad to say ) , tliere is one more man 
who must be mentioned. I came across his 
testimony just this week. Ernst Troeltsch 
(1866-1923) was one of the greatest minds 
contributing to Christian thought during 
the period of classic hberalism, of which 
period Wayne Click is himself a recognized 
student. Troeltsch was the eminent church 
historian who researched and promulgated 
the very spectrum of church types that I 
used in my book. Troeltsch's personal sym- 
pathies were toward churchly Protestantism. 
But in the last years of his life he saw a 
radical shift coming into German theology 
in the writings of Gogarten, Barth, Brun- 
ner, etc. He saw, too, that very crucial to 
the shift was the work of Soren Kierke- 
gaard. He resisted this Kierkegaardian in- 
fluence mightily; and on what grounds? 
"Kierkegaard himself, in his ancestry and 
training as well as in mentality and ulti- 
mate direction of life, belonged in this 
realm of sectarian religion and correspond- 
ingly fought for . . . absolutely radical 
Christianity" (Ernst Troeltsch, "An Apple 
From the Tree of Kierkegaard, " in TJie 
Beginnings of Dialectical Theology, Knox, 
1968, p. 313). 

Ernst Troeltsch, out of his antisectarian 
bias, came to the same assessment of Kier- 
kegaard that I have come to out of my 
prosectarian bias. Certainly, as a com- 
mitted Brethren I have such a bias; I have 
made no attempt to hide it and in the book 
confess it in so many words. 

Vernard Eller 
La Verne, Calif. 


Feelings run high in an area where grapes 
are grown and harvested. Much is at stake 
for both growers and workers, and prob- 
lems are of the headache variety. 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 25 

READERS WRITE / coininued 

It is possible for me to cast the grower 
in the role of a tyrant. I can listen to 
the news media paint all growers as mon- 
sters out to jab all workers. I have seen 
the conditions and know some of the grow- 
ers, and they are men of integrity and men 
of compassion; they are my friends and I 
refuse to call them monsters. 

It is possible for me to cast the workers 
in die role of lily wliite angels and listen to 
the news media plead their case — and it 
needs pleading. But the case needs to be 
pled with integrity. 

I can assume the stance that the tyrant 
monster and lily white angel are true pic- 
tures and can set myself up as some kind 
of godlike judge and join in a table grape 
boycott or a picket line in favor of the 
workers. This is my privilege and I am 
free to do it — you are free to do it. How- 
ever, since I am not doing these acti\'ities, 
you may say I am a coward, afraid to antag- 
onize my grower friends. I hope this is not 
die case. 

I could paint a picture of a grower 
friend who could lose his home because of 
the "boycott" as lily wliite and cast my 
worker friends as monsters because they 
chisel with multiple welfare cards, not want- 
ing to earn over $150 for a given time lest 
they have to give up one of the cards and 
Uius reduce tlieir incomes. This also 
would not be entirely true. But isolated in- 
cidents could lie found. Then I might join 
a picket line in favor of my grower friends 
against the worker. This I will not do. 

The truth should come somewhere be- 
tween these extremes. As a member of 
the public, I should be willing to pay a 
little more for my grapes and raisins so 
grower and worker can both survive. Also, 
I should treat all these men witli dignity, 
whedier they be grower or worker. 

If the worker wants to organize and have 
his own union, there should be nothing to 
stop him from organizing. Allow the worker 
to choose. There should be some freedom 
and responsibihty for men to choose which 


Keep the faith are three words that have taken new 
meaning and haAe become deeph' engrained in my life. 
Speaking equally well in English and Spanish, John Herr, 
while guiding our Bretliren Mission Tour tlirough Ecua- 
dor, would always leave these words, "keep the faith," 
ringing in the ears of his friends. From the Andean In- 
dian peasant fanner to E.\-President Galo Plaza or U. S. 
Ambassador Core, the meaning and significance was equal- 
ly received. 

My faith in people is a growing sort of faith. It all 
started when, as a child, I was taught that "a man's word 
was as good as his bond." Faith, trust, and love for the 
Christian must be shared with others to have meaning. 

Last year as my wife and I knelt in prayer in our hotel 
room in Moscow, we felt a new sense of mission and di- 
rection. The following day, any fear whicli we might have 
had in being behind the Iron Curtain was gone. As we 
shared in our understanding of democracy, the American 
way of life, brotherhood, peace, and Christian love, faith 
in our mission became very real. Tlie warmth and 
friendliness which radiated from those Russian farm work- 
ers immediately overcame such barriers as language. Out 
mission of goodwill was accomphshed many times over 

group or union they want to hire to have 
their picking done. 

My plea is to stop dirowing brickbats at 
either grower or worker and try to work 
out sometliing mutually beneficial to bodi 
sides. My Catholic bishop friends are strug- 
gling diligently here. After getting on the 
grape boycott band wagon, they have sud- 
denly tempered their statements. Councils 
of churches have gone through agony on 
iheir stances. 

I hope to meet Caesar Chavez sometime 
personally, because I know he is trying to 
help in the best way he feels he can. 

In the meantime, I hope to eat my share 
of grapes because I like diem and because, 
in eating them, I help both my worker and 
grower friends who are brothers when you 
look at them in their labor together to 
pro\'ide food for the hungry. 

Paul E. Miller 
Fresno, Calif. 

throughout Eastern and Western Europe and the Soviet 
Union because we showed respect and love for people 
as God's children. Herein lies the secret for successful and 
effective mission whether on the diplomatic level or at the 
grass roots, people-to-people level. 

The world in which we live is dominated by competi- 
tion, not in commodities or services, not even in machines, 
but between people. My work is completely people-ori- 
ented. I meet them from the newly plowed field and cow 
stable to the plush offices of governors and V.I.P.s, and I 
ha\'e learned that faith is trust. In God alone there is 
faithfulness, and faith is the trust that we may hold to 
him. The freedom to have this trust is faith. 
". . . So faith apart from works is dead" (James 2:26). 

ENOS B. HEISEY carries responsibility 
as a field manager in public relations for 
Agway, Inc., a farm supply and market- 
ing business. An ordaiiwd minister, he 
serves his church (Spring Creek, Her.'ihey, 
Pa.) as a church school teacher and is a 
member of the Eastern District Board of 
Administration. He and his wife Jane 
took part in a Bretliren tour to Ecuador 
and led a goodwill delegation comprised 
of Pennsylvania agriculturists to Europe 
and the Soviet Union in 1967 . 

26 MESSENGER 1-16-69 


The lord's Supper Its Meaning, Its Future 

THE LORD'S SUPPER, by William Barclay. Abing- 
don Press, 1968. 128 pages, $2.75 

ON A SACRED MEAL, by Arthur A. Vogel. 
Sheed and Ward, 1968. 191 pages, $4.50 

WiLLi.'^M B.\RCL-A.Y presents a refreshing, 
scholarh' approach to this historical, 
sacramental experience. In discussing the 
meaning of sacrament , he places it in the 
categoi-y of a myster>'. In the pursuing 
chapters the noted Scottish theologian 
develops a depth analysis of each phase 
of the Lord's Supper in a manner that 
is strikingly pleasing to Church of the 
Brethren tradition, with a few exceptions. 
Dr. Barclay presents an interesting and 
logical parallehsm pointing out the re- 
lationship of the Lord's Supper to the 
ancient Passover. In a noteworthy sem- 
blance he indicates that the Passover 
meal included unleavened bread, a bowl 
of salt water, bitter herbs, a paste 
(charosheth), four cups of wine, and a 
passover lamb. The bread was un- 
leavened, he notes, because the fleeing 
Hebrew slaves did not ha\'e time for their 
bread to rise the night before the escape. 
\ After further reasoning, he concludes that 
(stronger evidence points to the fact the 
Lord's Supper was not a celebration of 
the Passover since the essential element, 
I the Passover lamb, was absent from the 
I room. It is also claimed that the trial 
lof Jesus could not have possibly been 
'held during the Passover season. 

The author presents an intriguing study 
tof such words as blood and covenant. He 
suggests the possible problems Christ 
must have had with the Hebrew-oriented 
j disciples when he said of the cup, "This 
is my blood," for the old law states, "If 
a man of the house of Israel . . . eats any 
blood, I will set my face against him." 
Dr. Barclay occasionally stuns the 
reader with some unorthodox obser- 
vations about the fellowship meal. He 
refers to the opinion that Paul changed 
the character of the Lord's Supper from 
being a fellowship meal to being "a meal 
for the dead, " such as pagans practiced. 
But he concludes that the Last Supper 
actually had "a forward look into the 

eschatological future." The meal is a 
memorial not only to what Christ had 
done but what he was about to do for 
the world on the cross and beyond. 

Dr. Barclay very capably traces the 
traditions of the celebration from the 
simple, primitive meal to the complex 
liturgy observed in some traditions today. 
He deals with tlie changes that church 
history brought about and helps the 
reader disco\er for himself why this sacra- 
ment is still centi-al and relevant in 
modern times. In his scholarly fashion 
Dr. Barclay reflects back to the day when 
Ignatius referred to the eucharistic bread 
as "the medicine of immortality, the 
antidote that we should not die, but live 
forever in Jesus Christ." The cup (blood) 
is traced in its covenant interpretation, 
and even the extreme doctrine of tran- 
substantiation is explored. Transubstan- 
tiaHon in the Roman Catholic Church 
refers to the belief that at a certain point 
in the mass the bread and wine actually 
become the body and blood of Christ. 

In his concluding chapter, "The Mean- 
ing for Today," the author summarizes 
the Lord's Supper as a sei-vice of praise 
(eucharist), covenant, and remembrance 
("do this in remembrance of me"). The 
Lord's Supper is central and vital to 
modern worship. 

\'ogers book is in a somewhat different 
vein. Regardless of the shocking title of 
this book, the author, an Episcopal clergy- 
man, aids us in a positive, restructuring 
process concerning the essential nature 
of the Last Supper. In our day of de- 
manding change. Father Vogel answers 
the question, "How can the church be 
related to the secular world?" He says, 
"By being itself." He is puzzled by the 
fact that, in our constant attempts at 
ecumenicity, the Last Supper e.xperience 
is the continuous dividing factor. For 
the author, "the eucharistic meal is the 
intimate activity and expression of the 
Christian community of faith. " 

Father Vogel uses his book to take 
the mind of an interesting journey of 
logical faith. His book is very readable. 
And let's face it, we are living in a 
secular-oriented world. He points out 

that the acceptance of the real world is 
the first condition for being a Christian. 
Perhaps an Episcopal clergyman finds 
this easier to propose than the Church 
of the Brethren ti-aditionalists. Chris- 
tianity, the author beheves, is not an 
abstract theory that tries to disguise the 
world or run away from its problems. 

In a very rational analogy. Father 
Vogel establishes the initial fact that we 
are in the world through our bodies. 
The body is the source of relationship 
with everything else. God, himself, came 
into the world through an embodied Son. 
This is incarnation. The danger for 
Christians comes when we consider the 
body as object, looking upon it as a thing. 
Man does not liavc a body; he is a body. 
The culmination of this theory occurs at 
the Last Supper when we become a 
real part of the body of Christ. As Father 
Vogel puts it: "He becomes recuirently 
present for us through our participation 
in the ongoing activity he began in his 

How does a person (a body) communi- 
cate with the world? Through words and 
language. Christ has been called God's 
last word to us ("The word became 
flesh"). Clu-istianity is the call of God 
to us — the Word breaking into our hves 
so that it can bring something new. We 
answer him in faith. The eucharist is 
our expression of faith, and Father Vogel 
suggests that we should receive the 
sacraments in a standing position. 

The author proceeds to underscore the 
need for fellowship in our modern world. 
Aware of the mass urbanization trend, 
he points out that "where the greatest 
numbers of our people are congregated, 
we frequently find the greatest degree of 
isolation." We are social creatures and 
need identity through fellowship. Eating 
itself is a mark of unity. And I like the 
climactic statement of the author which 
says; "Only friends share a meal to- 
gether; to sit at God's table is to be 
God's friend." 

What does the future hold for the Last 
Supper? If it is smothered with a 
bombardment of liturgy, it may die. The 
author is convinced that Christian unity 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 27 

will not come through further refine- 
ments of liturgy and form. But when we 
view the supper as a simple act of God's 
choosing us and our responding in faith, 
we discover the crucial reason for Chris- 
tian love, as Father Vogel expresses it: 


"No greater gift could be given us than 
that of letting us help create God's world 
by being what we are: body, word, and 
community." Thereby, communion is the 
key to ecumenical development. — James 
S. Flora 

The Shoes of the Fisherman 

The life of a man of conscience high in 
the councils of the church who is con- 
fronted by the demands of the world is 
a theme worthy of our time. Robert 
Bolt's "A Man for All Seasons" readily 
demonsti-ated that. It is therefore more 
than little cause for regret when this 
theme is handled in the stilted and sim- 
plex way of "The Shoes of the Fisher- 

Because of its structures of authority, 
its wealth of pageantry (caiTying a po- 
tential for high drama), and its high 
christology, the Roman Catholic Church 
is particularly suited for the setting for 
conflicts of conscience: Witness Bolt's 
Thomas More or Otto Premingers in- 
ferior "The Cardinal " or, in real life, the 
brothers Berrigan. "Fisherman" elevates 
this theme to the papacy itself. Kiril 
Lakota, a simple man and former pohti- 
cal prisoner, is elected Pope against his 
wishes and then discovers both that his 
power is guarded and that it can be used 
in conscientious service for the Christ. 

The film depicts Kiril I's (Anthony 
Quinn) involvement in two decisions, one 
personal and one political. A young priest, 
David Telemond (Oskar Werner), whom 
Kiril has befriended, has his work sus- 
pended because of heretical tendencies, 
and Kiril must painfully enforce the sus- 
pension. As the movie presents it. Father 
Telemond's thought (concerning evolu- 
tionary processes and the cosmic Christ) 
is blatantly parallel to that of Teilhard 

28 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

de Chardin. Although the scenes of con- 
frontation within the commission hearings 
are effective (largely due to Mr. Werner's 
finely-timed acting), the issue of freedom 
of thought within the church is never 
really joined, and the whole subplot is 
finally enmeshed in the mawkishness of 
Father Telemond's fatal illness. Thus, 
"Fisherman" eschews any relevancy to 
the current crisis of authorit\' surround- 
ing the papacy. 

Kiril's other crisis is worldwide — an 
impending nuclear confrontation precipi- 
tated by mass star\ation in China. Rus- 
sian Premier Kamenov (Laurence Oliv- 
ier) has carried a love-hate relationship 
with Kiril (he had imprisoned Kiril in 
Siberia for twenty years ) , and upon his 
foiTner prisoner's ascension, Kamenov 
asks fiim to mediate the crisis with Red 
China's Chairman Peng (Burt Kwouk). 
Kiril's response to the crisis is gratifying 
in ternis of heightening the church's so- 
cial awareness and its own sense of 
wealth, but it is also teiTibly oversimpli- 

There is also a quite superfluous sub- 
plot involving an American journalist's 
(David Janssen) affair and shaky mar- 
riage. The only instructive point here 
(and a negative one at that) comes in 
the implicit chauvinism of the journalist's 
announcement, filled with despair and 
disgust: "They've elected a Russian Pope." 

None of this works very well because 
the centering theme — crises confronting 

a man of conscience — is never brought 
to a test of dramatic integrity or credi- 
bility. A dramatically important relation- 
ship with Cardinal Leone (Leo McKern), 
who is jealous of Kiril's affection and thus 
opposes him, becomes trite when Leone 
supports him at a crucial time. One othei 
example of the film's disjointedness: 
Cardinal Rinaldi (Vittorio De Sica) in-"' 
itially backs Kiril for the papacy, yet! 
after the intermission we see no more 
of him. Budget problems'? 

As Mr. Quinn plays him, Kiril is an 
overly humble man (overt parallels tci 
Pope Jolui XXIII) with very httle com- 
prehension of or conhol over what i; 
happening aromid him. His final decisior 
is thus made incredulous on the basi; 
of what we have seen before. As Kiiil 
Mr. Quinn is all woodenness — a dilfi 
cult thing to have to watch in the mai 
who gave Zorba such zestful integrity 

There are two fine moments in thi:' 
film. When Kiril is elected and retire: 
to put on the papal robes, he then re 
turns to confront the splendor and adnla 
tion due a new Pope. The power ant 
significance of the papal office are hen 
demonstrated, as is the realization tha 
pomp and tradition can have their place 
in stirring the human soul. Later, Popi 
Kiril takes an unauthorized trip iiitc 
Rome and comes into the presence ol ; 
dying man. He and his family are Jewish 
and upon learning this. Pope Kiril begin 
to intone a Hebrew prayer, learned froii, 
a rabbi in the prison camp — a true 
touching moment of compassion reachini; 
beyond religious walls. 

With the exception of Mr. Werner anc 
Sir Laurence, the acting is eminently for 
gettable. Michael Anderson has directeo 
with a stolid hand, offering us little be 
yond several variations in shots of th^ 

To be concerned about the integrity Oj 
men confronting authority in our day i 
to hold high hopes for drama that ele 
\ates the conscience of man. Perhap - 
we will have but one "A Man for Al 
Seasons " in a decade. Surely, the cine 
matic shoes of this "Fisherman " are filleii 

with sand and clav. — Dave Pomehov 



From Canticles to Blues 

(RCA Victor) is a suite from the ballet 
Saint Francis. Without actually quoting 
from medieval tunes, Hindemith musi- 
cally evokes the spirit of the age, partic- 
ularly in dance themes but also in the 
meditative introduction and in the crown- 
ing passacagUa, a set of variations on an 
original melody symbolizing the "praises 
of all creatures" set forth in Francis' 
Canticle of the Siin. This recording, by 
fean Martinon and the Chicago Sym- 
phony Orchestra, competes with two 
splendid earlier ones by Hindemith and 
FQemperer. It has the advantage of 
itereo, and overside is an excellent per- 
formance of Bartok's The Miraculous 


Nonesuch) is a kind of instrumental 
miniature of the gripping sonorities pre- 
viously heard in this composer's St. Luke 
Passion — fierce, tender, intense. Explora- 
:ory, sometimes startUngly original, 
Penderecki's mastery of technique exists 
lot for its own sake but as a vehicle for 
Dowerful and inspired feehng. A com- 
panion work, De Natura Sonoris ("On 
the Nature of Sound"), is ostensibly even 
nore abstract, yet it, too, throbs with a 
protean musical excitement that requires 
10 program. Overside are two works 
jy Greek composer Iannis Xenakis, as 
ibstract as mathematics, yet fascinating 
md listenable. Lukas Foss conducts 
;Jie Buffalo Philharmonic in first-rate 

hARMINA BURANA: Orff (Deutsche 
irammophon) is becoming something of 

Im institution. In the past year or so it 

' las received at least two entirely different 
tagings as a ballet, hve and on television, 
•"irst recorded some years ago by Eugen 
ochum, the same conductor now returns 

: give it a new performance in stero, 
rith Fischer-Dieskau and other soloists, 
rhe jacket bears Orff's signature and the 
vord authorized. It gets my stamp of 
ipproval, too — it is a briUiant issue, 
atching all the many nuances of this 
ichly varied, scenic cantata. 

ips World Series) includes seven typical 
hymns of the regular worship service and 
thirteen for Holy Week. Of the two 
sides, perhaps the latter is easier to take, 
but virtually all selections are tepid 
nineteenth-century stuff lacking tlie pu- 
rity and vigor of the more ancient modes 
of Russian Ortliodox music. Not nearly 
enough is heard of the deep bass of Arch- 
deacon Tikhemirov in this recording by 
the choirs of the Russian Cathedral in 

THE SONG OF SONGS; Palestrina 

(Crossroads) seems to be a specialty of 
Czechoslovak performers. Of the two 
versions currently available, one is by 
the Prague Madrigal Choir and this one 
is by the Slovak Philharmonic Chorus. 
Twenty of the twenty-nine motets are 
represented here in a variety of moods, 
lyrical and serious, passionate and serene; 
and the choir varies in size from twenty- 
one to fifty to ninety voices to accord 
with the intimacy or fullness of each 
motet. If you like sixteenth-century mu- 
sic, you will find this music delicious to 
the ear. 


Walker (Vanguard) is another step in the 
direction of Indian music by the young 
guitarist-composer whose first album. 
Rainy Day Raga, was a fascinating blend 
of the rhythms and timbres of India, Iran, 
and Spain. Karmela finds Walker playing 
sarod, electric sitar, and guitar on alter- 
nate tracks, with a group consisting of 
flute, violin, tabla (drums) and tamboura 
(drone ) . Karmela is highly original — 
more an integrated synthesis than a 
blend — and it combines such unlikely 
ingredients as the sounds of American 
hoedown. Most impressive is the scope 
Walker now gives to each instrument. If 
Rainy Day Raga was the bud of a new 
species of music, Karmela is flower power 
in full musical bloom. 

siaen (RCA Victor) is described by the 
composer as "a song of love ... a hymn 

to joy." It may also be viewed as a 
double concerto for piano, Ondes 
Martenot, and large orchestra. Intensely 
abstract, abomiding in angular, statu- 
esque themes, it is a rich, many-layered 
work that will seem forbidding to most 
hsteners. Yet its more accessible sections, 
such as "Garden of Love's Sleep," offer 
a sensuous and mystical beauty that 
makes me regret to say that I find the 
symphony as a whole tiresome and over- 
blown. More exotic, yet more accessible, 
is the work on side four of this two- 
record set, Teru Takemitau's November 
Steps. Both works are ably performed 
by Seiji Ozawa and the Toronto Sym- 
phony Orchestia. 

HURT (Vanguard* is part of the legacy 
of one of America's gi-eatest singers of 
folk blues. John Hurt was a gentle and 
simple man of deep faith who tran- 
scended the racial injustices that were his 
lot in his native state. Among the thir- 
teen songs preser\'ed here are "Nearer 
My God to Thee," "Monday Morning 
Blues," and "Since I've Laid My Burden 
Down." Hurt's guitar playing and his 
singing both have the same relaxed quiet- 
ness and good nature that were charac- 
teristic of the man. This disk is one to 
keep alive your faith in human nature. — 
William Robert Miller 


FOR SALE — New hope, peace, and moderation 
pamphlet vs. despair and extremism. 15c, 2 
for 25c, 10 for $1. Enclose remittance with 
order. Paul Bechtold, 1602 Twenty-seventh St., 
Des Moines, Iowa 50310. 

NEEDED — Someone to care for invalid lady. Live 
in with family. No cleaning or cooking re- 
quired. Good pay. No nursing background re- 
quired. Write or phone collect: Ray Price, Route 
1, Plymouth, Ind. 46563. Phone 219-936-4459. 

1-16-69 MESSENGER 29 


Harold Statler this month assumed the 
executive secretai-yship of the York 
(Pa.) Council of Churches after ten 
years' service in the same post for the 
Kansas Council of Churches. . . . 
Preacher-postman Walter Coffman, for 
sixteen years pastor of the Glendale, 
Ariz., church and part-time mail carrier 
in Glendale, will retire at 70. Persons 
on his route remember him as one of a 
very few mailmen whose arrival in the 
neighborhood would be greeted with 
"The preacher is coming." 

A cross-country jog of 3,300 miles is 
to be started in June by former 
Olympic champion Bob Richards. 
Billed as the Bob Richards Fitness 
Crusade, the effort is to stimulate public 
concern in a national health program. 
The 42-year-old Richards, an executive 
of General Mills and a Brethren 
minister, will jog and bicycle over 
secondarv' roads from Los Angeles to 
New York, inviting joggers and bicyclists 
en route to join in the crusade. 

*i" *i* T* *I* *!" 

A Christmas letter from Joy and 
Everett Fasnacht, missionaries in India, 
conveys the sad infonnation that their 
son Dean was critically wounded in 
Vietnam in October. His injuries were 
severe, resulting in the loss of both 
eyes and of several fingers. After a stay 
at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, 
D.C., he expects to be hospitalized at 
Hines Memorial Hospital near Chicago. 

Howard Miller, pastor of the Dixon, 
111., church, was named pastor-adviser 
to the Dixon Church Council, an 
ecumenical group of thirteen 
congregations in the Dixon area. 

^ 4* 4- ^ + 

Two First Virginia men were ordained 
and one licensed recently to the 
ministry. Ordained were Horace Light 
Jr. at the Cave Rock church and 
Glen H. Sage at the Crab Orchard 
church. Roy McVey of Crab Orchard 
was licensed. ... In Southern Virginia 
Luther N. Hopkins was licensed to 
the ministry at the Jones Chapel church. 

Arthur Scrogum, formerly of Pasadena, 
Cahf., has moved to 21.53 Third St., 
La Verne, Calif. 91750. . . . Another 
Bretliren pastor, Leo H. Miller, has 
relocated at Miami, Fla., where he 

30 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

is serving the Miami Commimity 
church. His new address: 10855 S.W. 
Twenty-SLxth St., Miami, Fla. 33165. 
Sister Mary Corita, whose artwork 
has appeared in Messenger (July 4, 
1968), has resigned as a member of the 
Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of 
Mary and will resume her family name 
of Corita Kent. She remains a faculty 
member of Immaculate Heart College 
in Los Angeles, Calif., but will no 
longer head the art department. 

Marking a fiftieth wedding anniversary 
in December were Mr. and Mrs. Paul 
A. Stayer of Roaring Spring, Pa. . . . 
Other anniversaiy celebrants were Mr. 
and Mrs. Harley F. Hoover, Albany, 
Ohio, fifty-one; Mrs. and Mrs. Leo H. 
Miller, Miami, Fla., fifty-seven; and 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Delk, West 
Milton, Ohio, sixty. 

New Carlisle, Ohio, church member 
and free minister John B. Gump died 
Nov. 2, 1968. He was 95. 


In the Wenatchee, Wash., area. 
Brethren are considered historical 
pilgrims, according to a feature article 
in The Wenatchee Daihj World. 
commemorating the sixty-fifth an- 
niversary of the founding of Sunnyslope 
church. ... In December Astoria 
church in Illinois dedicated a new 
addition, including nine classrooms, 
pastor's study, and baptistry. 

Members of the Akron, Ind., Church 
of the Brethren have increased by sixty- 
four percent their financial commitments 
to the church. . . . Juniata College 
at Huntingdon, Pa., has received a 
$20,000 gift from the Charles A. 
Frueauff Formdation of New York City. 
The funds will go toward the cost of 
the new student center. 


The quarter-century-old Rural Life 
Association, based at Manchester College 
in Indiana, has been disbanded. The 
association emphasized the values of 
rural living and sought to improve 
conditions there tlirough annual forums 
featuiing national leaders. Leon Neher, 
Manchester College sociologist, has been 
executive director. 


Deal. Ir\in, Mesa. .Ariz., on .Aug. 23, 1968, aged H7 ; 
Doyle, Dorothy, Lima, Ohio, on Nov, 4, I'.lliH, 

aged 57 
Flora, Willie E,, Boones Mill, Va,, on Sept. i), j 

1968, aged 80 | 

Foiinnan, Rozella, Pitsburg, Ohio, on Nov. 'JM, 

Hoflman. Daniel B., Hager.siown, Md,, on Feb. Jl, 

1968, aged 75 
Miller, Ralph, Dayton, Ohio, on Nov. M, MiiiH, 

aged 72 
Nefl, Pearl, Sebring, Fla,, on July 13, 1968, a);<il 

Noflsinger, Einiiia, Defiance, Ohio, on Feb, 9. 

1968. aged 78 
Notfsinger. Henry C, Defiance, Ohio, on Sept. :10, 

1968, aged 80 ' 
Ritchey, Paul, .Sebring, Fla,, on Julv 21. 1968. 

aged 71 
Riunsey, Dennis, Lima, Ohio, on Oct. 10, I'MiS. 

aged 23 
Shafer, Lewis, Oakwood, Ohio, on Aug. 17. 1968. 

aged 89 
Snoke. Everett, Clerro Cordo, 111,, on Aug. 8, I'ti.s 
Snvder, Martin E., Defiance, Ohio, on April L'L' 

1968, aged 72 
Sollcnberger, Doris M, L, Williamsburg, Pa., on 

Sept. 16. 1968. aged 59 
Spear. Walter, Clarence. Iowa, on Julv 3, I9'',s 

aged 84 
Squance, Mrs. Wilbert, Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

on Oct. 9. 1968, aged 80 
Thompson. .Adaline. Portis. Kansas, on Oct. 13 

1968. aged 93 
Ullery. Walter. Dayton. Ohio, on Nov. 9, I'llis 

aged 55 
Walter. Ida. Lakemont, Pa., on Aug. 23. 196K 
West. .Alvin P.. Ottawa. Kansas, on Julv 21, UHlS 

aged 76 
White, Lottie, Columbiana, Ohio, on |uh lii 

1968, aged 81 
Wright, Glenn, Claysburg, Pa., on March L'n 

1968, aged 63 
Wvan, Bernice. Arcanum, Ohio, on .Aug. 25. llni.s 

aged 56 
Zuck. William. Lanark, 111., on Nov. 9. 196.''i 

aged 90 


Jan. 19-26 

Church and Economic Life 


Jan. 26 

Youth SuncJay 

Feb. 9 

Race Relations Sunday 

Feb. 16-23 

Brotherhood Week 

Feb. 19 

Ash Wednesday 

Feb. 23 

First Sunday in Lent 

March 7 

World Day of Prayer 

March 18-21 

Church of the Brethren 


March 23 

Passion Sunday 

March 30 

Palm Sunday 

April 3 

Maundy Thursday 

April 4 

Good Friday 

April 6 


April 20 

National Christian College 


The six Brethren colleges 
are being challenged... 

Juniata College 
Huntingdon, Pennsylvania 

La Verne College 
La Verne, California 

McPherson College 
McPherson, Kansas 


Elizabethtown College 
Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania 

Bridgewater College 
Bridgewater, Virginia 


Give to 


Ihe Brethren colleges are being challenged to achieve new and higher levels of academic ex- 
cellence, to create meaningful programs stressing the relevance of Christian values to learning, 
to provide the facilities needed to carry on new programs, to compete with the rapidly expand- 
ing system of tax-supported public education. The challenges are genuine, urgent, and immedi- 
ate. So, too, is the need for your support. Send your gift now to one or more of the Brethren col- 
leges. Then encourage others to join in undergirding this important aspect of Christian service. 


The Moon Can Wait 

the craft looked like a giant spider \\hen it took off 
on its final checkout Hight from Houston, Texas, recently. 
But moments later, after its test pilot had been safely 
ejected, the kmar landing vehicle was on die ground, a 
complicated pile of junk. 

The crash of one of three such trainers, designed for 
helping astronauts learn how to set down on the surface 
of the moon, was a major reverse for the Apollo lunar 
landing project. The initial news reports of the accident 
offered no explanation as to what caused the crash. 

But the news stories did make it clear that the now 
worthless trainer had cost taxpayers around $1,900,000 
which just happens to be, also in round numbers, the 
amoimt of monev Brethren are asked to contribute this 
year to oiu- Brotherhood Fund. 

A smn like $1,900,000 mav seem like a trivial part of 
the total budget for space exploration that comes close 
to six billion dollars. And even six billion may look small 
beside the 80 billion expended for military activities. But 
small though it is, the Brotherhood Fund offers an arm 
for ministry and service and witness around the world. 
It may not extend to the moon, but it does reach out in 
the direction of human need. And better yet, it helps to 
nurture man's faith in a loving creator whose mercv is 
not limited by the scope of stars. The tragic problems of 
hiunankind ought, we think, to have a prior claim on our 
dollars. Earthman needs attention now. The moon can 

Consider what $1,900,000 can do. It can supplement 
pastoral supports for more than sixty congregations. It 
can provide specialized ministries in Appalachia, among 

32 MESSENGER 1-16-69 

Navajo Indian Americans, in urban ghettos and on city 
streets, as well as among students or with the desperately 
poor. It assists in the training and guiding of 244 volun- 
teers on more than eighty projects. It helps to provide 
material aid centers for the processing of clothing and 
medical aid distributed in 40 countries. It correlates the 
services of educational and welfare institutions across the 
nation. It enables missionaries (13 in Ecuador, 19 in India, 
99 in Nigeria, 2 in Indonesia) to assist in the work of more 
than 75 congregations overseas. It extends beyond the 
limits of fonnal church activity to provide agricultural, 
medical, and emergency services to thousands of persons 
in more than a dozen countries. 

This review is sketchy at best. Even a careful exam- 
ination of the statistical and comprehensive reports sub- 
mitted regularly to the General Board and to Annual 
Conference would fail to gauge the intangible values of 
the Christian ministry that die Brotherhood Fund repre- 
sents. The total amount, given voluntarily by members 
and friends, may still appear to be microscopic when 
placed alongside the vast expenditures of our tax dollars 
for national goals. But it is money given by people, whom 
God prompts to share and even to sacrifice. And it is 
money spent on behalf of people whom God is eager to 

The Brotherhood Fund is a far crv from the kind of 
gadget that could assist men in landing on the moon. It 
is a means by which our stewardship can be exercised for 
God's glory on behalf of people. For this reason it de- 
serves a prior claim on a portion of our resources. The 
moon can wait. — k.m. 



Charles E. Mowry. $2.45 paper 

This lively, crusading book gives 
possible ansv\/ers to why young 
adults are leaving the church. 
The author knov^s and loves both 
the church and young people. He 
is very concerned that the church 
minister effectively to this "new 
generation." The first chapters 
tell briefly the conditions which 
give rise to the character of this 
new generation and discuss the 
attitudes, beliefs, and value struc- 
tures that distinguish it. Follow- 
ing chapters deal with the pres- 
ent state of the church, its nnin- 
istry to the young adults and 
their reaction to it. With this 
foundation, Mr. Mowry builds 
specific approaches and concepts 
for the program of the church. 
Final chapters offer guidelines 
and specific suggestions. 

Lawrence Carter. $3.95 

This is not another book about the inner city. 
It is the seldom-told story, from the inside, 
of a parish on the fringe, caught in slowly 
creeping urban dislocation and decay — a 
parish in the Hoover-Adams section of Los 
Angeles. The author uses as his title a 
message he found scrawled across a squalid 
building facing the freeway. Mr. Carter's 
account tells vividly about the real problems 
of the disadvantaged caught in this blight, 
and of the travail and anguish, failure and 
achievement, of the church's struggle to be 
a servant in their midst. 


Colin Morris. $1.25 paper 

A native Zambian drops dead 
near Colin Morris' front door. In 
his shrunken little stomach, there 
are a few leaves, what appears 
to be a ball of grass — nothing 
more. On the same day. Dr. 
Morris receives his copy of the 
Methodist Recorder — an issue 
filled with the debate over An- 
glican-Methodist Union. As the 
author views the total scene — 
the little man dead from starva- 
tion, petty debates over trivia 
such as what to do with left-over 
communion bread — he suddenly 
realizes that the whole problem 
of Christian unity is out of pro- 
portion. He exclaims, "Include 
me out!" In seven hard-hitting 
chapters, he shocks, shames, yet 
challenges the reader to search 
for the real issues — those neces- 
sary if the church is to survive. 

Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 60120 



Liturgy: When the World Is Our Sanctuary. Tlw worship of God is not 
C07ifii}ed to set patterns or forms — or to buildings. Wherever Christians go, 
whatever theij do, they act out their faith daihj. by C. Wayne Zunkel. 
page 2 

Slim Whitman. He might have been a professional ball plaijer, but his singing 
made him instead a popular country and western star with thirty-six albums 
to his credit, by Wilbur Brumbaugh, page 6 

God Calls for a New Society. "Good news to the poor," "release to the cap- 
tives," "liberty for the oppressed" — can these objectives of Jesus' ministry be 
realized in a society marked by racism, poverty, and violence? by Ralph E. 
Smeltzer. page 9 

The Peace Churches: A Footnote or in the Main Text? A consultation of 
representatives of Friends, Mennonite, and Brethren groups considers the mean- 
ing of radical obedience today, by Maynard Shelly, page 16 

That's the Way It Is. A series of imaginary reports from Operator 787 to the 
Chief of the Demon Division reveals wherein Christians are mosi vulnerable to 
temptation, bv a writer for church publications who prefers to remain anonymous, 
page 22 

Other features include a poem about "Snowing," by Gayle Wooters (page 5); a look at the 
Brethren Revival Fellowship's "Quest for Faithfulness" (page 14); a crossword puzzle, by 
John and Carol Conner (page 21); "Faith Looks Up," by Enos B. Heisey (page 26); "The 
Lord's Supper: Its Meaning, Its Future," a review article by James S. Flora (page 27); and 
a review of "The Shoes of the Fisherman," by Da\e Pomeroy (page 28). 


What should the church be doing in 1969? According to Galen Ogden, "The Name of the 
Game Is Mission," and not maintenance. . . . How does the church minister in a specific 
situation? Bonnie Blankenship tells how two pastors in a university town have helped to Ijring 
"Black and White Together — For Job Opportunities." . . . Can the church relate to youth? 
William Robert Miller talks about "The Square Church and the Youth Revolution." 

PHOTO CREDITS: 2 artwork by Robert Regier: 9 Ed Eckstein; 17 (above) artwork by Harry Durkee: (below) cour- 
tesy of the Germantown (Pa.) Courier; 18 Don Honick; 21 Wallowitch; 26 Harpel's Studio; 31 (top left) Lil Junas; 
(center) Frank B. Monnillo; (bottom left) courtesy of the Lebanon (Pa.) Neius; (center) The Gallery. Winchester. Va. 

Kenneth I. Morse, editor; Wilbur E. Brumbaugh, 
managing editor; Howard E. Royer, director ot news 
service; Linda Czaplinski. assistant to the editors. Mes- 
senger is the official publication of the Church of the 
Brethren. Messenger is copyright 1969 by the Church of 
the Brethren General Board. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20. 1918 under Act of Congress of Oct. 
17, 1917. Filing dale, Oct. 1, 1968. Messenger is a 
member of the Associated Church Press and a sub- 

scriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Senice. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, 
are from the Revised Standard Version. Subscription rates: 
S4.20 per year for individual subscriptions: S3-60 per 
vear for church group plan; S3. 00 per year for 
c\erv home plan; life subscription S60; husband 
and ^\'ife. S75. If vou mo\e clip old address 
from Messenger and send with new address. 
.\llow at least fifteen days for address change. 



VOL. 118 NO. 2 

vaei 7* 

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U.S. jets to Israel ^- 

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"'"'^ llraes 

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raelis foeS "gue 

V nears censur 


Israel for att 

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f» » ■. Arabs 

tory H7>^. 

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readers write 


The following is a criticism of Mr. Bol- 
linger's article entitled "Why I Pay Taxes 
Used for War Purposes" (Sept. 26). 

Mr. Bollinger seems opposed to the idea 
of making the government the Christian's 
main business. 

But if a government is attempting to be 
representative of the feelings of the people 
( as a democracy should try to do ) , then 
there is tlie utmost need for the government 
to become the center of Christian acti\'ities. 
Since the democratic form of government 
demands that a person's moral beliefs be 
given the highest respect, it becomes the 
main business of the Christian to integrate 
his religious beliefs into die poUcies of the 
government. With America's enonnous 
power and influence it is the Chrisdan's 
responsibility to make die church the con- 
science of the state. 

There will be times when the laws or 
acts of the government will violate the 
religious beliefs of the individual. If the 
individual has exhausted the channels or 
finds diat the various channels for correct- 
ing these mistakes are too slow to meet the 
necessity of the demand, dien he no longer 
needs to consider himself responsible to 
these laws or to supporting these acts. To 
violate a law on a religious basis is making 
the government the Christian's main busi- 
ness, just as much as it is to obey a law 
on a religious basis. 

Mr. Bollinger expresses a fear that no 
government can exist as long as the people 
pay taxes only as their conscience guides 
them. Since I put the conscience first, I 
am more afraid of a government that does 
not allow the people to live as their con- 
sciences guide them. 

Our first concern as Chrisdans should 
not be to see that our moral inclinations are 
in hannony with man-made laws. We don't 
have to answer to man for oiu- acts if we 
believe we have been guided by God. We 
need only to answer to God. 

To allow one's personal convictions to 
be molded and shaped by society and gov- 
ernment is to allow one's very being to be 
taken from the hands of God and placed 
into the fallible hands of man. 

Mr. Bollinger states, "All attempts to 
change the behavior, attitudes, or values 
of mature responsible persons by force are 
degrading and destructive to personhood." 
When I tfiink about Vietnam, Biafra, race 
prejudice, and a so-called Christian nation 

with Dow Chemical and A-Bombs, I ask 
where are all the mature and responsible 
people? And by paying taxes don't you 
willfully and knowingly give most of that 
money to a war diat is as degrading and 
as destructive to personliood as anything 
can be? 

He challenges tax witliholding on the 
basis of whedier or not it can be universal- 
ized. Since he doesn't believe that it can, 
he rejects such ideas. Does this mean that 
he believes that a wailful support of the 
war effort can be universalized into a law 
for all men? 

I certainly want to challenge his last 
main point. "Our impatience to reconstruct 
the world after our own particular blue- 
print must not lead us into betraying noble 
ends for unworthy means." The Christian 
must recognize that America's blueprint is 
being felt right now in Vietnam. Our 
government would have us believe that the 
Vietnam war is being fought for noble 
ends — democracy, freedom, end of com- 
munism. And since it found no other alter- 
native but war, it would have us believe 
that this is a worthy means. 

The Christian can never accept war as a 
worthy means. And the Christian must 
recognize that the noble ends which he 
seeks are higher than those which the 
government seeks. Therefore, withholding 
taxes can hardly be considered an un- 
worthy means when that money would have 
been used for the most degrading and evil 
acts of man. 

David Coppock 
American Farm School 
Thessaloniki, Greece 


Otto A. Sanger writes ( Nov. 7 ) , "When 
Hitler came to power in die thirties, he 
built an almost irresistible army for aggres- 
sion and conquest. ... It took the might 
of the Allied annies to stop him." And 

then he asks; "Does anyone think that the' 
free nations of the world should have stood 
aloof as he continued his cruel extermina- 
tion of the Jews?" 

Let me point out that if the Christiar; 
people of Germany had opposed Hitler wher 
he began preaching antisemitism, hatred' 
and militarism, he could have been stopped! 
without the firing of a gun or the loss oi 
a life. 

Mr. Sanger seems to think that evangeli 
ism, "a church in support of the great com-i 
mission, would be the basis for creating eI 
world . . . free from war." 

Again let me point out that Gennany hat 
been evangelized and most of the Gerniai 
people were Christians at the time Hitic 
came to power. But they were not con; 
cerncd enough or courageous enough ti. 
oppose the prejudice and non-Christiai 
ideas being advocated by their leadershij 
in government. They did not meddle in 

If we are to have a world free from wa: 
it will take citizens concernetl enough abou 
their nation to demand of their leaders i 
peaceful and brotherly program. In Americi 
the military-industrial complex against whicl 
we have been warned is still in powej 
And we Christians are not doing niucl 
about it. We may have to learn as thi 
Germans learned. 

Floyd M. Irvin 
Eustis, Fla. 


Man is seeking a way. Jesus says, "I a 
the way." 

Man is seeking tnith. Jesus says, "I an 
the hruth." 

Man is .seeking life. Jesus says, "I air 
the life." 

All who come to him seeking find th( 
way, the truth, and the life. 

Mattie Kennedy 
Pomona, Calif. 

BYLINES: Writer Bonnie Blankenship is on the staff of the Champaign-Urbana (Illinois) "News 
Gazette." . . . Author, musician, and former managing editor of the "United Church Herald,' 
William Robert Miller replaces his usual record reviews with an analysis of today's youth. . . . 
Max Ediger works in Africa for the Congo Protestant Relief Agency, a division of the Menonnite 
Central Committee. . . . Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, is the home of Barnard C. Taylor, who heads 
public information services for Juniata College. . . . Minister to students at Bethany Theologica 
Seminary, Oak Brook, Illinois, Byron P. Royer serves on the faculty as assistant professor of pastora 

MESSENGER is owned and published every other week by the Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Board, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, 111 


"The role of the church, " said the pastor, "is to address itself 
to human need. " But some in his congregation disagreed 


In the near future, black men and 
women in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, 
will begin moving from vocational 
training into income-producing jobs — 
from reUef rolls and low-paying, non- 
skilled jobs to the kind of work in 
which they can take pride. 
And the opportunity for this 

metamoiphosis can be traced to the 
cooperati\e efforts of Pastor Galen 
Miller, of the Champaign Church of 
the Brethren, and James OfiFutt, 
black pastor of the Mt. Ohve Baptist 
Chm'ch in Champaign. 

From a friendship which began at 
a Brethren pastor's retreat, the two 

BLACK AND WHITE / continued 

men developed an idea which 
eventually led to a successful, county- 
wide drive for $100,000 to pay for 
the establishment of an Opportunities 
Industrialization Center (OIC) in 
their community. 

But, while he gained overwhelming 
communitywide and even statewide 
encouragement and support for his 
work with OIC, Galen Miller found 
himself experiencing a curious modem- 
day paradox in his own church. Week 
by week, as the number of local 
individuals pledging their help to OIC 
increased, the number of individuals 
attending his Sunday services de- 

By the time a local newspaper 
which had devoted considerable sup- 
port to the project proudly announced 
with a page one banner headline that 
the OIC fund drive had topped the 
$100,000 mark. Pastor Miller was 
faced with the statistical fact that 
his average weekly Sunday attendance 
had dropped from 115 persons to 
about seventy. 

And it caused him to reflect on his 
involvement in social issues, his view 
of the direction of his ministry, and 
the changing relationship between 
himself, his church, and his com- 

He had considered the problems of 
the black people in his community 
for some time. He knew that jobs 
paying a living-scale wage were 
denied to Negro men and women 
but that such jobs were available. 
He was aware that the problem 
was not just one of racial prejudice 
but that white employers did have a 
valid point in their claims that many 
of the city's Negroes were imtrained 
and could not perform adequately if 
they were employed. 

The white preacher was also aware 
of the rising level of discontent 

2 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

among the black residents of the 
community, especially when they 
measured the "American dream" 
against their own meager contribu- 
tions and returns. 

Pastor Miller first met Pastor Offutt 
in 1964, when the Baptist preacher 
served as a resource person at a 
District of Illinois Brethren pastor's 
retreat. Mr. Offutt was then pastor 
of a Baptist church in Canton, 

"We hit it ofi^ right away," Mr. 
Miller recalls, explaining how the two 
men discussed many of the problems 
of race relations during free moments 
at the retreat. They kept in touch 
during the ensuing years, and on 
more than one occasion, the Baptist 
was an overnight guest at the Breth- 
ren parsonage when his trips took him 
through Mr. Miller's territorv'. 

Almost two years went by. Then, 
one day, Mr. Miller read a magazine 
article about an Opportunities 
Industrialization Center in Philadelphia, 
Pa., which had accomplished real 
gain in providing economic security 
and a viable future for Negroes 
through job training. 

An outgrowth of the civil rights 
movement, the first OIC was 
founded to train unemployed and 
underemployed men and women 
living in impoverished ghetto areas 
so that they might become con- 
tributing, productive members of 

The program was unique in that it 
not only provided enrollees with a 
job skill, but sought to foster in them 
the attitudes, motivations, and self- 
confidence needed to insure continued 
success in their chosen occupations. 
An OIC worker explains, "Any num- 
ber of persons are denied positions or 
lose them not because they lack the 
required vocational skills but rather 

because their patterns of speech, 
dress, sense of time, and general 
behavior make them unsuited to the 
world of work." 

These traits were worked on in 
OIC's Feeder Program, which also 
offered minority history, consumer 
education, and basic math and com- 
munications classes. Only after the 
Feeder Program was completed would 
an enrollee be trained for a specific 
job. In the first three years of its 
operation, the Philadelphia OIC 
trained more than .3,.500 men and 
women and placed them on new jobs. 

Pastor Miller read what the center 
had done for Philadelphia and pon- 
dered what one could possibly do 
for Champaign-Urbana. He believed 
that there was a need for an OIC 
in his community, but he was also 
aware than an attempt to establish 
such a center would need the coopera 
tion of leaders in the ghetto. 

The philosophy of OIC is "We 
Help Ourselves," the originator. Dr. 
Leon Sullivan (Messenger, Dec. 5, 
page 16), had emphasized, and one 
of the primary requirements for 
success was that the center be or- 
ganized, operated, and attended by 
the people which it would serve. 
Leadership in the black community 
of Champaign-Urbana appeared to be 
lacking, the time didn't seem right, 
and the idea lay donnant. 

But the right time was precipitated 
a year later when Pastor Miller's 

Far left: manager of Kraft 
Foods, Gordon Radke (left) 
presents $5,000 to Galen Miller 
(center) and to James Offutt. 
Left: Gertrude Garth and 
James Offutt enroll new class 

long-time acquaintance, James QSutt, 
accepted a pastoral call from the 
Mt. Olive Missionary' Baptist Church, 
located right in the middle of the 
black community in Champaign. 

The ghetto pastor and the Brethren 
minister moved to bring the OIC 
idea into reahty. After obtaining the 
backing of the Ministerial Association 
of Champaign-Urbana, they went to 
Philadelphia to visit the national OIC 
headquarters. They saw firsthand the 
accomplishments there and came 
away convinced that the same idea 
could be made to work in their home 

Their enthusiasm was communicated 
in a comprehensive report to the 
Ministerial Association, which urged 
the two workers to form a steering 
committee to determine if there were 
enough persons in the community 
willing to work to estabhsh and sup- 
port an OIC operation. 

They found support, and the sup- 
port was quickly backed up with 
cash. The ministers in the community 
explained the project to their congre- 
gations, and within two months, 
$30,000 had been donated by C-U 
churches. A local daily newspaper 
backed the drive to get OIC imder- 
way, and through day-by-day news 
coverage and editorials asking for 
support, contributions poured in from 
all types of persons from all over 
the county. 

Not only money came in, but 

promises of other aid as well. The 
city of Champaign had abandoned 
a store in an urban renewal area in 
the ghetto. The store and office 
space were leased to OIC for $1 a 
\ear. For the same price, the Park 
District leased to OIC a garage 
which was converted into an athletic 
club and skills training area. 

Labor unions volunteered men to 
remodel the store. Using donated 
materials, they constructed classrooms 
for the Feeder school. Other dona- 
tions were received — a tile company 
laid tile on the floors, and a steady 
stream of office equipment, book- 
shelves, air conditioners, blackboards, 
new desks, and other school parapher- 
nalia arrived at the converted store. 

Galen Miller was elected chairman 
of the first board of directors for 
the center. James Offutt was named 
temporary executive director. 

So the drive to found OIC was 
successful. The $100,000 goal was 
reached. The school was under way 
and black men and women were 
enroHing for the critically needed 
job training. 

But at a board meeting at the 
Church of the Brethren, located in a 
transitional part of the community 
near the fringe of the ghetto, the 
suggestion was made that the 
church, as a corporate body, should 
stay out of social issues. There were 
rumblings that Pastor MiUer was not 
enough of a "fundamentalist" in his 

Christianity. There was talk that it 
might be well if the congregation 
asked for his resignation. 

He told his congregation that he 
felt his work for OIC was a true 
extension of Mission One emphasizing 
the overall theme of the Brotherhood. 
"It is a gratifying experience to be 
a part of a denominational movement 
that accepts the challenge of human 
need," he said. 

The resignation was not sought, 
but the dissidents in the congregation 
withdrew their support and the church 
lost nearly forty percent of its mem- 

"OIC, and my involvement in it, 
because it is a part of the race issue, 
has made it necessary for our con- 
gregation to come to grips with the 
real meaning of being Christ's body 
in the world," Pastor Miller says. 

"We have had to grapple with the 
nature and function and purpose 
of the church. It has been difficult 
and painful, and has had its cost 
both in terms of attendance and 
financial support. In the long view, 
however, as it has challenged us to 
deeper, personal commitment to Jesus 
Christ, it will have been a strengthen- 
ing experience. We anticipate it will 
move our local congregation towards 
an appreciation of the kind of 
ministry called for by the hfe and 
spirit of the Christ who came not to 
be ministered unto, but to minister 
to men and their needs." Q 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 3 







aack in the well-known "good old 
days," being square meant being 
honest. Aimee Seinple McPherson 
preached the Four Square Gospel and 
Theodore Roosevelt's idea of progress 
was to offer America a Square Deal. 
That was on the other side of the 
generation gap — grandpa's side. 

It is a wide gap, with more than 
a dozen years of no man's land 
stretching from the end of the 1920s 
to the end of World War II, this 
side of which is the "new genera- 
tion," the citizeniy of the secular 
city whose only real tradition is that 
of the new. When they talk about 
being honest, they definitely do not 
mean they want to be squar-e. A 
whole new vocabulary has come into 
play, reflecting a new constellation of 
realities and a new way of e.xperi- 
encing life. This particular generation 
gap is a great divide, and it has come 
upon us suddenly, virtually at the 
onset of the 1960s. 

It is somewhat like settUng down 

4 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

for a good night's sleep in the Mid- 
dle Ages and waking up the next 
morning to be informed that that 
period is finished and the Renaissance 
has begun. If you are looking for 
continuities, of course, you can find 
them. But you begin to discover 
that overnight many of the rules of 
the game have been changed, along 
with the players. 

It is not simply a matter of rapid, 
faddish innovation or of the modish 
revision of yesterday's attitudes. It 
is a matter of being plugged into a 
different circuit. A new generation 
has reached the threshold of maturity, 
and it is like no preceding generation, 
least of all its parents'. Mom and 
Dad grew up in a transitional world, 
witnessing the rise of aviation, radio, 
and other innovations that drastically 
altered Grandpa's world. 

But today's young people grew up 
after the completion of these changes, 
and their growing up was accompanied 
by a new cycle of rapidly achieved 


and applied technological innovation. 
The fact of change as a process is 
itself a fact of towering magnitude. 
An earlier generation could be amazed 
by the uses of electricity — even by 
the electric light alone — or by the 
automobile and the airplane. That 
was part of their good, honest, 
stable squareness. 

And that is why being square now 
is outmoded, for stability has become 
something other than what it once 
was and at best is now a kind of 
ecjuilibrium of mobility, a matter of 
keeping one's balance while partici- 
pating in change. Hamlet's "to be 
or not to be" has been transformed 
into the problem of "making it." 
Whether you make it on youi' own 
terms or that of "the system," the 
problem is one of growth, adaptation, 
rebellion, in which the "how" and 
the "whether" of life are indissolubly 
related. But "making it" in this sense 
can hardly be divorced from the 
present generation's awareness of the 



possibilities of man's control of his 

Through technology, we live in a 
world that is increasingly made and 
controlled by man. Indeed, one of 
our key problems is who among us 
shall exercise these functions of 
making and controlling and for what 
purposes. The whole long story of 
civilization, of course, tells of man's 
efforts in this direction — more 
effective cures for disease, for example, 
or better means of transportation. 
But the present generation is the 
first one in which it is possible to 
create controlled environments. Air- 
conditioning does not merely modify 
summer heat, for example; it enables 
us to choose and regulate the 
temperature of an entire room or 
building. Electric lighting, deep- 
frozen foods, electronic recordings, 
and other such devices make it 
possible, all at the same time, to 
eat oysters out of season in a cool, 
well-lighted room while enjoying, 
during a hot, humid night, a concert 
conducted by someone who has been 
dead for several years. None of this 
was possible before this century, and 
not all of it was a feature of life 
before the present generation was 
born. Now it is largely taken for 
granted — as is the birth contiol pill, 
which effectively extends environ- 
mental control into the realm of sex. 

In such a world, who needs God or 
religion or the church? I do not pose 
this question with the intention of 
springing back with glib reassurances. 
It is an open question. But there are 
reasons to think that today's youth do 
not need a dead God, a stale religion, 
or an irrelevant church; and there are 
reasons for thinking that a square, 
old-time religion just isn't going to 
make it except perhaps as a curiosity. 

It is quite possible that during the 

6 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

next decade or two statistics on 
church membership and attendance 
will plummet sharply. It happened 
in Europe. In the great citadels of 
the Reformation, scarcely more than 
five percent of the population go to 
church, and older people comprise a 
disproportionate share of those who 
do. There are indications that this 
can and probably will happen in 
America as well. The church's largest 
contributors tend to be its older and 
more conservative members, generally 
resistant to change and not about to 
turn everything over to rebellious 
youth. Hence, the more radical young 
people will drop out, the church as a 
whole wiU become increasingly the 
preserve of kindly old bigots, and the 
real action will move elsewhere. Such 
is the harsh and simple prognosis — 
the handwriting on the wall. 

Yet there are countertrends. There 
are voices of renewed vigor within 
the church — often its severest critics 
— but voices raised inside the institu- 
tion and for the most part staying 
inside — people like Malcolm Boyd, 
Harvey Cox, Stephen C. Rose, and 
Mary Jane Irion. They are all over 
thirty, and it remains to be seen if 
another wave of such voices is going 
to well up from those now in their 
twenties who comprise much of Boyd's 
and the others' following. Most of 
them agree that the church is obso- 
lete, and they have not seen any 
very impressive changes. 

Here and there a daring and 
imaginative theologian speaks out in 
new ways — in the world of books, 
these are the ones that have become 
recent best-sellers. But for each one 
who does this, there are hundreds 
who prefer not to rock the boat on 
its way to the waterfall. Here and 
there a bold and challenging pastor 
develops a new program or "tells it 

like it is" and builds a viable con- 
gregation, attracting young people 
from both the unchurched remnant 
and from more humdrum congrega- 
tions. These tend to be the news- 
makers, the live ones we keep hear- 
ing about. To say that they are all 
too few is not only to wish for more 
but to observe that they are a 
sparkling minority grossly overshadowec 
by more typical situations that are 
much less hopeful. To what extent 
are we deceiving ourselves, whistling 
in the dark, inflating our few suc- 
cesses, and refusing to face the real 

One pivotal fact is that the church 
is oriented toward the past, while 
the present generation is not. Going 
to church is not an "in" thing. Being 
a Christian is no longer fashionable. 
Young people feel no obligation to 
accept their parents' God as their 
own while they suspect that he is 
the God of a world that no longer 
exists. These are hard facts. Yet it 
is also a fact that young people, even 
more than their elders, take religion 
seriously — too seriously to buy it in 
neat, prepackaged form. Its content 
must hit them where they live, and 
its form cannot be square or linear. 
It must breathe and pulse and make 
the scene, redeeming what is false 
in the artificial environment. Bishop 
Robinson has said that the God who 
is dead is the God of supranaturalistic 
metaphysics, the God "out there," 
the God of rigamarole explanations. 

Beyond such a God, said Paul 
Tillich, borrowing a leaf from 
oriental mysticism, is Ultimate Reality, 
the same creative power which Moses 
encountered on Mount Sinai and which 
later lived in Jesus. The church's 
arid and lifeless God has impelled a 
number of young people to embrace 
Hindu mysticism. Some few of them, 

according to Harvey Cox in a recent 
"Frontiers of Faith" television inter- 
view, are now going on to discover 
Meister Eckhardt after being disillu- 
sioned with Maharishi Mahesh. The 
trend to mysticism is there — why 
not a bend to Christian mysticism? 

But why would Eckhardt interest 
young people today? Largely, I think, 
because he bears eloquent witness to 
a nonconceptual, imageless God of 
experience. It is to mystics like 
Jakob Boehme and Eckhardt that 
Tilhch's concept of Ultimate Reahty 
may be traced — it is really less 
interesting as a reasoned conclusion 
than as a figure of insight, and this 
latter is the real substance of religious 

The Bible remains vital because it 
is a treasury of such insight. Nothing 
is so ludicrous as to flatten out a 
great poem into baldly literal mean- 
ings; to do so is to fail to take it 
seriously. But such was the fate of 
the Bible in the hands of many 
theologians between Eckhardt and 
Tillich. The sin of literaUty was 
perhaps one of the less glorious 

features of the age of hteracy which 
is now being superseded, if we are 
to believe Marshall McLuhan. Mc- 
Luhan's point is well borne out by 
the recent course of pop music. There 
are closer resemblances between 
today's leading pop singers and the 
troubadours of Meister Eckhardt's 
day than between those of the 1940s 
and the 1960s. 

This is part of the youth revolu- 
tion, a movement full of fascinating 
complexities, particiilarly in the seem- 
ing incongruity between folk roots 
and electronic amplification. But there 
are a number of points to be noted. 
Unlike a Schubert Lied or a Cole 
Porter ballad, but like the troubadour 
ballad, a Bob Dylan song defies com- 
plete notation. The words and melodic 
line are sparse, sketchy, cryptic. To 
hear it sung is far more than the ap- 
plication of voice and instrument; it 
is rather to experience a totaUty of 
sounds, to be placed in a kind of 
aural electronic environment, with or 
without a visual aspect. It is not far 
from being caught up in a ritual or 
something like a mystical union. If 

you really "dig" it, if you "groove in," 
if it "gets to you," you are not merely 
receiving a message; you are momen- 
tarily participating in a process, an ex- 
perience, of which the message is an 
integral part. 

The message is not just a state- 
ment decorated or illustrated with 
sounds or visual images or body move- 
ments — no really good rock lyrics are 
that square. It is the whole complex, 
the whole event, including the words. 
And not the words abstracted but as 
heard, fuU of inflection and nuance. 
The literal verbal content is not un- 
important, but it may be the least 
part of the whole. It is this wholeness 
that is so compelling — as McLuhan 
put it in a sentence too often Hteral- 
ized, "The medium is the message." 

Blow your mind! See God! Are these 
exhortations identical? Can rock pro- 
duce mystical beatification or psyche- 
delic escape? And if so, what has it 
to do with the way we live our hves? 
In their full ramifications these ques- 
tions lead to larger ones which would 
require pioneering theological explora- 
tion beyond our present scope. We 

Young people, even more than their 
elders, take religion too seriously to 
buy it in neat, prepackaged form. 
Its content must breathe and 
pulse and make the scene . . . 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 7 


need to recognize that fact and warm 
to that task in the long run instead of 
rehashing our old theologies. If we 
did this, among the facts we would 
find would be that mystical experience 
and ethical insight fructify one an- 
other when they form a cohesive 
whole but that they can also lead ofi 
into separate, stultified realms. 

Their parallels in today's youth cul- 
ture bear this out. The pothead, the 
acid head, the mindless listener may 
get their kicks in the form of purpose- 
less illusion. But not always, for to be 
really turned on is to be turned on to 
the meaning of the experience, and 
often the verbal meaning of a Dylan 
or a Lennon song is vital. There may 
be the psychedelic dropouts, but there 
are also many whose perspective on 
life is strengthened by the poetic con- 
tent of these songs, which embody 
forceful statements about love and 
freedom and justice. Jesus was much 
more, but he was that too, par excel- 
lence — poet, visionary, mystic, pro- 
claimer of love and freedom and jus- 
tice. The "much more" is to be found 
in the hfe he lived as not only pro- 
claimer but incarnation of the Word. 
Incidentally, one of the best brief 
statements I know of the basic the- 
ology of John is a song called "The 
Word," sung by the Beatles. 

Such songs are rarely heard in 
church, which here again is over- 
committed to the recent past, ever- 
indulgent in the quaint corn of Vic- 
torian hymnody. The church will not 
stand or fall on this alone, but it is 
symptomatic. I used to think that it 
would help if old hymnals were re- 
placed with new ones and if new lit- 
urgies replaced the old. But I now 
believe that much more radical change 
is needed, beginning from scratch with 
a .sense of the meaning of the gospel 
and how it relates to the world we 

8 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

now experience. 

There is a crying need for authen- 
ticit)' in worship — for words which 
bear meanings that people are capa- 
ble of honestly expressing and for 
corresponding ritual gestures. But 
there is a corresponding and, in a 
sense, prior need for theological re- 
newal that gets downi to basics and 
cuts through outworn traditions to the 
bedrock of reality. 

In the end, Christianity hinges on 
a man who cared deeply about people. 
All the complexities of theology arise 
from the difficulty of understanding 
and emulating that caring. It is eas- 
ier to simulate it or idolize it than 
to implement Jesus' command, "Love 
one another as I have loved you." 
To heed it at all is not simply to "go 
and do it," but to embark, as Kierke- 
gaard said, on a lifetime of self-exam- 
ination and of questing for deeper in- 
sight into the meaning of love and of 
another, and of life itself. 

We who call ourselves Christians 
in any serious sense do so not be- 
cause we find ourselves in possession 
of a neat set of answers but because 
we are gripped by a tremendous ques- 
tion that cannot be reduced to words. 
It is a question about our sense and 
feeling of life, the angle of our joy 
and sorrow, the direction and tempo 
of our caring. It is a universal ques- 
tion, an unending search. Perhaps the 
best we can do for youth is to learn 
the language in which they, too, are 
asking it. 

We need to take the full measure 
of the many-sided revolution imbedded 
in the generation gap. We must do 
more than make room for youth in 
the church. We must do more than 
cater to what their needs seem to us 
to be. We must do more than present 
ouUvorn concepts in a new guise. 

If Christianity is going to have any 

future, it will not be a synthetic con- 
coction tailored for youth but a dy- 
namic new structure of thought and 
faith which can perhaps best be con- 
ceived as analogous to electronic cir- , 
cuitry rather than to the printed page.i 
We shall need a theology which is | 
more psychological than philosophical 
— one which deals in such tenns as j 
purpose and response and degrees of | 
depth and intensity rather than in the 
square terminology of fixed patterns or] 
flat truths or precise beliefs. j 

It may be only an optimist's dream, 
but I like to think that the voices call-l 
ing for change from within the church ' 
are not speaking entirely in vain; that I 
there are enough men and women of i 
vision, who care enough, to transform 
the church from within and redeem 
it for the future — for its own sake 
and for the sake of the Spirit which 
it is supposed to embody. But what- 
ever it does, that Spirit will not die 
if man is to have any future. That is • 
the real issue. 

The upcoming generation finds with- , 
in its grasp unprecedented power and 
possibility to control life, to reduce ' 
pain and suffering, to celebrate and 
enjoy life. Or they can end it all in 
a blinding holocaust of war or fritter 
it away in loveless hedonism. 

In his last writings and speeches the 
late Martin Luther King called for 
"a true revolution of values" that 
would eliminate the roots of poverty, 
war, and racism by giving everyone 
an equitable share of power and free- 
dom. There is room for everyone in 
the "world house" in which we now 
find ourselves, said King. The task of 
today's young people is a formidable 
but not an impossible one — to make 
that house livable by carrying through 
the needed revolution of values, creat- 
ing true community, developing inclu- 
sive relationships and real sharing. D 

The Name of the Game 
Is Mission 

by Galen B. Ogden 

Life on the frontier can be exciting and 
ad\'enturous, but it isn't easy. It calls 
for a lot of courage and hard work. 
Sometimes it's dangerous. People get 
hurt. It's safer to stay at home amid 
familiar surroundings. It's lonely out 
there. Friends are often few and far 

In order to live on the frontier, a 
person must be willing to give up many 
of the lu.xuries and trappings of life — 
the impedimenta, the things that drag 
him down and slow him up. He must 
be willing to travel light. I remember a 
hiking trip a group of us made into 

the Grand Canyon several years ago. 
Every item that went into our packs was 
carefully evaluated. Was it essential 
or only something nice to have along? 
The story of the westward movement 
is replete with examples of pioneers 
discarding furniture or other items to 
make theii- wagons lighter for the 
crossing of rivers and mountains. 

The Christian church is called to be 
out on the frontiers of God's purpose 
and man's need. A pilgrim cliurch needs 
to "hang loose" and travel light. "Let 
us lay aside e\'er\' weight," every hin- 
drance, every bondage which keeps us 
from performing our mission. What 
are some of the adjustments we may 

need to make in our baggage as we 
mo\'e toward the frontiers? 

I. We must major on mission rather 
than maintenance. 

Football is a rough and rugged game. 
Survival is difficult. But the name 
of the game is mission, not maintenance. 
The objective is to carry the pigskin 
across the goal line rather than to play 
it safe to escape bumps and bruises. 
The end or the halfback who is thinking 
more about getting hit than about 
catching the ball usually doesn't catch 
the ball and seldom sm-vives as a 
football player. 

Survival is important. That's one of 
the reasons I don't play football. 

THE NAME OF THE GAME / continued 

Survival is important for the church. 
I want the church to survive. But is it 
possible that we have been giving too 
much attention to survival and not 
enough to mission? 

What do we mean by paying too 
much attention to maintenance? What 
are the goals of maintenance? They 
are membership, stnrctures, buildings, 
and money. In order for a church to 
exist, it must have members, And I 
don't find anywhere in the New 
Testament that Jesus placed a premium 
on having only a few. 

As soon as we have members we need 
a place to put them. They need a 
place to get in out of the rain or the 
heat or the cold. They need a place 
where they can gather for worship, 
for celebration, for instruction, and for 
redeployment. This calls for buildings. 

Buildings require money. And so 
this brings us back to people again. We 
need people to provide funds to build 
buildings. And as soon as we find more 
people, we need more buildings and 
therefore more money, and if we aren't 
careful, we confuse the ends with the 
means. People are ends, but we 
sometimes ti-eat them as means to an 
end — the building of our institutions. 
Money and buildings are means to an 
end, but we often act as if they are the 
ends themselves. Sometimes when we 
raise a large sum of money or build 
a beautiful new sanctuaiy, we act as 
though we have achieved our mission, 
as if the work of the church is done. 
Erecting church buildings is not the 
primary mission of the church. It is 
only an intermediate step to provide us 
with the necessary equipment. Church 
buildings are tools or insti-uments to 
facilitate the mission. 

Buildings, money, and organizational 
structures are all necessary to the survival 
of the institutional church, but there 
is no gospel in them. It is of no 

pai'ticular good news to people that 
you need theii- money to build buildings 
or that you need them to complete an 
organizational structure. Most of our 
friends and neighbors have already 
invested in more buildings than they can 
pay for, and they belong to more 
organizations than they can keep up with. 

The good news is found in the nature 
and character of God. It is good news 
to know that God loves us and the 
whole human family. He sent his son 
into the world not to condemn us but 
to save us. He loves us now, just as 
we are, bad as we are. He does not lo\e 
us because we are bad but because 
there is a spiritual life within each one 
of us that has tremendous possibilities 
for growth and development. Therefore, 
we are accepted by him today. We 
do not need to be quarantined until 
the disease of sin is cured nor put on 
probation untO we can prove that we 
are able to be good within our own 
strength. The good news is that we 
are accepted today. We are loved 
now. The past is forgiven. 

Furthermore, we believe that it is 
God's will that every person on the face 
of the earth share the forgiving and 
healing qualities of his love. It is his 
intention that every person experience 
dignity, freedom, wholeness, justice, 
and love. This is the good news that 
the world is waiting to hear. When we 
use our money and our buildings and 
our structures to preach and to teach 
this gospel, we will make disciples and 
the church will be maintained. But 
our major attention must be given 
to mission rather than maintenance. 

2. The new frontier calls for a 
recognition that the essence of 
Christianity is found in a relationship 
of openness and responsiveness to God 
and man rather than in the legalistic 
observance of forms and ceremonies. 

Many Brethren have been concerned 
about the preservation of some of the 
forms and traditions of the church — 
particularly baptism and the Lord's 
supper with the feetwashing ceremony. 
These symbols are beautiful. They are 
powerful, vivid, and dramatic. For 
example, baptism by trine immersion, 
as practiced by the Church of the 
Brethren, is a dramatic symbol of 
cleansing and the washing away of sin. 
It symbolizes death, burial, and resur- 
rection. Yet all of us surely must 
know that it is not the ceremonial act 
that sa\es us. It is rather the love of 
God. Baptism is the sign, the signal, the 
notice we give to the world that we 
accept God's forgiving love. It is our way 
of saying to him that we want to be 

The scriptui'es make it abundantly 
clear that our salvation is not so much 
dependent upon some act that we do 
or ceremony which we observe as it is 
upon our attitude, our spirit, our 
relationship. Micah asked, "What does 
the Lord require of you but to do 
justice, to love mercy, and to walk 
humbly with thy God." The Psalmist 
wrote, "The sacrifice acceptable to God 
is a broken spirit and a contrite heart." 
When Jesus was queried about the 
essentials, he said, "Love God. Love 
your neighbor." This is the essence of 
Christianity. Neither commandment 
suggests a form, a ceremony, or a ritual 
to be observed. Both suggest a 
relationship — a relationship of love 
and trust and self-giving. 

Jesus became even more specific when 
he said, "If you bring your gift to the 
altar [to engage in ceremonial worship] 
and there remember that your brother 
has something against you, leave your 
gift [interrupt the ceremony], go and 
be reconciled to your brother. " Make 
your relationship right "and than come 
and offer your gift." 

10 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

If further documentation on the 
importance of relationships is needed we 
could, of course, cite the thirteenth 
chapter of 1 Corinthians: "If I speak 
in the tongues of men and of angels 
and have not love, I am a noisy gong 
or a clanging cymbal." 

The real essence of Christianity is 
found in oiu- relationships to God and to 
man rather than in any mechanical or 
routine observance of forms or 

3. Another frontier on which we are 
being challenged to adjust our stance 
is in regard to the basic mission of the 
church. Does the church exist for 
itself or for others? Should it be 
concerned primarily with those who are 
on the inside of its walls or those who 
are on the outside? If Jesus was the 
"man for others," should the church 
also be the institution for others? 

Historically, would we not agree that 
most of our churches have been made 
up of close-knit, family-centered, 
middle-class, Anglo-Saxon citizens? For 
more than two centmies we observed 

: closed communion, not even allowing 
other Christians to eat with us at the 
Lord's table. During the same period 

: of time we insisted that all who would 
become members of our denomination 
must be baptized by trine immersion, 
even though in their own minds they 
had already had an authentic experience 
with the Lord. Then, in addition to 
these overt expressions of exclusiveness, 
we found more subtle and perhaps 
more sophisticated ways to express our 

Through our attitudes and behavior 
we have been quite successful in 
communicating to others that if they 
want to be in our group, they should 
look like us, act like us, dress like us; 
they should not smoke or drink; they 
should be willing to work hard, hold 

steady employment, earn a good income, 
and preferably own their own homes. 
We have also said a lot of other things, 
but this is probably enough for us to 
admit in one breath. 

Would it be fair to say that in 
many respects the church has resembled 
a tight fraternity, a closed corporation? 
How do we justify our exclusiveness? 
How do we rationalize the small numbers 
of black people, Italians, Mexican- 
Americans, and Puerto Ricans within our 
fellowship? How is it that so few who 
belong to the giant labor unions of our 
country find their way into our churches? 

For whom does the church exist — 
for itself or for others? Did not Jesus 
intend that the church should be a place 
of prayer for all people? What kind 
of people did he have in mind when he 
said, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon 
me, because he has anointed me to 
preach good news to the poor"? What 
poor? Those who live in our ghettos 
and slums? Those whose income is 
less than $3,000 per year? What good 
news? Would it have anything to do 
with open housing, schools, hospitals, 
recreation centers, green lawns, and 
steak dinners? What is good news to the 

What did Jesus mean when he said, 
"I have been sent to proclaim release of 
the captives"? Who are the captives? 
Where are they? Would we find any 
of them in Appalachia, in Harlem, in 
Cleveland, or in Akron? Are they the 
ones who are trapped in the smog, the 
dirt, and the congestion of our cities? 
What about those who are locked in 
by alcohol or drugs? Are they captives? 
What about an unmarried girl with 
two children, no job, and a tenth grade 
education? Is she a captive? 

If Jesus were to tour the LInited 
States today, where would he find the 
poor, the captives, the blind, the 
oppressed? What would he do about 

them? Would he have some good news 
to share? Would he release the captives? 
Would he help those of us who are 
blind to the needs of our fellowmen to 
see some things we have never seen 
before? Would he be interested in 
liberty and freedom for the coal miner, 
the bracero, the sharecropper, the 
migrant worker? 

For whom does the church exist? For 
itsslf or for others? Is it a self-serving 
private club, or does it more properly 
take the roie of the servant who, with 
basin and towel, goes forth to wash the 
feet of the world? 

The church, like many other 
institutions in our society, is being 
severely tested today. It finds itself in 
a world of conflict and revolution. 
There are many voices which say the 
church should stay out of the conflict. 
It should remain aloof from the social, 
political, and economic problems of 
our time. It should concern itself only 
with spiritual problems and leave the 
rest to the secular and political worlds. 

There are other voices which say 
that life cannot be so easily separated 
into compartments with the spiritual 
on the one side and the secular on the 
other. They insist that religion and 
life go together; that Jesus was 
interested in the whole man — not just 
his spiritual life but his physical, social, 
economic, and political life as well. 
They insist that everything that 
concerns the well-being of man is a 
legitimate concein of the church and 
that, therefore, the church should give 
itself freely and openly to these 
concerns. I find myself in this latter 

The church does not exist for itself. 
It dare not be a private club or a 
closed fraternity. It must turn itself 
toward the needs of the world — its 
aches and pains, its hurts and its sores, 
its tragedy and travail. D 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 11 


A missionary went foith to preach 
the gospel to a people who were 
very poor spiritually and materi- 
ally. For years he labored, 
preaching the word of God. His 
labors were rewarded as many 
people came to accept this Word 
as the truth. 

Soon it became apparent to the 
missionary that the group of be- 
lievers needed a church in which 
to worship. He thought, "These 
people are very poor. They cannot 
afford to build a nice church; 
therefore I will write to my friends 
at home and ask them for help." 

So he wrote his friends and told 
them of his need. They responded 
by sending a large sum of money. 

Then he told the believers, "I 
have been given money to build 
a church. We will build a large, 
beautiful church. I will pay wages 
to all who will help." 

The people were very happy. 
They all worked hard. They built 
the church of beautiful red bricks 
and with a metal roof. The floor 
was made of cement, and 
windows and benches were ordered 
from many miles away so that 
they would be very nice. 

The people loved the new 
church and they loved their wages. 
When the church was finished, 
people came from near and 
far to listen to the missionary 
and see the church which he 
had built. 

The church grew and grew 
until it was very large. One day 
the people gathered together 
and said, "We now need a school 
for our children, and the church 
needs to be enlarged. But we 
are very poor. Let us ask the 
missionary it he will help us." 

So they asked the missionary. 
He in turn asked his friends who 
sent their money. The missionary 
built a beautiful new school and 
enlarged the church. He also 
paid the people wages for helping. 

12 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

1D37- ^^a,3c EJdigei" 

The people were very happy 
and said, "The missionary has 
built a beautiful mission here. We 
are happy we can worship in 
his church and send our children 
to his school." 

And the church grew. 

Soon, however, it was necessary 
for the missionary to leave. He 
told his people, "The church and 
school are now yours. Take 
good care of them." 

In a few years the roof in the 
church began to sag and win- 
dows and benches needed repairing. 
The people said, "We are very 
poor. We have no money for 
repairs. Where is the missionary 
so he can repair his church 
and school?" 

But the missionary was gone and 
the church and the school went 
unrepaired until they were no 
longer beautiful. The people 
stopped attending church and the 
children went to another school. 
One day the roof of the church 
fell in and the missionary's school 
was attended only by the hungry 

Years later, only a few people 
could remember the beautiful 
church and the school which the 
missionary built. 


A missionary went forth to 
preach the gospel to a people who 
were very poor spiritually and 
materially. For years he labored, 
preaching the Word of God. His 
labors were rewarded because 
many people came to accept this 
Word as the truth. 

Soon it became apparent to the 
missionary that the group of 
believers needed a church in 
which to worship. 

He thought, "These people are 
very poor. They cannot afford 
to build a big beautiful church. 
But this church must be theirs and 
so they must build it with 
their own hands and with 

their own materials. Even if it 
is not so nice, it will be theirs." 

So he told the believers, 
"It is good to have a church in 
which to worship. Let us get 
together and build one. Each man 
must donate his share of material 
and labor." 

So they began building their 
church. They made it of sun- 
dried mud bricks with a grass 
roof. The benches were only 
logs lying on the dirt floor, and 
the windows had no glass 
because the people could not 
afford to buy any. The church 
was not large and beautiful, but 
the people loved it because it 
was their church which they had 

The church grew and grew until 
the small mud building could no 
longer hold all the people. 

The people gathered together 
and said, "Our church is no 
longer big enough, and we need 
a school for our children. We 
are very poor, but if we all work 
together we can build a school 
and enlarge our church." 

So they built a mud brick school 
and a larger mud brick church 
and each man did his share of 

The people were very happy 
and said, "We now have a bigger 
church in which to worship and 
a school for our children. Let us 
give thanks to God for our bJess- 

The church continued to grow. 

Soon, however, it became 
necessary for the missionary to*" 
leave. He told the people, "Con- 
tinue with your work, and the 
Lord will continue to bless you," 

And the people did continue 
working together, taking care oi 
the church and the school which 
they had built. Years later when 
only a few people could remember 
the missionary, the church was 
still growing. D 

Parish education: Planning 
from a new point of view 


20th century, a unique Educational Plan 
is to be put into use by Church of the 
Brethren congregations this year. 

linlike most curriculum revamping of 
the past, intended usually for a certain 
age group or a particular type of setting, 
the Educational Plan is total in scope, 
enabling a congregation or group what- 
ever its size or age bracket to draw upon 
the plan in a variety of settings. 

Yet this comprehensiveness is only one 
of several innovative featui^es of the plan. 
By its very design the plan seeks to deal 
head on with problems that long have 
plagued educators at the parish level. 
Sjjecifically, the plan represents a depar- 
ture in such central areas as: 

Planning. The setting of educational 
goals and the discernment of teaching- 
learning opportunities rest with congrega- 
tional planners, not with denominational 
editors. Thus, education is to be geared 
to what a congregation understands as 
its purpose and mission. 

Resources. Study materials are sug- 
gested not from one source but from a 
wide variety of sources. Moreover, the 
resource list will be evaluated and up- 
dated on an ongoing basis, enabling new- 
materials readily to be added and out- 
dated materials to be withdrawn. 

Settings. While the Educational Plan 
may be used handily for the church 
school, it is equally helpful as a resource 
for such other ventures as camping, fel- 
lowships, membership classes, released 
time classes, vacation church schools, and 
nontraditional settings. 

While the plan is to be inaugurated 
Sept. 1, so far as learning experiences 
go congregations already are laying the 
groundwork. To be on schedule congre- 
gational leaders are to have assessed by 
Ithis time what the particular needs, prob- 

lems, and resources of the congregation 
are and to have defined the educational 
objective in light of the congiegation's 
purpose and mission. 

In priming congregations for these 
tasks, already two rounds of workshops 
ha\e been scheduled by the Brotherhood 
and districts. Continued help will be 
a\'ailable to congregations thiough 108 
counselors, from two to eight per district, 
who have been selected and trained to 
aid local planners in implementing the 
new approach. 

Core items: What might be described 
as the core of the Educational Plan are 
the Educational Guide, already intro- 
duced through the workshop sessions, 
and the Library of Resources, which es- 
sentially is an extensive file tabulated 
on Keysort cards. Through careful cod- 
ing by means of punched holes along 
the margin of the card, it is possible for 
a person to lift from the initial file of 
600 cards all those resources that pertain 
to a particular situation. For example, 
for a study of the Bible — say, the proph- 
ets — by a young adult group, two in- 
sertions of a long needle into the card 
file will select the appropriate cards on 
this topic and for this age group. The 
cards can be narrowed down further to 
reveal which of the items apply to a 
particular type of setting, such as church 
school or camp, or what denominational 
source produced the material. 

Beyond helping locate the pertinent 
resources, the Keysort system offers eval- 
uations and summaries prepared b\' 
Brethren re\iewers. Each card generalK- 
is devoted to a single book, audio-visual, 
record, or article. 

Subject areas under which the ma- 
terial is indexed, besides the Bible, are 
Christian thought, church history. 
Church of the Brethren, the congrega- 

tion's life and work, creativity and the 
arts, personal life, and "the world and 
our mission." 

Sources: Materials listed in the Li- 
brary of Resources will afford a wide 
range of perspectives. The initial listing 
will include most of a Memionite vaca- 
tion church school series, a Lutheran 
Church in America weekend conference 
series for youth, and selected items from 
the United Church of Christ, the United 
Presbyterians, Lutheran Church — Mis- 
souri Synod, the Episcopal Church, and 
the United Church of Canada. 

Several new Church of the Brethi-en 
materials are projected for development, 
among them a denominational history for 
junior highs, a book on Brethren theology 
foi- adults, and peace study units from 
pi-imary through adult levels. 

To congregations desiring a conven- 
tional pattern for the church school, the 
Encounter Series for infants through 
adults will be among the resources in 
the Library. Based on a three-year cycle, 
the series is produced cooperatively by 
the Church of the Brethren, the Church 
of God (Anderson), the American Bap- 
tists, and the Christian Chuiches (Dis- 
ciples of Christ). Evaluations of each 
volume in the series will appear in the 
Keysort cards. 

For the present, the Church of the 
Brethren will continue to produce its 
own adult lessons based on the Inter- 
national Uniform Series. The lessons will 
be among the choices available in the 
Library of Resources. 

Each year up to 150 Keysort cards 
will be issued, adding that many new 
resources from which local planners may 
select. The initial set of 600 cards is 
priced at S37.50 to Church of the Breth- 
len congregations up to June 1; to others 
tlie price is $60. The cost of additional 
cards in the future will be ten cents each. 

In selecting from the cards to plan a 
specific educational offering for a given 
group, congiegational leaders will take 
into account the interests and experiences 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 13 

of the group's members and of its lead- 
ers. In some instances se\eral resources 
may be used, in others a single text. 
While only about half of the items in 
the Library of Resources will provide 
teaching helps per se, a number of sup- 
portive resources will be available on a 
given topic, for use by the leader or the 

Expectations: From the workshop 
series now nearing completion, a frequent 
comment has been, "Aren't you expecting 
a lot of the local church?" "Sure, but 
not too much" is the way one of the ed- 
itors, David R. McConnell, has handled 
the question. "The major assumption is 
that mission is carried out locally," Mr. 
McConnell explains. "If the educational 
ministry of a congregation is to undergird 
mission, then the planning must be local. 
This is to recognize that mission varies 
from place to place. 

"It is to recognize also that a lot 
of congregations for years have been 
planning as they see their own needs. 
The new approach is an effort to be 
honest about this and to help congrega- 
tions to train for mission where they are 
without giving them the answers. After 
all, Elgin is not infallible." 

While that last remark has rarely been 
a matter of dispute, the thrust of the 
Educational Plan is consistent with the 
emerging emphasis of Christian educa- 
tion in the Brotherhood — to place in- 
creased responsibility for decision mak- 
ing at the congregational base. 

Pivot: In doing so, the pivot upon 
which the effectiveness of the new plan 
hinges is local leadership. To date the 
work of the related Brotherhood staff has 
been geared toward selecting and evalu- 
ating materials for the Library of Re- 
sources, preparing the Educational 
Guide, inteqjreting the Educational 
Plan to congregational representatives, 
and selecting and training counselors. 
Soon, very soon, the emphasis needs turn 
toward leadership recmihnent and devel- 
opment. This step is among se\'eral set 
forth in the Educational Guide, but it is 
a step which will require more than six 
pages of discussion in a guide to produce 

14 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

a breakthrough. 

To provide assistance for recruiting 
and training congregational leadership is 
a high priority in the now forming Parish 
Ministries Commission of the General 

Viewed by leaders of some other de- 
nominations as a bold departure in local 
educational planning, the Bretluen ap- 
proach will be observed closely. 

In launching the new Educational 
Guide and Library of Resources and in 
conducting workshops and training coun- 
selors the editors and Christian education 
field staff at Elgin have given major 
attention over a three-year period. Ac- 
cording to general editor Ercell V. Lynn, 
the project has entailed one of the most 
major team efforts undertaken by mem- 
bers of the Brotherhood staff. 

One of Protestantism's chief spokes- 
men in Chiistian education, Princeton 
Theological Seminary's D. Campbell 
Wycoff, was a consultant to the Christian 
Education Commission and staff as they 
formulated the theory and guide for the 

Opening: S. Loren Bowman, general 
secretary of the General Board and for- 
mer Christian education executive under 
whose direction the work took shape, 
notes that the Educatoinal Plan is not 
a finished product that should survive 
the ne.xt decade without change. Rather, 
it will be revised "as new insights 

In a foreword to the Educational 
Guide Dr. Bowman pointed up that 
while the Educational Plan should help 
move the church to a more effective and 
responsible educational ministry, it 
should also encourage congregations to 
be more creative and flexible, opening 
up planning to "numerous variations in 
terms of approaches and outcomes." 

With a ten percent decline in average 
church school attendance over the past 
decade, most congi-egations are convinced 
some different tacks to parish education 
are timely. The plan now unfolding 
seeks above all to instill in this area of 
ministry a vital puipose: education for 

Brethren at random 

Peace candle: An annual lighting of 
a peace candle in the city park at Fruit- 
land, Idaho, on Christmas eve has gained 
nationwide attention. 

The idea of a yule peace candle to 
burn throughout the holidays was begun 
several \ears ago by Paul C. Eller, then 
pastor of the Fruitland Church of the 
Brethren. The sponsorship since has 
been undertaken by the Lions Club with 
the help of other community groups. 

To interpret the meaning behind the 
creation of the ten-foot-high candle, and 
of the lighting ceremony, two Brethren 
of the community. Pastor Earl H. 
Traughber, cmrently president of the | 
Lions Club, and Mary Staples, city clerk, 
presented a radio broadcast originated 
by a Roswell, N. Mex., station. The 
Ladies' Home Journal and other press 
media also noted the observance. 

Prior to the lighting this past Christ- 
mas eve the Brethren youth enacted a 
Uving Christmas scene in the park. 

Board member licensed: A member of 
the Church of the Brethren General 
Board was licensed and named pastor ot 
an Indiana congregation. 

She is Mrs. John Carter of Bryant, 
Ind., one of 52 women currently licensed 
or ordained to the ministry in the Church 
of the Brethren and among three serv- 
ing in the pastorate. 

Mrs. Carter, Phyllis, is engaged part- 
time as pastor of the Bethel Center 
church near Hartford City, Ind. 

Besides being a homemaker for her 

John and Phyllis Carter at licensing 

Bible school alternative 

farmer husband and thi-ee children, Mrs. 
Carter is a professional book reviewer, 
a public speaker, a leader in community 
affairs, and an enthusiast of Mission 
Twelve and other dialogue experiences. 

Neighborhood ministry: A mixture 
of Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Saxons 
comprise the neighborhood around the 
Glendale, Ariz., Church of the Brethren. 
One of the concerns of the congregation 
has been how to ser\'e the community's 
specific needs. 

Taking note of the lack of playgiounds 
in the area, the cramped living quarters 
of many families, and the young children 
roaming the streets while their parents 
worked in the fields, the church last sum- 
mer set up a recreation program. The 
project was termed "Cool Capers. " 

"It was immediately clear to us that 
a Bible school for two weeks would not 
do the job, particularly since half the 
children come from Catholic families 
who would not permit their children to 
attend," said Glendale pastor Jack 
Breidenstine. "Also, there were two other 
churches in the area which offered Bible 

When the summer program ended for 
42 children ages 3 to 12, the church 
followed up by offering its fellowship 
hall three nights a week as a neighbor- 
hood study hall. 

Month of Hope: A "Month of Hope 
for the Children of Biafra/Nigeria" was 
observed statewide in Kansas from 
Thanksgiving to Christmas. The em- 
phasis entailed efforts both to inform the 
public and to raise funds for victims on 
both sides of the battle lines. 

Conceived by Geraldine Smith, a re- 
ligion editor in Wichita and a Negro, 
as an attempt to arouse black Americans 

particularly to aid "our ancestral people," 
the project was given official status 
through a proclamation by Gov. Robert 

Across the state a "truth squad" ap- 
peared at high schools, colleges (includ- 
ing McPherson), community forums, and 
on radio and television. Included on the 
squad were an Irish Catholic missionary 
who had made 12 relief flights into the 
conflict area and a former Church of 
the Brethren missionary, Irven F. Stern, 
now a pastor at Hutchinson. 

Mrs. Roy Menninger, wffe of the well- 
known physician at Menninger Clinic in 
Topeka and a member of the truth 
squad, told audiences that estimates in- 
dicated "a papulation equal to that of 
Kansas will die by Christmas unless aid 
is greatly increased." 

Among several fund efforts was the 
use of a Christmas cai'd picturing a Ni- 
gerian child and reading: "A gift of 

days' life has been given in 

your name to a starving child of Biafra/ 

Nigeria by " The sponsors 

figured 10 cents was required to keep 
a child alive a day. 

The total proceeds, which included 
individual gifts up to $100 at Hutchin- 
son, according to Pastor Stern, were 
channeled through church relief agencies 

One of the hopes of the Kansas plan- 
ners is that other groups elsewhere will 
engage in mass appeals in behalf of Ni- 
geria's civil war sufferers. 

In absentia: A prayer fellowship in 
an Indiana congregation has tapped 
modem technology to reach persons un- 
able to be present in its meetings. 

Convening twice weekly at the home 
of a member, the prayer group of the 
Church of the Brethren at North Man- 
chester, Ind., renders a spiritual ministry 
to those in need. To communicate with 
persons absent, a telephone speaker sys- 
tem is used in which the entire assembled 
group can be heard by the party called. 
In this way the listener is part of the 
music, the prayers, and general conver- 
sation of the group. 

Beyond the meetings and telephone 
contacts, the prayer group visits shut-ins, 
calls at nursing homes and, at a time 
of death, ministers to the bereaved. The 
service is extended not only to members 
of the chui-ch family but to the com- 
munity as well. 

Dual afFillatlon: The University Bap- 
tist Church of State College, Pa., a con- 
gregation related to the American 
Baptist Convention, has been recognized 
also as a Church of the Brethren congre- 
gation by the district of Middle Penn- 
sylvania. Annual Conference moderator 
Morley J. Mays joined in the service of 
unit\' celebrated in November. 

Others participating in the service in- 
cluded, left to right in the photo below, 
Wayne J. Eberly, a Brethren minister 
and local member, Robert B. Wallace, 
pastor. Dr. Mays, Joseph M. Mason, 
Middle Pennsylvania district executive, 
and Lee Jeffords, American Baptist 

The service culminated several months 
of study in which it was decided to 
have a single congregation dually af- 
filiated with the Baptists and the Breth- 
ren. No attempt will be made to 
maintain separate denominational group- 
ings in the church. 

The local church will draw from the 
worship resources, practices and heri- 
tages of both chmches and be entitled 
to full participation in both bodies. 

State College . . . celebration of unity 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 15 



What is the Christian's task at a time when tivo neighbors, 
Arab and Israeli, vie on a coHmcn course? Here Canadian 
Mennonite Frank H. Epp offers an overview of the crisis 

The land of Palestine in particular 
and the Middle East in general have for 
thousands of years been central to the 
developing drama of human history. As 
the birthplace of three major rehgions 
and the crossroads of three continents, 
the eastern end of the Mediterranean 
has been a focal point of human interest 
and human conflict for a long time. 

In this unsettled area various nations 
and people have laid claim to its re- 
sources. These claims and subsequent 
conflicts have been particularly acute in 
the last two decades as the state of 
Israel and the Arab peoples ha\'e vied 
with each other for the conti-ol of Pales- 

To gain a greater understanding of the 
implications of this shuggle, this waiter 
was dispatched by the Mennonites to 
study the Middle East situation. He 
visited Egypt, Lebanon, East Bank and 
West Bank Jordan, and Israel, interview- 
ing more than 100 people. Collectively 
the following impressions and conclusions 

were drawn, all of which are shared 
not as a final assessment or answer, but 
as part of an ongoing interpretive effort. 

The two worlds of the Middle East 
(the state of Israel and the Arab peo- 
ples) remain, as they have been since 
the 1940s and perhaps even before, on 
a collision course. 

The wars of 1948, of 1956, and of 
1967 are one. and that one war has not 
yet come to an end. A peace settlement 
is not in sight, in spite of the dedicated 
efforts of UN Envoy Gunnar Jarring. 

Unless a miracle happens, it is just a 
question of time before major violence 
flares up again. The big powers are in- 
creasingly being drawn into the conflict, 
and the next round could engulf the 

The Middle East problem must, there- 
fore, because of its size and gravity, 
command our serious attention. And, in 
relation to it, all the questions concerning 
international conflict must once again be 
asked and studied, including the in- 

volvement of the big powers, the media- 
tion of international organizations, and 
alternatives to violence in the resolution 
of conflict. 

The continuing clash between the two 
worlds is due to their highly contradic- 
tory cultures and their definitely incom- 
patible political claims. 

Middle Easterners have cited the dif- 
erences in attitudes, goals, and methods 
represented by the Israeli and Arab cul- 
tures. There are many manifestations of 
these differences. To give only one, per- 
liaps not the most profound, example of 
how this variance is felt, I quote one 
Arab leader: "The sudden invasion of 
miniskirts following the June war was the 
biggest shock to the Arab sense of de- 

While this friction between the island 
of Western culture, which is Israel, and 
the surrounding sea of nonwestem cul- 
ture, which is the Arab world, is not to 
be overlooked, it must also not be over- 
stressed. Both Arabs and Jews claim 
that they can happily live alongside one 
another as peoples, and both cite his- 
torical and contemporary examples to 
prove their point. The same cultural di- 
versity exists within the State of Israel. 

16 MESSENGER 1-30-69 


Two vietvs of Jerusalem . . . a city sacred to Jews, Moslems, and Christians 

More basic to the conflict is that 
both sides claim rights and sovereignties 
with respect to the same parcel of land 
and to the same holy city and shrines. 
These incompatible claims, which, in the 
opinion of some people represent two 
just causes, make the Middle East prob- 
lem so difficult as to defy any conceiv- 
able solution. 

The Israeli side of the story stresses 
the historic need for a national home for 
the Jews in the diaspora. 

The Israeli story goes something hke 
this: "We had a physical and psychologi- 
cal need for a national homeland. We 
were persecuted many times in many 
places. The Third Reich killed sLx mil- 
lion of our people. We had no place 
where we really felt welcome and secure. 

"In our search, we turned to Palestine 
and that for several reasons. This land 
had once been our homeland, and a 
goodly number of our people had con- 
tinued to live there. Our religion also 
drew us back to Palestine, because this 
was our promised land and its famous 
capitol was our eternal city. 

"Though there were many more Arabs 
in the area than Jews, there was much 
land not being used: desert areas with 

good potential as well as reclaimable 
swamps. Much of the occupied land 
had been abused. In any event, our peo- 
ple bought what they wanted. 

"Great powers, like Great Britain and 
later the United Nations, recognized our 
need and our right. The state of Israel 
came into being in 1948. The Arab 
peoples, however, never recognized us. 
They wouldn't talk to us and make peace. 
They endangered our security. We are 
not aggressive. We have only defended 
ourselves and tried to find peace and se- 

It is essential for us to see the Israeli 
story in the light of the many centuries 
of persecution and social ostracism ex- 
perienced by the Jews. 

But the Palestinian Arabs, supported 
by the Arab states, minimize the Israeli 
claims and deny part of their story, say- 
inp, that they, the Arabs, have been 
driven from their homeland by a foreign 

The Arab story goes something like 
this: "We and our forefathers, including 
Abraham, ha\'e lived in this land con- 
tinuously for 1-300 years or more. Peace- 
fully we lived with our Jewish neighbors 
in all our territories. Among us Semites 

there was no antisemitism. 

"Then Western peoples, meaning pri- 
marily the British and the Americans, 
promised to give land which they did 
not own to the Jews, who had no real 
right to it, b\' taking it from us, the own- 
ers, without even asking us. 

"While some lands have been pur- 
chased from absentee Arab landowners, 
most of what was lost by over one mil- 
lion Palestinian Arabs was taken from 
us when we were forced to leave our 
homeland. A thief has entered our homes 
and our gardens by force and now asks 
us to come and talk to him about his 
security. What we are interested in is 
peace with justice. 

"We do not mind Jewish people li\'ing 
in Palestine, but we object to the ma- 
terialist-nationalist Zionist philosophy and 
to a sovereign state of Israel. We object 
to this state as much as Americans would 
object if the Jews of New York, with out- 
side help and encouragement, would 
proceed to buy and seize Manhattan Is- 
land and declare a sovereign state. 

"We could accept a binational or 
multinational state in the land of Pales- 
tine, one which would protect the rights 
of all; but an exclusivist, racist, expan- 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 17 

sionist state, which sometimes sees its 
empire extending from the Nile to the 
Euphrates, never! 

"We feel the State of Israel is really 
a continued expression of Western anti- 
semitism. The Western peoples, feehng 
their guilt for not wanting the Jews, are 
asking us, who were never antisemitic, 
to suffer the consequences of their anti- 
semi tism." 

The Arab side of the story, it appears 
clear to this observer, is the least known 
and the most underrepresented in the 

The underrepresentation in the West 
of the Arab peoples, their needs, and 
their aspirations is due to a number of 

In the first place, very little new infor- 
mation has in recent years counteracted 
the old, out-dated images. The lack of 
new information is due in pai-t to the 
lack of Arab initiative in public relations 
and in part to the failure of our press 
to take the .Arab world seriously. Oiu- 
so-called free press has not alwa\s been 
an informed press. 

The Israeli side of the story has, on 
the other hand, been very good copy in 
most of our newspapers and magazines, 
including the church papers, of which 
not a few have repeatedly spoken of 
"the great state of Israel." The Arabs 
like to think that Jews control most of 
the American mass media, including the 
publishing houses. 

This Aiab assumption is, no doubt, an 
exaggeration, but it remains true that 
some excellent pro-Arab books are hard 
to find in our stores and that the state 
of Israel has taken much greater care 
than the Arabs to plead its cause before 
the world, including the Christian world. 
A cultural empathy made their com- 
munication relatively easier. 

Not onhj does the West not know the 
Arab and his cause, but the Christian 
West lias hardhj become aware of the 
Christians in the Arab world. 

I consider myself a relatively enlight- 
ened man, but to discover a large Chris- 
tian community with strong leaders in 
the Arab world was an eye-opener for 

The Arabs, 
like the Is- 
raelis, are de- 
termined to 
establish their 
own security. 
Many want to 
"liberate" their 

me. I think most Western Christians are 
nearly as much in the dark as I was. 

In the United Arab Republic and the 
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Chris- 
tians number only about 14 or 16 per- 
cent of the population, but in Lebanon 
the figui'e may be close to 50 percent. 
The strong, educated leadership within 
the Christian community probably means 
a qualitative influence on public life that 
exceeds its quantitative proportion. 

These Christian leaders have begun to 
discover one another in ecumenical fel- 
lowship, through the Near East Council 
of Churches, new relationships with the 
Orthodox churches, and participation in 
the World Council of Churches. 

Very few, if any, of the Arab Christian 
leaders accept the theology by which 
Western Christianity has supported the 
state of Israel. 

Generally speaking, the Arab Chris- 
tian leaders are calling for a fresh look 
at the meaning of Israel in the Bible and 
at the character of the state of Israel as 
it manifests itself contemporarily. 

In the first instance, they point out 
that Christians are the new Israel. In 
the second place, they insist that the reli- 
gious motifs in the present state of Israel 
are only a \eneer for what are basically 
materialist, power-oriented, empire-moti- 
vated goals and values of a nationalistic 

If the sons of Abraham are to be iden- 
tified in the flesh, they say, then the 
.Arabs must be included, and if the state 
of Israel is to be justified, then let it be 
justified as a nonracist, nonaggressive, 
nonexpansionist state, one that loves 
righteousness and justice and whose peo- 
ple walk humbly with their God. 

The point to be made here is not 
whether Arab Christian theology is bibU- 
cal but rather that it exists and that other 
Christians owe it to themselves and to 
their Arab brethren to recognize it. 

// listening to the Arab theologians is 
part of our call, then surely the other 
part is to give Jewish or pro-Israel theo- 
logians a hearing as well. 

In my limited contacts I have nut 
gained a clear impression of the extent 
to which the state of Israel is conscious- 
ly borne up by Jewish religion and the- 

That Jewish religion must play at 
least a subconscious role in the Zionist 
philosophy is to be expected and we do 
know that it has been employed rather 
liberally in Zionist propaganda. 

We also know that the Jewish religiou.s 
factor strengthens in their support those 
Christians in Israel whose theology tends 
to justify the state of Israel. 

It is thus noted that American Chris- 
tians in the Middle East tend to be di- 
\ided in their outlook by their respec- 
tive locations in the Arab and Israeli 
worlds. Surely, our minimum obligation 
is to facilitate communication and under- 
standing between our own workers in the 
Middle East. 

Not only do Arab Christians want 
Western Christians to take a new look at 
the meaning of Israel, hut tJiey also want 
us to consider a new relationship to the 
Muslim people. 

The Arab Christians remind us that in 
the same way that Christians claim to 
be a continuation and fulfillment of 
Judaism, .so Islam claims to be a contin- 
uation of both Judaism and Christianity. 
Since Islam has accepted the prophetic 

18 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

For the Arab, the issue is justice, and half of that justice 

is the clear recognition that a great injustice has been done 

character of Jesus Christ, are there not 
good reasons for establishing a relation- 
ship witli the Muslims? 

Why, ask the Arab Christians, do the 
WCC and other Christian bodies speak 
of conversing with the Jews while at the 
same time speaking of converting the 

Arab Christians also remind us that 
at the time of the Crusades they fought 
along with the Muslims against the for- 
eign invaders, and that they feel them- 
selves \'ery much at one with Muslims 
also in the present problem confronting 
the Arab world. 

In other words, the Arab Christians 
are asking us to take them more seriously 
by taking the world of Islam more seri- 

In spite of their identity with the 
Arab nationalist cause and their em- 
pathy for the Muslim majority. Christians 
sec in their future some problems arising 
from the fact that they are and will be a 
minority in what is largely a Muslim- 
Arab world. 

The Christian problem has at least 
a twofold source. On the one hand, it is 
due to the leadership role which Chris- 
tians tend to occupy in society. They fill 
more than their share of the better po- 

What has been true of Christians in 
Africa and Asia is also true in the Middle 
East. They have shown greater initia- 
tive, obtained better educations, sought 
wider opportunities, and arrived at better 
positions. This inevitably produces jeal- 
ousy and resentment on the part of those 
less privileged. 

Indeed, in a country like Lebanon they 
maintain the dominant power position, 
in spite of the fact that quantitatively 
they are probably in the minority. A 
population census has been delayed and 
Palestinians are not integrated as citi- 
zens for fear that the Christians could 
lose their favored positions. Such ques- 
tionable maintenance of power can mean 
real trouble for the Christians in the 

Better vocational qualifications also 
lead to greater emigration opportunities. 

Thus, some of the Christian congrega- 
tions in the Jerusalem-Bethlehem area 
find that their people are leaving in large 

A third fact working against Chris- 
tians in Arab countries is the image 
which Muslims have of the Christian 
chui'ch. In their minds it is associated 
with power and imperialism. To them 
the Christian religion is a religion of the 
rich, the powerful, and the oppressive. 
The support of the Western Christian 
church for Israel tends to confirm this 

Arab Christians therefore feel a par- 
ticular need to prove themselves as Ara- 
bian and as nationalistic as the Muslims 
are. They feel that Western Christians 
could make it easier for them to estab- 
lish an indigenous character and witness 
by permitting them this nationalism and 
by speaking loudly for the Arab cause. 
This could be part of our obligation, but 
surely another part is to help Christian 
Arabs understand that Christ sometimes 
requires the denial of power and status. 

The lack of support and understanding 
in the West is "forcing" the Arabs more 
and more to turn to the East, and pro- 

The deepest and loudest cries in the ref- 
ugee camps are a demand for justice 

communist sympathies have appeared first 
of all and most of all in Christian centers. 

Actually, the entire Arab world finds 
itself torn in two directions: both West 
and East. The pull toward the West is 
due to the past orientation. The Ameri- 
can University at Beirut has had a par- 
ticularly positive influence. To quote one 
graduate: "We have been brought up 
in Western institutions and have appre- 
ciated them." 

Another pro-Western factor — at least 
it is not a pro-Eastern factor — is the na- 
ture of Islam itself. "It is impossible for 
Arab countries to become communist. Is- 
lam and communism are incompatible. In 
times of crisis we put our communists 
in jail," the Arabs sa\'. 

Yet, the disappointment \\ ith the West 
and the empathy experienced from the 
East is causing Arab peoples to turn east- 
ward. In the forefront of such turning 
are Christian people. Indeed, the com- 
munist interest and activity appear to be 
strongest in such Christian towns as 
Nazareth, Bethlehem, Beit Jala, and 
Ram all a. 

In the words of one Christian leader, 
"We have tried our alliance with the 
West. ... If we as moderates ask for 
patience and a new approach, we are 
considered traitors." Moderation is, there- 
fore, difficult for them, and Christian 
leaders feel no great urge to halt or to 
reverse the eastward trend. In some they welcome it. 

The June 1967 war appears finalK' to 
have convinced the Arabs that the West 
is more against them than for them and 
that they are as much confronted by 
the United States as by Israel. 

One Arab commenting on the 1967 
Blitzkrieg said, "We thought it was the 
Atlantic pact above our heads." 

Whether or not Israel really was direct- 
]>• helped by the United States or other 
NATO powers in the June war, the Arabs 
are convinced that Israel could not have 
done what it did without continuing ma- 
terial and moral support. 

They know that last year alone some 
$.550 million came to Israel from the 
United States and that much of this, since 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 19 


it was given through the United Jewish 
Appeal, represented allowable tax credits 
for the donors. 

That is also why they believe the 
United States is the primaiy agency to 
bring about a settlement. The Arabs are 
convinced that one word from the White 
House could cause Israel to withdraw to 
the 1967 borders and othenvise to obey 
UN resolutions. 

My own feeling has been that the 
Arabs tend to count on the USA too 
much for a solution of their problems. 
On the other hand, we should not under- 
estimate the extent to wluch big powers 
like the USA ai-e in position to requii-e 
respect for, and obedience to, the resolu- 
tions of the United Nations Security' 

Israel, on the other hand, is convinced 
that the Arab threat to destroy the state 
and to drive the Jews into the sea whence 
they have come is not an empty threat. 

Again and again, Israelis and non- 
Israelis resident in Israel have, almost 
with trembling, reviewed the voices from 
Amman and Cairo which in May and 
June of 1967 threatened the ultimate. 

They do not accept the interpretation 
of Arab communication, which says that 
Arab speech is often a substitute for Arab 
action and that if an Arab says he will 
do such and such, this is a clear sign 
that he probably won't. 

Israel understands the Nasserian 
threats not in terms of Aiab psychology 
but in tenns of historical Jewish experi- 
ence. For them threats of annOiilation 
must always be taken seriously, for they 
can read them only in the light of 
Buchenwald and Auschwitz. 

The Middle East problem, therefore, 
is in large measuj-e a communications 
crisis in which the Israeli does not under- 
stand the Arab tongue and the Arab does 
not understand the Israeli ear. 

There is one common denominator in 
both the Arab and Israeli communica- 
tions: Both express lack of confidence in 
the United Nations, although both see 
their opponent as having the greater dis- 
respect for this international body. 

The Arabs claim that Israel has re- 

spected only one UN resolution, namely 
the one creating the Israeli state. All 
others have been disobeyed and disre- 

The Israelis, on the other hand, claim 
that the Arabs are the ones who with- 
drew the UN peace forces and that they 
are also the ones who fail to understand 
the UN demand on Israel as falling in 
the context of an overall peace settle- 
ment, which the Arabs are making 

In any event, Israel sees no security 
for itself coming from the UN and claims 
that it must secure its owai sovereignty 
and rights. 

Likewise, the Arab peoples ha\e given 
up on the UN as an agenc>' which can 
bring justice to the Palestinian exiles and 
are, therefore, also proceeding to take 
things into their own hands. 

But they would like to see a stronger 
UN, and it is difficult to foresee any 
solution that does not require the media- 
tion, protection, and enforcement of a 
much sh-onger international body. The 
UN must, therefore, remain high on our 

Since Israel expects, and perhaps 
icants, no help from the UN, she is de- 
termined to establish her own security. 

All Israeli military activity, which 
Arabs see as aggressive, is by Israel 
explained in terms of defense and 

The six-day war was in the interests 
of security as is the continued occupation 
of the occupied territory, the Israelis say. 

Although withdrawal to the 1967 
borders is still assumed to be a possibility 
in some international circles and also 
recommended by some Israeli spokesmen, 
I consider it to be highly improbable. 

Everything that I saw and heard about 
Israeli aspirations and tactics past and 
present confirmed in me the feeling that 
Israel does not intend to withdraw. 

The Arabs may, indeed, have precipi- 
tated the June war, but it is now also 
quite clear that the Israelis have been 
wanting all of Jerusalem and all of Pales- 
tine for some time. 

And at the moment, it appears, Israel 

A young Jew at Jerusalem's Wailing Wall 

can handle the situation and perhaps 
even win another round or two. Con- 
sidering the longer term, however, the 
continued military occupation of Arab 
territories will in the end produce its own 

The Palestinian Arabs have not only 
given up on the United Nations and the 
United States, but also on the Arab 
states, and are now undertaking to "lib- 
erate" their homeland themselves. It is 
not surprising to find their greatest sup- 
port in the refugee camps. 

In these camps, both the recently es- 
tablished tent camps and the 20-year 
camps, the frustration is greatest and 
the adulation of the commandos is 
strongest. Here also Sirhan B. Sirhan, 
the alleged assassin of Senator Kennedy, 
is a hero. 

This Jordanian immigrant to the USA 
has, by his act, given \'oice to Arab 
despair, and, somewhat mistakenly, the 
Arab refugees believe that Kennedy's 
assassination will cause the United States 
and the world to take note of their 

It is not uncommon for little boys in 
the camps to wear commando-colored 
shorts and express their life's ambition 
in commando terms. To them the com- 
mandos are heroes; their cause gives 
meaning to life. 

In this they are supported by some 

?0 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

The Jewish yearning for a national homeland needs to he seen 

in light of many centuries of persecution and ostracization 

emphases in Islamic theology, which say 
that if you resist aggression and die as 
a martyr for your country and your peo- 
ple, you will go to Paradise. "We must 
die to liberate our country," they say, 
as they overlook the more pacifistic pas- 
sages in the Koran. 

The deepest and loudest cries in the 
refugee camps are a demand for justice. 

Every attempt to make their camps 
permanent or even more comfortable is 
seen as an effort to avoid the basic issue, 
namely that their lands and their homes 
have been taken from them and that 
they want either to return or to be 

Most of all, it appears, they want 
the West and the world to recognize that 
they have suffered gieat injustice. Some 
leaders have gone as far as to say, "If 
only the Christian West would voice a 
clear recognition of this injustice and 
then take action accordingly, the psycho- 
logical plight of the refugee could to a 
helpful degree be alleviated." 

From the Israeli side comes another 
analysis of the refugee situation. They 
say that more refugees than not left 
voluntarily or because their leaders urged 
them. They also say that the refugee lists 
are not true and that there are less than 
one-half million true refugees or only 
about one third of the nearly one and a 
half million claimed by the Arabs and 
by UNRWA. 

Moreover, says Israel, about one-half 
million Jewish refugees came uncompen- 
sated to Israel from Arab territories, con- 
stituting a fair population exchange. In 
the same way that Israel rehabilitated 
the Jews, the Arab states could long have 
integrated the Arab refugees. 

As one quite familiar with refugee his- 
tory in the twentieth century and as a 
child of refugee parents myself, I, too, 
feel that the Arab state and the Pales- 
tinian exiles might have taken greater 
initiative in making a new life in spite 
of the injustice done to them. 

On the other hand, the Israelis should 
be the first to remember from their own 
experience that environmental factors can 
in some instances be so adverse that 

individual initiative is of little avail in 
changing one's actual physical situation. 
The refugees on the East Bank do, in- 
deed, have the environment against 
them. That so many East Bank Jor- 
danians and Palestinian refugees have 
survived as well as they have is surely 
a credit to them. 

Finally, we may not forget that much 
more is involved in rehabilitation than 
just a satisfactory resettlement, materially 
speaking. A respect for human dignity 
is for the Arab more important than any- 
thing else. 

At this point, nothing else seems to 
matter. Justice is what he wants, and 
half of that justice is the clear recognition 
that a great injustice has been done. 

Equally loud are the cries of the Jetvs 
of the state of Israel for security, and 
these also must he listened to and under- 

The Christian church, like the Jewish 
community, has undergone many perse- 
cutions in diverse lands and should, 
therefore, be the first to understand the 
Jews. It is also true, of course, that 
Cliiistians have in some places been re- 
sponsible for the persecution of the Jews 
and in other places failed to witness 
against it. There are also outstanding 
examples of Christians speaking up and 
risking their lives for Jews. 

Once in the twentieth century the 
Jews have been confi-onted by what was 
called a "final solution." It is impossible 
for them, as it would be impossible for 
most individuals and groups, to be con- 
fronted by such a possibility the second 
time in a century, or even, as is the 
case in many instances, the second time 
in a single generation. 

As the Arabs cairy some responsibility 
for the injustice that was done to them, 
so the Jews carry some responsibility for 
the insecurity experienced by them. 
Their responsibilities, however, do not 
absolve us of our own, which, to begin 
with, requires sincere and intensive lis- 
tening and emphathetic understanding 
of both. 

Beyond listening and understanding. 
Christians and churches have the re- 

sponsibility of seeking a solution to the 
Middle East problem by witnessing to 
all the parties involved. 

Chuixhes like our own have several 
things going for them. I am referring 
here to the effective programs and the 
highly qualified people, which in the past 
and in the present have established an 
enviable beachhead in Middle East 

The next contribution to which we are 
being called, I believe, is a distinctively 
spiritual one, meaning a speaking of truth 
in love to and with all those paities who 
are in any way invohed in the Middle 
East situation. 

I say "next contribution" deliberately, 
because the material aid and self-help 
activities should be continued as needed 
and here and there even expanded. 
Moreover, they are, in a sense, our permit 
or license to .speak. 

On the otiier hand, in the Middle East, 
particularly in East Bank Jordan, the 
converse could also be trae. This is to 
say that our voice for justice, our speak- 
ing the truth in love, becomes the permit 
for us to be engaged in material aid and 
self-help. It is only too true that the 
refugees are inclined to accept interim 
material help only from people who they 
know are engaged in seeking justice in 
a long-term solution. It is also true that 
the Jews will listen only to those who 
understand their need for security. 

A truth-in-love message can, however, 
emerge only from a complete knowledge 
of the situation. In other words, a great 
deal of study must precede and accom- 
pany any spiritual ministry of education 
and witness that we may want to per- 
form. We need more information and 
knowledge on almost every dimension of 
the Middle East problem. 

As we listen and as we witness, we 
must, therefore, be engaged in a study 
process which will perfect our under- 
standing of God's will for the Middle 
East and its peoples in oui" time. For 
Christians this requires, not least of all, 
a reexamination of their theology relative 
to the promised land and the peoples that 
lay claim to it. 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 21 

The Good News 

Through Prihting 


An Christopher Sauer. German immigrants in the 
American colonies produced one of the leading 
printers of the new world. It was no more than 
could be expected of people who understood the 
great power of the printing press in the service of 

More than one hundred years earlier they had 
observed the English Puritans tweaking the nose of 
Bishop Laud while at the same time setting in 
motion one of the greatest migrations in history. 
The Puritan weapons were tracts and sermons 
spread throughout the British Isles. 

Inspired by the example of the printer 
Christopher Sauer, there developed in the ranks of 
the Church of the Brethren a line of famous pub- 
lishers who offered the pages of their magazines for 
expressing the opinion that Christianity was 
primarily a way of life. 

The Brethren printers began the nineteenth 
century with the iron hand press typified by the 
Washington model, but toward the end of the 
century the industrial revolution swept over them 
and their denomination. The power-driven cylinder 
press with its greater production pointed toward the 
social gospel and the end of simple, pietistic faith. 

Magazines were a unique American development. 
Europe spawned book publishers, but America's 
countless magazines provided the untutored popula- 
tion with a broad education. Too, the magazine was 
ideally suited to the Brethren, who firmly believed 
that each individual must find his own interpretation 
of God's will. The great diversity of understanding 
of God's will was the very lifeblood of publications 
edited by such men as Kurtz, Quinter, Holsinger, 
and the Brumbaughs. 

They would have agreed with Sauer's comment 
to Dr. Henry Luther, Frankfurt type manufacturer : 

"My small printing shop, now started, is dedicated 
to God, and I hope that, during my life and my 
son's life, nothing shall be printed except that which 
is to the glory of God and for the physical or 
eternal good of my neighbors." 

It seems clear that the nineteenth-century Breth- 
ren publishers strengthened the denomination with 
their efforts. A spiritual kinship with Sauer is 
obvious. For example, like Sauer and his friend, 
Christopher Dock, they advocated education, 
although such notions were not acceptable to many 
of their readers. 

The story may be followed to circa 1820 when a 
German language weekly newspaper was started in 
Canton, Ohio, by Edvard Schafer. He was joined 
the following year by Jacob Sala and his sons. 

Three religious books were printed in German 
and then Sala, now on his own, proposed reprinting 
for the Dunkers the famous hymnbook first pro- 
duced by Sauer, Mack, and Becker in 1744. 
Although the effort was abandoned when the 
Dunkers balked at the price of one dollar, Sala 
had recruited an editor in Henry Kurtz, who 
associated himself with the printer in order to 
support his family and to learn the printing trade. 

On April 6, 1828, Kurtz separated from the 
Lutheran Church and was baptized a Brethren. In 
1832, having left Sala, he printed an edition of the 
hymnal in Osnaburg, Ohio. Many other books and 
periodicals flowed from his press. He moved his 
family to Trumbull County (the Poland post office) 
in 1842 and in the loft of his springhouse began 
publication of the "Gospel Visitor" in 1851. 

A letter appeared in the December issue, 1851 of 
this forerunner of the modern "Messenger," signed 
"Theophilus." It reads in part: "As I am a very 
extensive reader and in possession of a library of at 
least 3,000 volumes, chiefly of old and rare authors, 
to which only few of your readers may have access, 
I thought a few gleanings from them could not 

22 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

be unacceptable to your readers." 

The writer of course, was the famous book 
collector, Abraham Cassel. Kurtz visited Cassel's 
home while his friend was away on a visit to the 
publisher's home. In the letter which Kurtz wrote 
after his fruitless attempt to meet Cassel, he 
commented : "I do not envy your treasure but feel 
a desire to give you my candid opinion how to 
make good use of it and of your talents for the 
benefit of your family and mankind. 

"I would establish a circulating library and 
bookstore. ... I propose our thriving village of 
Columbiana. In Poland, Ohio, there is already such 
a library and store by which a worn-out Methodist 
preacher makes a comfortable living." The valuable 
Cassel collection eventually was divided between 
Juniata College, Mt. Morris College in Illinois, and 
the Pennsylvania Historical Society of Philadelphia. 

In the fall of 1856 a young man from Pennsyl- 
vania arrived to learn the printing trade. He was 
Henry Holsinger, who later returned to his native 
commonwealth to found the "Christian Family 

About the same time Holsinger arrived, James 
Quinter, later president of Juniata College (1878- 
1888), assumed the position of editorial assistant. 
Quinter had moved to Ohio at the age of forty 
after years of self-education, teaching, and ministry. 
His strong interest in higher education was to lead 
him to the Brumbaughs in Huntingdon, Pennsyl- 
vania, but meanwhile his presence helped the 
"Gospel Visitor" grow in circulation. 

The elder Kurtz retired in 1857, and Quinter 
became co-owner with Henry Kurtz Jr. Education 
soon became an important editorial concern. In the 
1856 issue they mentioned the lack of suitable 
teachers. A plan was proposed by which worthy 
young Brethren might be educated to fill such 

Their opposition argued, "Is not the spirit of the 
gospel against high schools?" and "A high school 
would soon bring to the surface a host of reverends, 
D.D.s, and LL.D.s and then the common platform 
would cease to exist." 

Against this argument the editors countered with, 
"We think it is not only right that the church 
should encourage institutions in which our youth 
may acquire useful knowledge, but we think it is 
her duty — a duty she owes to her God, to herself, 
and to the rising generations." 

Meanwhile the "Visitor" had moved to Coving- 
ton, Ohio, and then to Dayton. In 1873 Quinter pur- 
chased Henry Kurtz Jr.'s interest and the next year 
also bought' the "Christian Family Companion" from 
Holsinger. Under the title "Christian Family 
Companion and Gospel Visitor," it was published 
in Meyersdale. 

On Route 26 in Pennsylvania is a small com- 

munity called James Creek. In the nineteenth 
century it was known as Marklesburg and was the 
home of Henry and John Brumbaugh, who opened 
a publishing business in 1870 with the friendly 
encouragement of the elders of the local Church 
of the Brethren. 

As a result, on January 1, 1870, the first number 
of "The Pilgrim" was published. "We believe that 
the Church of the Brethren is the church of God," 
the editors stated, "and shall therefore advocate its 

Starting business with a Washington hand press 
(now in use for student projects in the Carnegie 
Building at Juniata College) the Brumbaughs soon 
found the labor of printing too demanding and 
purchased one of the first power-driven cylinder 
presses. In so doing, they left the middle ages and 
stepped into the industrial revolution. 

The success of their venture forced the Brum- 
baughs to move to Huntingdon for access to mail 
and transportation. About this same time Quinter 
changed the name of his magazine to "The 
Primitive Christian" and suggested that a merger 
take place with "The Pilgrim." On October 31, 1876, 
this merger was accomplished. 

During the year 1876, the Brumbaughs' interest 
in education had resulted in the establishment of 
a school for Brethren children. Quinter must have 
felt drawn to the project because of his own 
attempt to establish a school in Ohio some ten 
years earlier. 

An article in the April 4, 1876, issue of "The 
Pilgrim" reminds readers, "From the advertisement 
in this week's issue it will be seen that Brother 
Zuck intends opening a school in our place, and 
because we have always had a deep interest in the 
proper education of the children of Brethren, we 
have consented to give part of our large building 
to be devoted to that purpose." 

They declared, "The design of the school is not 
to teach religion but to educate ; therefore, in 
principle it will not be sectarian, and all who are 
desirous of obtaining good educational facilities are 
cordially invited to attend." With this acknowledg- 
ment of the needs of the nineteenth century and 
a hint in the direction of the philosophy of the 
twentieth, Juniata College was begun. 

The Brethren magazines had acted on the com- 
mitment made by Christopher Sauer to work for 
"the eternal good of my neighbors." The printers 
aired the views of the denomination and found 
consensus in their publications. It was the consensus 
of the nineteenth century around which the readers 
were able to form their religious views and build 
both church and educational communities. 

Communication through the printer-publishers 
had performed a necessary service for the inland 
network of Brethren affiliated families. ■ ■ 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 23 

Look at that tree, 

Its bony branches waving in the wind. 

Will it ever come alive again? 

Yes. there is hope for a tree. 

When the snow melts and the spring rains fall 

It will bud and blossom all over. 

When you look beyond winter, what do you see? 

February 1969 


} \(V 







































24 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

day bir day 

The senior high school in Johnstown, 
Pennsylvania, uses an outside bulletin 
board to publicize events. This sum- 
mer, while passing by, I noticed this 
board at different times shouting from 
its loft\- fourth-floor height these mes- 
sages: "A child learns what he lives; if 
he lives with encouragement, he learns 
confidence; if he lives with praise, he 
learns to appreciate; if he lives with 
criticism, he learns to condemn; if he 
lives with hostilit\', he learns to fight; 
if he lives with tolerance, he learns to 
be patient; if he lives with fairness, 
he learns justice; if he lives with ac- 
ceptance and friendship, he learns to 
find love in the world." 

Then, as I focused my attention on 
writing for this column, I realized that 
the messages on the bulletin board 
apply toward achieving what we say is 
good and what should be found in a 
worship experience. I began to reflect 
on the progression or order of worship 
we use; it starts with praise and moves 
through confession to dedication. I 
then was forced to ask. Are the values 
found here in the worship service 
necessary for a good hfe? And I found 
myself agreeing that they are, concurring 
first that it is important for a person to 
be able to appreciate and to feel thanks- 
giving and to express gratitude. This is 
the oil that lubricates and smoothes re- 

Likewise, it is important for a person 
to be able honestly to examine his own 
deeds and actions, to confess to himself 
and to God what is wrong with these, 
and to recognize what is right in order 
to make necessary and appropriate 
changes. In other words, the ability to 
confess is necessary in order to alter 
our lives and direction for the good that 
we need and that God wants for us — 
to profit or leam from past mistakes. I 
decided as well that it is important for 
us to be able to give serious thought 

and determination to helping someone 
else other than ourselves. Othei"wise, life 
would be friendless, lose much of its 
meaning, and offer empty rewards. 

But reciting the form does not make 
it happen, so I had to ask still another 
question. How can we as parents help 
make this happen for om' children? 
How can we make it possible for them 
to experience the values expressed in the 
order of worship? For answers I came 
back to what I had seen on the school 
bulletin board: "A child learns what he 
li\es; if he lives with praise, he learns 
to appreciate; if he lives with criticism, 
he learns to condemn." A child must 
li\e with appreciation, praise, and en- 
couragement if he is to learn to ap- 
preciate God, his world, and what God 
has done for him, as well as to value 
his fellowman and his conbibution to 
his life. So really when we praise, ap- 
preciate, and encourage our children, 
we lay a basic foundation for their 
worship experience with God; we help 
them feel appreciated and, thus, to 

If parents understand that they all 
make mistakes, do not hesitate to ad- 
mit their own mistakes, and are not 
o\erly critical or harsh when their child 
fails, then the child will dare more 
honestly and openly to look at himself. 

Sensing his own worth through acts 

of encouragement and appreciation and 
realizing that he is accepted even with 
failures and shortcomings, he then can 
be freed from a complete self-preoccu- 
pation to enter the third phase of wor- 
ship — reaching out toward others in 
helpful ways. 

Therefore, since a child learns what 
he lives with, we lay basic foundations 
and aid him to incoi-porate the values 
we appreciate in worship when: 

( 1 ) Each parent spends time, more 
than money, sometime each day to 
enjoy and appreciate his child and the 
things he has done. 

(2) We accept him with his failures 
and calmly, kindly, and firmly help him 
rectify his failures; when he sees us 
admitting, apologizing for, and making 
good our failures toward him or others. 

(3) We are sensitive to what he had 
to give up to help someone else; when 
we let him know we recognize this and 
express appreciation for what he has 
done to be helpful to another. 

(4) Talk about our o^\^^ interest in 
being helpful to others and what we 
will need to invest or surrender to be 
helpful; when we let him see and hear 
our struggle and interest in others. 

This kind of worship and preparation 
for worship experiences cannot be 
plotted and planned, but it is lived 
dailv. — Don and Elberta Hursh 


Sunday. John 4:23-24. The real worshipers. 

Monday. Acts 17:22-28. Where God is. 

Tuesday. Ps. 95:1-7. Praise and thanksgiving come from a joyful heart. 

Wednesday. Titus 3:1-7. Teaching respect toward all. 

Thursday. Eph. 4:29-32. Christian attitudes toward others. 

Friday. Matt. 7:1-5. Should we judge others? 

Saturday. Ps. 25:1-10. The steadfast love of the Lord, 

Sunday. 1 Thess. 5:12-22. Showing patience and encouragement. 

Monday. Phil. 2:1-11. Give to others what Christ gives you. 

Tuesday. Rom. 12:9-21. Overcome evil with good; live peaceably. 

Wednesday. Gal. 5:22 — 6:5. Help others to bear burdens. 

Thursday. Ps. 32:1-5. The blessing of forgiveness. 

Friday. Mark 7:1-8. Jesus discerns those who worship in vain. 

Saturday. Col. 4:12-17. Living with a thankful heart. 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 25 


Thinking About Guilt 

Stein. Westminster, 1968. 238 pages, $6 

THE PARADOX OF GUILT, by Malcolm France. 
United Church Press, 1967. 128 pages, $1.95, 

It is impossible to think more than 
superficially about either religion (the- 
ology) or psychology without encounter- 
ing the subject of guilt. The way one 
thinks about guilt is deeply related to 
the way he thinks about God, about 
Christ and the atonement, about the 
church and especially about man. The 

way one thinks about gmlt is deeply 
related, also, to the way one thinks 
about the resolution of guilt in therapy 
and the nature of therapeutic healing. 
In fact, one's thinking about guilt de- 
termines whether he can accept any 
dialogue between theological reflection 
and psychotherapeutic exploration. Two 
authors, Edward V. Stein and Malcolm 
France, have made a profound contribu- 
tion to the subject of guilt in books 
that complement each other in a sur- 
prising way, considering the differences 

in the nature of their writing. Stein 
writes psychologically with deep theo- 
logical awareness; France writes theo- 
logically with deep psychological aware- 

A very meaningful area of the writing 
of both authors appears in the defini- 
tions of the concept of guilt. Stein de- 
fines guilt as "the special form of 
anxiety experienced by humans-in-so- 
ciety, the warning tension of life princi- 
ples violated, of conditions of human so- 
cial existence transgressed, of socio- 
spiritual reality ignored or affronted, of 
God alienated, of self being destroyed" 
(p. 15, italics mine). This tension 
is a reflection "of early experiences with 
significant emotional figures in the en- 
vironment, usually the parents" (p. 26). 

Stein then commends to religious 
counselors the Freudian distinction be- 
tween normal guilt (remorse) and 
neurotic guilt. He explains, "The threat 
of anticipated guilt anxiety normally 
cues off the control system, inhibiting 
impulse expression. The failure of this 
conscience warning, in the case of im- 
pulses which break through into action, 
results in normal guilt (remorse). How- 
ever, as Freud saw, the wish itself may 
activate the guilt system, resulting in 
neurotic self-condemnation and self- 
punishment at unconscious levels of 
function" (p. 26). This latter Stein 
calls, following Freud, neurotic guilt. 

Upon this base and within the frame- 
work of Freud's concept of the super- 
ego. Stein presents a very scholarly but 
at the same time very readable explora- 
tion of the subject of guilt. The reader 
would be helped by some understanding 
of Freudian jargon, but this is by no 
means a must in reading the book. Stein 
offers excellent summaries of different 
views of guilt — sociological ( Freud, 
Riesman, Fromm, Whyte, Erikson); 
psychological (Freud; Freudians Pfister 
and Lee; neo-Freudians J. C. Flugel, 
Heinz Hartmann, Melanie Klein, Edith 
Jacobson, and Anna Freud; and the 
somewhat unclassifiable O. H. Mowrer). 
One of the most interesting views Stein 

presents is that of David Ausubel, 
whom he calls "one of the more sophisti- 
cated theoreticians of recent years" (p. 
46) and who reflects the work of Piaget, 
Gesell, Havighurst, and others. The 
reader will find meaningful Ausubel's 
concepts of satelHzation (becoming a 
satellite of the parent in moral be- 
havior) and desatellization (moving 
toward behavior based on the individ- 
ual's own chosen standards) in the 
formation of the individual's conscience. 
Stein offers not only the fine summaries 
mentioned above but also advances re- 
sponsible critiques of these views. He 
leaves no doubt about where he himself 
stands on the subject of guilt. 

The chapters on superego formation 
and superego maturation are well written 
but not new to the person who has 
studied Freudian theory. The two chap- 
ters on guilt and pathology translate 
clinical data into writing understandable 
to the average reader. The first of 
these, "Guilt in the Sociopathic Per- 
sonality," outlines the dynamics of guilt 
in relation to the person who apparently 
has little or no feelings of guilt. The 
second, "Neurotic Guilt," concerns itself 
with the person who is at the other end 
of the spectrum — the person who is 
overwhelmed and possibly disabled by 
the burden of guilt he is carrying. The 
chapter called "The Psychotherapy of 
Guilt " discusses a number of widely 
varying approaches to therapy and the 
implications of each for the resolution 
of guilt. 

The final chapter, "Guilt and the Reli- 
gion of Love," calls attention to the rela- 
tion of religion and guilt. "The Judeo- 
Christian religious tradition has been 
germinal in a positive and negative way 
in both the formulation and the treat- 
ment of guilt" (p. 193). Stein grants 
that this tradition has been that of a 
familial rehgion, but, after referring to 
Freud's premise "that religion is essen- 
tially a projection onto the cosmos of 
familial structure, that God is projected 
father (psychologically)," Stein denies 
that this explains away God. One of 

the most creative and meaningful state- 
ments of the whole book follows next in 
his argument: "It is perfectly possible 
that the way in which the intelligent 
power who is the Ground of Being made 
himself known, revealed himself, was by 
making man biologically dependent 
upon human parents and prone to such 
projection" (p. 193). 

"The significance of Jesus was to 
elaborate a new sense of relationship 
with the father-God by his evidencing 
and asserting the accepting love (agape) 
of the deity toward man independently 
of man's rituals or superego strategies 
at overcoming the projected alienation " 
(p. 198). "This religious event paved 
the road for the normal rather than 
the neurotic overcoming of guilt con- 
flict" (p. 198). 

Stein senses a trend in Judeo- Christian 
thought, which he supports, toward a 
response to anxiety and guilt oriented 
around authenticity. "No longer is guilt 
a preoccupation with damnation from 
a projected tyrant. It is not even the 
threat of the loss of innocence or en- 
suing punishment for infractions of holy 
codes. It is rather concern to live up 
to the great potential given to one by 
the source of hfe. Responsibility,' is 
shifted from neurotic perfectionism to 
realistic creative participation in the ex- 
pansion of love and growth of life" (p. 
212). The potential of one's life comes 
from without; the deliverance from 
guilt, too, comes only from without. 
Man cannot save himself or others by 
his efforts; he acts, rather, in response 
to what has been given him. 

Stein has the good judgment, in the 
light of his thorough exploration of the 
subject of guilt, to avoid preaching and 
exhortation in the final chapter and the 
epilogue. The reader is left to draw 
his own conclusions in relation both to 
his own approach to the subject and to 
the relation of the church to man's guilt. 
The case is made, however, for the role 
of the church's being the alleviation of 
guilt by proclaiming the grace of God 
rather than the increase of guilt by an 

emphasis on legalism and casuistiy. 

In contrast to Stein's more systemat- 
ic psychological presentation, Malcolm 
France deliberately embarks on spelling 
out a new theology of guilt. The view 
of guilt as "a state which a man brings 
upon himself when he has done some- 
thing wrong" or "which links guilt only 
with moral offences" (p. 11) seems in- 
adequate to the author. Nor is the prob- 
lem solved by positing a "true" guilt 
and a "false" guilt. This is an unreal 
division. France writes with a confi- 
dence that "a new theology of guilt 
might free the church to become the 
place of healing which it ought to be" 
(p. 12). 

To develop his theological \iew of 
guilt, France lists, first, two paradoxes; 
first, the conviction that it is good for 
us to feel guilty alongside the convic- 
tion that it is not. (The author's posi- 
tion is that guilt ought always to be 
healed.) Second, he posits the apparent 
fact that "self-attack" is necessary but 
that, at the same time, the person de- 
fends himself against attack with real 
bitterness. "The problem of guilt is 
nothing other than one facet of the 
problem of self-hatred" (p. 20). Chris- 
tians, not recognizing this, sometimes 
seek to increase guilt and a vicious circle 
is set up. 

The author develops his theology of 
guilt fuither by examining' the "Life in 
Innocence," related to both the stoiy of 
the Garden of Eden and the memory of 
a real state in which an infant lives 
briefl>-. France's de\elopment of the 
process by which we become persons — 
the suffering of separation from the 
mother, the mother's communications, 
the good and the bad identity- which 
she offers the infant — are must reading 
for anyone interested in the develop- 
ment of rehgious faith. In early infancy, 
the individual is, of course, completely 
passive and completely dependent. At 
this time, he is the most vulnerable. 
"Because of his passivity, whatever 
identity he is given will be uncondi- 
tional" (p. 40). France means here 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 27 

REVIEWS /' continued 

that the identity' given at this time is 
not related to what the infant is, does, 
thinks, or feels; it is not related to any- 
thing the infant can deser\'e or earn. 
France is indebted to Dr. Harry Gun- 
trip for two suggesti\e concepts, "un- 
conditional badness" and "conditional 
badness." A feehng of unconchtional 
badness can arise ( 1 ) from the absence 
of the mother, (2) from lying in the 
presence of a mother who shows no 
wamith and affection, (3) from a 
mother who for some reason fails to 
provide for his needs, (4) from severe 
illness in infancy and perhaps other 
like situations. If the infant's experience 
is too severe, he may have all feelings 
crushed out of him or he may be 
possessed by an all-encompassing dread. 
The writing at this point recalls the 
very excellent clinical studies reported 
by Melanie Klein and Henry Elkins, 
who describe depression and "splitting" 
(schizoid symptoms) in the early months 

of infancy. 

Conditional badness, what is ordinarily 
meant by guilt, appears in the paradox 
of suffering. It begins to seem to the 
sufferer that he has called the suffeiing 
down upon himself. If he has done 
something such as throwing a tantrum, 
the mother responds negati\ely in her 
hmiianness and there results a condi- 
tional identity of badness. "Instead of 
being bad because he had done some- 
thing wrong, it would be because he 
was in himself something wrong — a 
nuisance. He would be feeling guilt 
just as much as in the first place. Guilt 
is any kind of conditionally bad identity, 
moral or not" (p. 58). This causes the 
individual to strive to win love all the 
more, but the effort fails. Only an un- 
conditional love can meet this need — 
and this is miavailable. "No kind of ac- 
tion can save us from dread at the heart 
of our personal being" (p. 61). Most of 
the rest of the book is concerned with 



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the many ways man tries unsuccessfully 
to solve the paradox of suffering and 
guilt. The chapter titles are suggestive 
of these: "Cheap Morality," "Evil, Be 
Thou My Good," "Innocence Defended," 
"Man Against His Brother," and "Man 
Against Himself. ' In the last of these 
chapters, France asserts that behind the 
feeling of conditional badness lies un- 
conditional badness. People are driven 
to make real in their adult lives the 
identity of infancy. "He needs to be 
worthless in order to be anybody at all" 
(p. 93). 

In contrast to the frantic activity of 
the guilty man trying to save himself, 
France describes the passivity that is so 
tragically neglected in the church. The 
Beatitudes are strongly passive in tone. 
"[Man] must be passive and receive 
these beatitudes as the gift of God" (p. 
98). And. significantly for the church 
as covenant community, "Of all the 
passivities which we experience, the 
identity which we have in others is the P 
most crucial" (p. 101). 

The chapters on "The Entiy of Christ 
Into Guilt" and "The Entry of Christ 
Into Dread" lie, of course, at the very 
heart of France's theology of guilt. 
Guilt must be transfigured. Suffering 
man needs to be saved, "but the only |i 
kind of Saviour he can accept must 
Himself be guilty" (p. 108). The tradi- 
tional understanding of the passion and 
death of Clirist fails to take into ac- 
count fully the depth of evil. The un- 
derstanding of the passion and death of 
Christ proposed by France and the 
resolution of the paradox of suffering 
and guilt he describes will deepen and 
enrich any reader's view of the mission 
of the church — the resolution of guilt 
and the proclamation of the gospel of 

I strongly recommend Stein's scholarly, 
systematic, psychological study of guilt 
and France's development of a new 
theology of guilt as companion pieces — 
excellent reading for the trained and 
untrained persons alike. — Byhon P. 


28 MESSENGER 1-30-69 

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/"" slaij have f,,,/ ■ '■''^'■'' '^ga/ »<,„ '"""ler of ■,„ C '^ "•« 

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"-ho ,s ,„ '"' hound to , " f ™""^ of ,h,- . 

" 'o get his .1, P''"fl am „ ' ^hare 

'''^^' -en ,„ ,,^ The second hush , "' ""' ^''a- 

"^ e^c/usio of "Oiband sha)/ i. 

Rather than „„„ ■ ^" ^^ardian 

P''e^erence r j- 

'"gitimate av. 
"'^-^ ^or gotl*"^' "P-n (o 
direct that """<^"'a; 
"'^' "o effort be 


"P and 

""eet de; 

^•io:: :;;-- ^-rgr^^ *a. ,.,. ^^^ 

— :^_^ """- Pa.e, a/Zi- - "..v hand and 

Jom}x)i[ — - ^^ — — 

^«^ (o thf. 
day of 


Read it and weep. 

This is not a real will. But it accurately 
tells what can happen when you do not have 
a correct legal Last Will and Testament 
drawn up for you by an attorney. 

In advance of your appointment with the 
attorney there are important things you will 
want to know. These are to be found in two 
brief and authoritative booklets you may 
have without cost. Send for "Making Your 

Will" and "37 Things People Know About 
Wills That Aren't Really So." 

You incur no obligation in requesting 
them. Write to: 

Harl L. Russell, Director of Special Gifts 
Ralph M. Delk, Assistant in Special Gifts 



1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120 

Adapted with consent of American National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago, III. 60690 

in brief 


Twenty works by nineteen -year-old 
ailist Kevin Miller were exhibited during 
January at Manchester College in In- 
diana, where the artist is a student. Oils, 
watercolors, ink and pencil drawings, and 
mLxed-media works comprised the 

Religious freedom is a burning issue in 
many parts of the world, and a Juniata 
College professor is preparing for his 
work as one of three chairmen of the 
twentieth congress of the International 
Association for Religious Freedom, to be 
held in Boston, Mass., in July 1969. 

Dr. Jacob Amstutz, who joined Juni- 
ata's faculty last September as associate 
professor of classics and comparative 
literature, will lead discussions on reli- 
gion in the secularized world. 

As many as twenty La Verne College 
students will spend six weeks of their 
summer on a distant "campus" — the Far 
East. Dr. John Jang, assistant professor 
of history, Asian studies, will conduct 
the field seminar. 

4. 4. ^ .J. 4. 

"The MAD Morality: An Expose" was 
the title of a television program broad- 
cast this month in La Venie, Calif., 
featuring Vemard Eller in a discussion of 
his Christian Century article of the same 
title and the response it evoked. 

A. G. Breidenstine of Lancaster, Pa., 
moderator-elect of the Church of the 
Brethren, has been elected chairman of 
the board of trustees at Elizabethtown 
College in Pennsylvania. Dr. and Mrs. 

Race Relations Sunday 

Brotherhood Week 

Ash Wednesday 

First Sunday In Lent 

World Day of Prayer 

Church of the Brethren General 

Passion Sunday 
Palm Sunday 
Maundy Thursday 
Good Friday 

National Christian College Day 
Mental Health Week 

Feb. 9 

Feb. 16-23 

Feb. 19 

Feb. 23 

March 7 

March 18-21 

March 23 

March 30 

April 3 

April 4 

April 6 

April 20 

May 1-7 

Breidenstine are presently in Africa, 
where they are conducting a two-month 
evaluation of the Waka schools in 

Our congratulations go to couples 
celebrating golden wedding anni- 
versaries: Mr. and Mrs. Leroy Clemens, 
Hatfield, Pa., and Mr. and Mrs. Harry D. 
Miller, Claysburg, Pa. . . . Mr. and Mrs. 
S. B. Beegly of Boones Mill. \'a., marked 
their sixty-first anniversary recently; and 
celebrating their sixty-fourth were Mr. 
and Mrs. Blaine Witham of Minot, N.D. 


A Tools for Peace conference Jan. 16 
at the Pleasant Valley church, Weyers 
Cave, Va., challenged participants with 
discussions on draft counseling and effec- 
tive peace witness. Dale Aukerman, 
volunteer worker for the Brethren Action 
Movement and former BVS director, 
was resource leader. 

Oklahoma City's Church of the Breth- 
ren plans a two-day celebration July 5-6, 
1969, to mark the fiftieth anniversary of 
its founding. The congregation extends 
invitations to former pastors and mem- 
bers to attend. 

*±* *+4 *±* a4* *^ 

The seventy-fourth annual Spiritual 
Life Institute will convene Feb. 4 at the 
Bridgewater, \'a., church. Speaking to 
the theme, "The Future Shape of the 
Church," will be Dr. Robert A. Blees, 
director of pastoral counseling at First 
Community Church, Columbus, Ohio; 
Dr. Clarence C. Goen of the Wesley 
Theological Seminary faculty, Washing- 
ton, D.C.; and members of the Bridge- 
water College department of philosophy 
and religion. Cost per person will in- 
volve meals and lodging. There is no 
registration fee. Reservations may be 
made through the Office of Church Re- 
lations, Bridgewater College, Bridge- 
water, \'a. 22812. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary report of 
the Pension Plan is available on request. 
Orders may be addressed to the Pension 
Ofiice, Church of the Bretliren General 
Offices, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 

A recent radio broadcast of Religion 
in the Neivs in Lancaster, Pa., featured 
Charles Bieber's being interviewed con- 
cerning the background of the civil war 
in Nigeria, the work of Bieber as a med- 
ical nurse in the conflict area, and the 
responsibility of the situation. Charles 
Bieber is a former missionary to Nigeria 
and currently pastor of the Big Swatara 
Church in Pennsylvania. 

Copies of the twenty-nine minute 
broadcast are now available on a free 
loan basis. Permission has been granted 
for rebroadcast. Persons wishing a copy 


.'\ltman. Caroline, Huntington. Ind.. on Dec. 17, 

1968. aged 82 
.\nkenev. Mrs. Harry L.. Cleveland Heights. Ohio. 

on Nov. 25. 1968. aged 73 
Baird, Blanche, .\shland. Ohio, on Sept. 15; 

1968. aged 81 
Basehore, Lizzie. Lebanon. Pa., on Oct. 17. 

1968. aged 86 
Bond. Rosella. Johnsville, Md., on Dec. 3, 

1968. aged 89 
Bnibaker. Everett. Virden. 111., on Sept. 2. 1968, 

aged 90 
Bucher, Elizabeth, Lebanon, Pa., aged 82 
Burkholder, Jenny. Root River, Minn., on Oct. 

11. 1968. aged 86 
Claar. C. Marie. Claysburg. Pa., on Nov. 21, 

1968, aged 55 
Dale. Louis C. Ottawa. Kansas, on Dec. 15, 

1968. aged 60 
Doolittle. Florence. St. Charles. Minn., on Dec. 

20. 1968. aged 81 
Finley. Margaret. Huntington. Ind.. on Nov. 18, 

Hardway, Hattie, Zanesville, Ohio, on Oct. 13, 

1968, aged 92 
Heit-sman, Naomi D., Tucson. Ariz., on Dec. 25, 

1968. aged 61 
Hesting. Wilma, Huntington, Ind., on Dec. 14, 

1968. aged 61 
Knight. Ruth. Bridgewater. Va.. on Dec. 13, 

1968. aged 67 
Lee. Harry L., Wilmington, Del., on Nov. 19, 

1968. aged 72 
Mclllnay. Melva A., Hopewell. Pa., on Nov. 23, 

1968. aged 80 
Myers, Glen A. St.. Brookville, Ohio, on Dec. 

17, 1968, aged 74 
Royer. Cheryl. Girard, 111., on Nov. 16, 1968, 

aged 15 
Sparks, Ethel E.. Zanesville. Ohio, on Oct. 4, 

1968, aged 87 
Szelis, Ben, Huntington. Ind.. on Dec. 19. 1968, 

aged 60 
Utz, Helen, Union Bridge, Md., on Oct. 25, 1968 
Webb, Allie, Boones Mill. Va.. on Dec. 28, 1968, 

aged 86 
Wehrley, Jacob, Brookville. Ohio, on Nov. 29, 

1968, aged 76 
Ziegler, Nelson K., Hatfield, Pa., on Dec. 2, 

1968, aged 67 

30 MESSENGER 1-30-69 


of the tape may ask for the Bieber tape 

from the Department of Interpretation, 
Church of the Brethren General Offices, 
1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. 
The only obligation is return postage. 

j 4. ^ 4. ^ 4. 

' First church at Bristol, Tenn., and the 
Blackleg, Valley Point church in Middle 
Pennsylvania in 1967-68 became the first 
congregations to have increased in 

I Brotherhood fund giving by ten percent 
or more for seven consecutive years. 
This record is recognized in a special 
report issued by the Department of 

For three churches — Prince of Peace 
in South Bend, Ind.; Frederick in Mary- 
land; and Friendship in North Carolina — 

|i it was the sixth consecutive year of ten 
percent or more increase. To secure a 
copy of the full report listing all the 
congregations which made such an in- 
crease in 1967-68, request "10% Achieve- 
ment" from the Department of Inter- 
pretation, Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Offices, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 

[I 111. 60120. 

"The sun never sets on Messenger 
readers," according to director of cir- 

I dilation Ralph M. Delk. The family 
periodical goes to forty countries and 
states outside the continental United 
States, including such distant points as 
the USSR, Netherlands Antilles, and 

' Morocco. 

^* *±* *1* ^* 'a' 

\ The Visser 't Hooft Centre, built by 
sixty German young persons as an act 
of rep>entance and reconciliation, was 
opened in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 
in mid-November. The six-story 
building will house meeting and social 
rooms and a branch of Utrecht 

Seminary enrollment in the United 
States is at an all-time high, according 
to the American Association of 
Theological Schools. The 1968 increase 
is 3.75 percent over 1967. 

World and National Councils of 
Churches personnel will join in six region- 
al ecumenical seminars under auspices 
of local councils of churches. Areas in 

which the seminars will occur are Des 
Moines-Minneapolis-St. Paul; St. Louis- 
Jefferson City-Columbia, Mo.; Indianap- 
olis, Ind.; Chicago; Dallas-Fort Worth- 
San Antonio; and Seattle, Wash. 


John M. Foster, who for two years has 
been at Lynchburg, Va., in alternative 
service, has accepted the pastorate at the 
Bellwood church in Middle Pennsylvania. 
... In Little River, Kansas, Charles 
DuMond Sr. announces his retirement 
from pastoral duties at Congregational 
Christian Church, an affiliate of the 
United Church of Christ. 

Robert Newberry, who continues his 
studies at Baptist Central Seminary, 
preached his last sermon at the Saint 
Joseph church in Missouri last Novem- 
ber. . . . Harvey Ressler will leave his 
pastorate at the Messiah church in Kan- 
sas City, Mo., in February to begin social 
work in that city. . . . Pastor of the 
Winter Park church in Florida Bernard 
N. King has moved to 800 Longhaven 
Dr., Maitland, Fla. 32751. He continues 
as pastor at Winter Park. 


Suggestions for nominations for the 
various offices to be filled by election by 
Annual Conference are welcome from 
any individual or congregation in the 
Brotherhood. It is important that any 
person whose name is submitted be con- 
tacted regarding his willingness to have 
his name considered. This is the re- 
sponsibility of the person or board sub- 
mitting the name. 

Obviously there will likely be many 
more names submitted than will even 
appear on the ballot, so permission must 
be granted within this framework. This 
will probably be the only time possible 
candidates will be contacted. 

Send your nominations by Feb. 28, 
1969, to Calvert N. Ellis, Chairman, 
Annual Conference Office, 1451 Dundee 
Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. 

Offices open, 1969: Modcrator-clcct. 
One person. Ineligible: M. Guy West, 
Raymond Peters, Dan West, any General 

Board staff member. 

General Board members. Five mem- 
bers, elected representing districts. Not 
more than one from any district (ten 
such geographical representatives con- 
tinue in office). Two to be elected for a 
two-year term; three elected for a three- 
year term. 

Ineligible: Paul Fike, Dale Detwiler. 
Any person from the following districts: 
Eastern Pennsylvania, Middle Indiana, 
Kansas, Pacific Southwest, First Virginia, 
Illinois-Wisconsin, Shenandoah. Any 
person from the following congregations: 
Baltimore, First; Huntingdon, Stone, Pa.; 
Somerset, Pa.; Elkhart, Ind.; New Paris, 
Ind. Also any staff personnel, Bethany 
Seminary administrative personnel, dis- 
trict administrative personnel. 

Committee on Interchurch Relations. 
One person, three-year term. 

Electors of Bethany Theological Sem- 
inary. One person, representing colleges. 
One person selected by alumni, confirmed 
by Annual Conference. Five-year term. 

Annual Conference Central Committee. 
One person, tliree-year term. Ineligible: 
Floyd Bantz. 


Now, a Lutheran Church in America 
paper for junior highs, in October 
featured through interviews and photos 
the work in \'ietnam of three former 
Brethren Service volunteers, Mary Sue 
Helstem, Chris Kimmel, and William 
Herod. . . . Dale W. Brown of the 
Bethany Seminary faculty was author 
of an article appearing in the Nov. 
13 Christian Century. The article was 
entitled "The New Theological 
Radical." ... A few weeks later 
(Dec. 18, 1968) Vernard Eller appeared 
in the same pages with an article called 
"Christmas and Luke's Theology of 
Hope." ... A news report on Czechoslo- 
vakia, highlighting the reactions of 
churchmen related to the Christian Peace 
Conference, was published by The 
Mennonite. The article originally was 
prepared by Howard E. Royer for the 
Nov. 21 Messenger. 

1-30-69 MESSENGER 31 


Let No One Be Ignored 

#here is an old story about a teacher who asked 
her class to name something that did not exist twenty 
years ago. One small boy was ready with an answer 
— an unexpected but still quite accurate answer. He 
put it in one word: "Me!" Far more important than 
the inventions and products that the teacher had in 
mind was the fact of one bov's identity. He was 
uniquely himself, no carbon copy of anyone else, no 
object pimched out in a series by a machine, but an 
individual who had the wisdom to identifv himself 
as a "Me!" 

The larger the group, the more difficult it is to 
remember that each person is an important "me." 
Consider how many of us there are already — about 
3,500,000,000 on this planet — and how rapidly orur 
numbers increase. Last year's world population grew 
at the rate of 180,000 a dav, which adds up to about 
65,000,000 a year. If the present rate of gi^owth 
continues, our population will have doubled by the 
year 2006. Will there be room on our planet for 
seven bilHon "ma's"? 

Even if there is room on the eartli and even if 
there are resources enough to sustain everyone, what 
assurance do we have that a majority of the persons 
who will be bom in the next few decades will really 
have opportimities to grow and develop as individuals, 
to reahze their God-given capabilities? Note that 
already about three quarters of the earth's population 
live in regions of our \\'orld we call "developing." 
Already there are numerous areas where hunger is a 
normal experience, not to mention those critical centers 
of actual starvation such as Biafra at the present time. 

Perhaps we can hope that technological development 
will provide some of the answers for our expanding 
human needs. If we can send astronauts to the moon 
and return them safely to the earth's surface, surely 
we ought to be able to provide living space for all 
earth's citizens and food to sustain them. But it is so 
much easier for our leaders to set aside billions for 

space probing than for them to know how millions can 
best be used to help people live as human beings. 
And even if technology can be enlisted for such 
humanizing purposes, there is still the missing 
ingredient of personal concern, of personal relationships 
— of love, to put it bluntly — that must be found if 
individuals are to become more than statistics, if 
thev are to be encouraged to be a "me! " 

We Christians approach this problem with an 
article of faith that speaks directly to the world's need. 
We beUeve that every person is created in the image 
of God, that God is personally interested in each 
individual, that God loves all his children, and that his 
activity in the world is directed toward encouraging 
and enabling everyone, though he be only one among 
bilHons, to become fully human, to five as he was 
intended to live. The life and work, the death and 
resurrection of Jesus Christ reveal the extent to which 
God is involved in our human plight. If no sparrow 
falls without his noticing it, then no .single child is 
bom to be forever ignored or abandoned simply 
because there are already so many mouths to be fed. 

#he trouble is not with our articles of faith but 
with our unwilhngness to act as if we believed them. 
Christians are a minority among the world's peoples, 
but we could still become a powerful force if we 
began to take seriously this basic concern for persons 
and to place it far above our concern for our own 
safety, our economic security, our pride in our race or 
nation, or our overwhelming desire to accumulate 
things. Surely we could begin by recognizing the 
hundreds of "me's," the individual, highly potential 
personalities in the faceless crowds with which we 
are already in contact. Surely evangehsm, whatever 
else it entails, must begin with our .sharing in God's 
overpowering concern for people — all people — and 
participating in his redemptive activity on behalf of 
even the most insignificant "me!" — k.m. 

32 MESSENGER 1-30-69 


bout Sex and Growing Up 

Evelyn Millis Duvall. $3.95 cloth; $1.95 paper 

Here is a wonderful new book for 10- and 1 1 -year-olds 
by the author of the best-selling LOVE AND THE FACTS 
OF LIFE. The pre-teen boy or girl being interested 
especially in how things work, the emphasis is on 
function rather than detailed structure, so that the 
"how-conne?" aspects of growing up are emphasized 
throughout. Its focus is on feelings as much as facts 
since emotional states are often neglected, and its ac- 
cent is on the person and his changing relationships 
to others. Advantages of this straightforward approach 
is that the text is short, clear, and direct — covering in 
simple and broad outlines the basic facts and feelings 
about growing up that boys and girls of this age want 
in a no-nonsense presentation. 

Let Children Be Children 

Freda S. Kehm and Joe L. Mini. $4.95 

This book is concerned with children from birth 
through pre-teen years. The emphasis is on the fam- 
ily and its key role in the emotional as well as in the 

physical and intellectual development of the child. Its 
focus is on real people and their frequently expressed 
concerns about their children and their family relation- 
ships. Solutions to problems are given in easily under- 
stood language, although the answers are based upon 
scholarly research from every available source. The 
reader is presented with a variety of points of view 
which have been examined and integrated, as different 
schools of thought reflect upon the specific issues. 

Religious Thinking From Childhood to Adolescence 

Ronald Goldman. $2.45 paper 

Based upon research findings, this book describes the 
capacities of pupils from 6 to 17, with varying abilities 
and backgrounds, to understand religious truths. How 
religious concepts — God, Jesus, prayer — develop 
from the early years is seen within the psychological 
context of the child's maturing thought and adds a 
new dimension to our insights into child development. 
Dr. Goldman also explores in a provocative way the 
far-reaching implications of his findings for religious 

Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 60120 



Black and White Together — for Job Opportunities. Two pastors — one 
Baptist, the other Brethren; one black, the otiier white — solicit conimunity 
support in their university town far a job-training program, by Bonnie Blan- 
kenship. page 1 

The Square Church and the Youth Revolution. The generation gap is a 
great divide that cannot be bridged simph/ by "making room for youth in the 
church." by William Robert Miller, page 4 

The Name of the Game Is Mission. Too often the church has majored in 
maintenance when it .should be equipping its members for mission. It exists 
not for itself but for others, by Galen Ogden. page 9 

Land of Promise, Land of Conflict. Palestine, according to the headlines, 
may once again become a battleground. Here is one reporter s summary of the 
issues involved in the current struggles between Israel and the Arab peoples. 
by Frank H. Epp. page 16 

The Good News Through Printing. A succession of publishers and printers, 
inspired by the example of Christopher Sauer, Iwve used the printed page to 
contend that Christianity is a way of life, by Barnard C. Taylor, page 22 

Other features include "A Parable of Two Missionaries," by Max Ediger (page 12); 
news of the Church of the Brethren's unique Educational Plan (page 13); a calendar for 
February, by Janie Russell (page 24); "Day by Day," by Don and Elberta Hursh (page 
25); and a review article, "Tliinking About Guilt," by Byron P. Royer (page 26). 


Through the efforts of Central church in Roanoke, Virginia, young women working and 
■itudijing in that city find in their Brethren Fellow.ihip House "A Home Aivay From 
Home." . . . Many Americans, tcithaut ever looking for the facts, quickly accept a num- 
loer of "MytJis About the Poor." Loyal Jones calls for a close examination of such myths. . . . 
The way some Christians observe Lent can easily lead them to miss its significance and to 
overlook its radical call to new dimensions of discipleship. Richard John Neuhaus calls it 
"The Dangerous Season." 

PHOTO CREDITS: 5, 7 Phil Anderson; 9 "City." woodcut bv Lvonel Feininger, courtesy of the National Gallery 
of Art. Washington, D.C.; 14 Lloyd Hoff; 15 (top) courtesy of the Glendale (Arizona) Republic; 16-17, 18, 19, 20 
Religious News Ser\'ice; 26 artwork by Robert McGovem 

Kenneth 1. Morse, editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh. 
managing editor: Howard E. Royer. director of news 
service; Linda Czaplinski. assistant to the editor?. Mes- 
senger is the official publication of the Church of the 
Brethren. Messenger is copyright 1969 by the Church of 
the Brethren General Board. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20. 1918 under Act of Congress of Oct. 
17, 1917. Filing date. Oct. 1, 1968. Messenger is a 
member of the Associated Church Press and a sub- 

scriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, 
are from the Revised Standard Version. Subscription rates: 
S4.20 per year for individual subscriptions: S3-60 per 
\ear for cliurch group plan: S3. 00 per year for ■ 
e\erv hon:e plan: life subscription S60: husband B 
and wife. S75. If vou mo\e clip old address H 
from Messenger and send with new address. I 
.\llow at least fifteen days for address change. | 

VOL. 118 NO 


ruilPru ni: TMF RDFTHREN ^^ 2/13/69 


Lent:The Dangerous Season 


lames Armstrong. Excerpts from 
contemporary authors and 
illustrations from personal 
experiences consider today's 
moral questions and guide toward 
self-evaluation and personal 
development. $3.50 


Harold A. Bosley. In an unusual 
approach to the study of Chris- 
tianity, Dr. Bosley deals with 
Christ as a doer of deeds. Each 
chapter begins with an actual 
deed and travels back to Christ's 
probable motive. Intention, and 
spirit. $3.50 


Georgia Harkness. Good news for 
an anxious generation from one 
of America's leading church- 
women. Dr. Harkness whole- 
heartedly reaffirms Christianity's 
message of hope for our 
strife-filled world. $3 



Flora Slosson Wue//ner. An 
effective reenforcement of the 
fact that Christ is a living 
presence who can work through 

that he offers us through prayer. $3 


C. William lor)es; woodcuts by 
Robert O. Hodgell. An unforget- 
table impression is created as 
these parables and woodcuts 
penetrate the reader's defenses 
and focus on life's problems 
and opportunities. Paper, $1.75 


Co//n Morris. A native drops 
dead from starvation while the 
church is debating over what to do 
with left-over communion bread 
— in seven hard-hitting chapters, 
these 'confessions of an 
ecclesiastical coward' shock, 
shame, and challenge the reader 
to face the real issues. Paper, $1.25 


C. Freeman Sleeper. Using the 
concept of black power as a 
central ethical problem, the author 
shows how the Bible can provide 
valuable insights into this crucial 
struggle between theory and 
practice in today's America. $4.50 


Ross Snyder. In this exciting 
work. Dr. Snyder challenges youth 
leaders to help young people 
create a culture which skillfully 
blends the vitality of youth and 
the experience of adults. $4.50 


I. Cordon Howard. Fifty-six 
stimulating meditations on 
ordinary experiences take religion 
from the heights of theology and 
put it where it is desperately 
needed — in the context of 
daily living. $2.95 

. . At your local bookstore . . 

Abingdon Press 

readers write 


As a member of the Church of the 
Brethren, I wish to take a most vigorous 
exception to the stand taken by the General 
Brotherhood Board regarding fireanns own- 

First, I question the right of the board 

to release such a statement as a church 

position without first determining that it is 

the consensus of our congregations. Ours is 

supposed to be a democratic institution. 

Second, I wish to point out that the 

arguments presented do not stand the test 

of critical examination. Rather, they are 

the same collection of selected and slanted 

facts, and in some cases untruths, which 

are repeatedly parroted by the antigun 

crowd and our liberal press. For example, 

the statement regarding the percentages of 

murders committed with guns is frequently 

referred to by antigun leaders. But how 

significant is it? Certainly if there were 

fewer guns in homes, there would be fewer 

murders with guns. After all, most murders 

are crimes of passion. However, what 

difFerence does it make to the victim ( or 

to society for that matter) whether he is 

shot, beaten, stabbed, or clubbed to death? 

We must take action to prevent murders 

rather than change the means by which 

hey are committed. 

A few cities are often cited as examples 

' show that stiff gim control reduces the 

erall murder rate. However, there are 

.ore other cities which show the opposite 

elationship. In actual statistical studies of 

murder in particular and crime in general, 

he rates are highest in areas with the most 

itringent gun laws. While this does not 

prove that gun laws cause crime to increase, 

does show that gun laws do not decrease 

■ime. Some of our western states, where 

j..iere are guns in virtually every home, have 

le lowest crime rates. This does prove to 

>e completely false the statement made by 

he board, "The degree of violence in this 

tiountry is directly related to the abundance 

f bullet weapons." 

I would like to point out that the per- 

entage of citizens in this coimtry who own 

guns is probably lower than it has ever been 

1 our history, yet our crime rate is sky- 

ocketing. Also, I would like to point out 

that law and order were brought to our 

West when virtually everyone had and 

arried guns. This was done simply by stifle 

law enforcement. 

And ab.solutely nothing but this will solve 

our problem now. Saddling legitimate gun 
owners with control laws will not reduce 
crime, .since criminals will not obey the gun 
laws anyway. Imposing all the proposed 
paperwork of gun control on our law en- 
forcement officers will not help them stop 
die crime wave which is erroding our 
society. We must have law enforcement. 
Criminals must be brought to trial quickly, 
and dealt with sternly. They must not be 
permitted to go out to commit more criminal 
acts for years by posting bond, tlien pulling 
all kinds of court maneuvers to delay further 
our already backlogged courts. Along this 
line it is interesting to note that a consider- 
able portion of policemen who are willfully 
killed are killed by parolees, suspects out 
on bail, or previous offenders. 

Finally, I object to the picture on page 
13 of the Aug. 15 Messenger depicting an 
apparently dead man with the caption, 
"There is only one thing a gun is built to 
do. ..." The obvious inference is that 
the only thing guns are made to do is to 
kill people. This is a gross untruth and an 
injustice to the millions of sportsmen in 
our nation. 

Joseph F. Zufall 
Tipp City, Ohio 


If one reads in religious publications 
about the struggle to organize California 
labor, he is apt to imagine the labor or- 
ganizer as a saint whose sole purpose is to 
improve the sorry lot of the unfortimate 
laborer held imder the heel of an im- 
scrupulous employer. 

If one reads an employer magazine, the 
labor organizer is pictured as a conniving 
creature with an unsavory past who is bent 
on organizing for his own selfish pur- 
poses. . . . 

Employers are often more interested in 
their employees than the employees are in 
them. Many of them feel that it is both 
right and profitable to pay the highest pos- 

sible wage and provide good working con- 
ditions. Not infrequently employees do as 
little as possible without being fired and 
talk as though the company were their 

I have often been amazed at the power 
the business agent has o\'er the members. 
A man may have received his entire li%eli- 
liood from a company over a long period of 
years; but wlicn he is told to strike, he 

Farm labor is scarce in man\ sections 
and \mdt'r those conditions the farmer pays 
a high uage and often receives little in 
return. Much labor in the West is on a 
piece basis and it is always surprising how 
much more a laborer does on a piece basis 
than on an hourly rate. 

(A fair) wage is one factor in tlie 
farmers' resistance to unionization but it is 
not the greatest fear. Everyone knows that 
strikes are called when they hurt the worst. 
No one is as vidnerable as a farmer with 
a crop ready to harvest. The fanner either 
pays what the imion demands or sees his 
crop rot. Churchmen might do well to 
take this into account. 

Chauncev Shamberger 
Weiser, Idaho 


I am writing this letter of gratitude and 
humiliation in a combined efFort to display 
m\' mixed emotions about our Brethren 
Volunteer Service program. On a large 
part I tliink it is doing a great deal of 
good, especially by those who are sincere, 
conscientious, conscientious objectors, ( draft 
card burners definitely not included!!), and 
also by many others who make up the 
co-ed program. 

It is gratifying to see many elderly 
people in church homes become engulfed 
with love, activity, pleasure, and under- 
standing which are made possible through 
BVS and also to see inner-city churches 
More on page 27 

BYLINES; Connie Weddle and her husband, LeRoy, attended Bethany Theological Seminary at Oak 
Brook, Illinois, before their move to Roanoke, Virginia, as houseparents for the Brethren Fellowship 
House there. . . . Loyal Jones presented his views of the poor at a meeting of the Anthropologists 
and Sociologists of Kentucky. . . . Lutheran clergyman and editor Richard John Neuhaus has authored 
magazine and newspaper articles and served as a delegate to the 1968 Democratic Convention in 
Chicago. . . . Frederick Buechner, author of The Seabury Press's Lenten book for 1969, is well known 
as novelist and Presbyterian minister. 

MESSENGER is owned and published every other week by tlie Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Board, 14.51 Dxindee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, 111. 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 1 

The ministry of Central Church, Roanoke, Virginia, 
reaches out to thiiiy-seven girls who need 


by Connie Weddle 

I his is the first time I've ever been 

These tearful words came from Sarah 
(not her real name) when her house- 
parents informed her that the girls at 
Brethren Fellowship House wanted her 
to continue living there. Sarah's careless 
living habits and odd behavior had 
prompted her fellow residents to ask for 
her dismissal, but when they learned 
that she had no other place to go at the 
time and that no one cared where she 
was, they wanted to show their care for 
her by asking for a mutual attempt at 
living together again. 

This is one illustration of the type of 
ministry that is happening at Brethren 
Fellowship House in Roanoke, Virginia. 
Fellowship House began because Central 
Church of the Brethren wished to offer 
services to the community in which it 
was located. Ideas bounced around in 
retreats, and finally a concrete list of 
possible ministries was drawTi up by the 
local Brethren Service Commission and 
presented at the April 1966 council 

One of the suggestions which won the 
approval of the group was the operation 
of a house with a Christian atmosphere 
for girls who needed a place to live 
while working or attending school in 
Roanoke. The house would be run on a 
cooperative basis, borrowing the idea of 
fellowship houses in other cities, although 
this would be the first house of this 
type for the Roanoke area. 

Though the project lacked whole- 
hearted enthusiasm, plans moved ahead. 
A two-story brick house next to the 
church seemed a likely location, since it 
was near a bus stop and within a few 
blocks of the downtown business area. 
Because the house could not be pur- 
chased, there was immediate opposition 

2 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

Nancy and Linda share househidd duties Sandra and Joyce enjoy playing with littl 

to the choice. Eventually the church 
decided to rent it, even though this 
meant spending a considerable sum to 
restore property that belonged to some- 
one else. Realizing the potential of the 
house for Brethren girls, Virginia's First 
District contributed $500 toward ex- 
penses, although Central church assumed 
the major responsibility for the costs. 

"It was amazing to watch the en- 
thusiasm caught by a few people pass 
on to others," said Pastor David Rogers. 

When one woman casually dropped by 
the house to see the progress, she, too, 
grew excited about it and began tele- 
phoning persons whom she thought 
could help. Gradually the church mem- 
bers painted, repaired, and furnished the 
residence which could accommodate 
fourteen girls and houseparents. 

Houseparents had been selected before 
work on the house began. W. B. and 
Mary Nolen, members of Central church, 
seemed especially well qualified for the 
position, since W. B. had experienced 

living in the fellowship house at Elgin. ] 
Illinois. The Nolens assumed immediate' 
supervision of the establishment, but , 
church committee controlled its i 

operation. i 

Brethren Fellowship House became a! 
reality in September 1966, when it ' 
opened its doors with only one resideiilj 
Since that time, thirty-seven young woiii 
en have received its services. ' 

Perhaps you can more fully experienc 
the special ministry of the house by 
learning to know two of its present 

Barbara Blankenship became a resi- t 
dent after her graduation from Roanoke 
Memorial Hospital nursing school. Al- i 
though her family lived in Roanoke, sh 
wanted to be on her own, yet she liked 
being with others. Hoping to live 
economically, she felt the $36-a-month 
rent, including cooking and laundry 
facilities, quite reasonable. 

When Barbara started working the 
night shift on the surgery floor of Ro 

•serenades Baibara in hallway Linda demonstrates her hairdressing skill on Leannah 

anoke Memorial Hospital, she found her 
living habits changing. Many days she 
had time for only two meals, and trying 
to keep up with friends on a day sched- 
ule caused her to lose sleep. Luckily, 
roommate Sandra Simmers worked all 

j; day as a secretary, leaving a quiet room 

'for Barbara. 

Despite the fact that she is the only 
night worker at the house, she finds 

* time to spend with the other residents. 
Often the girls meet in the kitchen while 
cooking breakfast — Barbara ready for a 
day's rest, while the others are off to 

I school or work. 

Disadvantages arise anytime a group 

' of girls live together on a cooperative 

■ basis. Barbara finds sharing kitchen 
facilities the most taxing part of group 
life, since everyone does not wash her 
dishes or take her turn in the garbage 
detail. Housekeeping problems as well 
as other domestic issues often find their 
way to the house meetings, held monthly 
unless emergencies prompt further 


These gatherings give the girls an 
opportunity to participate in decision 
making, along with the houseparents, 
concerning anything from hours to be in 
at night to who scrubs the kitchen floor 
for the next month. 

At one meeting a girl asked, "Just how 
do you defrost a refrigerator?" Not 
having had to assume this responsibility 
at her home, she needed to learn in order 
to fulfill her monthly cleaning duties. 

One of the greatest advantages, Bar- 
bara feels, of living at Brethren Fellow- 
ship House hinges upon the housepar- 
ents. It comforts parents and the resi- 
dents alike to know that a couple live 
there who care about the well-being of 
the girls. Whether the refrigerator quits 
cooling or a girl wants to apply for 
residency or another needs an immediate 
"mother" or "father" to help with a 
problem — the houseparents deal with 

The Nolens continued to be in charge 

of the house until July 1968. Interim 
houseparents filled the several-week gap 
until intern assistant pastor LeRoy 
Weddle and his wife Connie assumed 
the position. 

Although Central church maintains 
close ties with the house through the 
houseparents and the house committee, 
a problem exists in communication be- 
tween the congregation and the girls 
who live there. Church members saw 
that the project got on its feet, but the 
difficulty comes in keeping "tied" to their 
ministry. In short, they often do not 
know the girls, and the girls do not know 

However, residents like Barbara 
Blankenship do their part in keeping 
communication channels open. She be- 
gan attending Central while in nursing 
school, although she does not hold 
church membership there. Presently she 
heads the cabinet of the post-high 
youth fellowship and functions as adult 
choir secretary. 

Many of the girls call Fellowship 
House their home during the week 
while they attend school in Roanoke. 
For example. Jewel Spencer studies at 
Virginia Southern College, a business 
school, and joins her husband Bob, who 
travels as a surveyor for the State of 
Virginia, on the weekends. 

Jewel came to the house when she 
learned that she would have to pay high- 
er rent at her shared apartment when 
her roommates left. Since she knew 
school friends who lived at Fellowship 
House, she made her application and 
found that she could move in 

"I was an only child, and I like being 
around people," says Jewel. 

Since she maintains the longest resi- 
dency of the girls presently living there. 
Jewel has had the opportunity to know 
several people. In addition to the girls 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 3 

A HOME IN THE CITY / continued 

studying at Virginia Southern, she has 
lived with students from Hollywood 
Beauty School, Cornett Business College, 
and the Lewis-Gale school for laboratory 
technicians. Although the majority of 
these girls, like Jewel, come from small 
Virginia towns and rural areas, two lab 
students from Idaho who were in train- 
ing at Lewis-Gale made their home at 
Fellowship House. 

Jewel finds that living with girls from 
differing backgrounds enlightens her 
knowledge of human nature. Since the 
house works closely with the city welfare 
department, Virginia Vocational Rehabil- 
itation, and local probation officers, as 
well as ministers and school adminis- 
trators, some unusual situations are re- 
ferred to the houseparents. 

A welfare case worker once came to 
the Nolens asking for a room for a girl 
we shall call Sue, a seventeen-year-old 
girl without a home. Sue, dissatisfied 
with her living situation, had quit her 
job, left school, and no longer wished to 
live with her foster parents, with whom 

she had differences. If she could not 
find a home, there was no other alterna- 
tive — she would have to go to a state 
reformatory, even though she had done 
nothing to warrant it except to be under- 
age. Having to make a decision such as 
this caused much anxiety for the Nolens. 
They were torn between wanting to help 
the girl and keeping in mind the welfare 
of the residents. Finally, they agreed to 
give Sue a chance, and they found her 
to be one of their more responsible 

At a house meeting where the girls 
were discussing the abuse of facilities. 
Sue indignantly told the residents that 
she didn't admire people who tried to 
take advantage of others. She went on 
to say, "I'm proud to have lived here, 
and you all ought to be, too!" 

In contrast to Sue who had no home, 
another girl, whom we shall call Mar- 
garet, needed to get away from her 
home. The daughter of a surgeon, 
Margaret, too, planned to be a doctor. 
When she quit school because she could 
no longer bear the strain of the pre-med 
course, her parents refused to accept her 
decision. Approaching a nervous break- 
down as the result of her intolerable 
home situation, Margaret decided to live 
somewhere else upon the advice of her 
psychiatrist. Coming to Fellowship 
House and finding employment helped 
her to rebuild her life. 

Not all experiences at the house have 
as encouraging an outcome as those con- 
cerning Sue and Margaret. Jewel re- 
members a time when the entire house- 
hold was in an uproar over a series of 
stealing incidents. Not wanting to be- 
lieve that any of them had stolen money, 
the girls had to face the reality that 
someone — perhaps a close friend — was 
responsible. After discussing all possi- 
bilities in house meetings and pleading for 
the person to confess her guilt secretly to 
the houseparents or openly to everyone, 

the stealing continued. As a last resort, 
the girls and houseparents agreed that in 
the interest of the most people involved, 
the more suspected ones would have to 
leave, unless someone came forward. 
Eventually two girls were asked to leave. 
If the guilty party had confessed, the 
girls were ready to let her stay, hoping 
that they could renew their relationship. 
Instead, the thief remained a mystery, 
and almost certainly an innocent person 
had to find another home. 

This incident faced the girls with the; 
harsh side of living together. As Jewel 
said, "We learned to watch out for our- 
selves — we learned that not everybody 
can be trusted." 

Jewel's experience in cooperative living! 
has been generally pleasant. She enjoys 
the quiet times when she can read a bool 
in the privacy of her room or puzzle ovei 
homework with her roommate, Joyce 
Sims. But also it is fun to join the mor« 
boisterous events such as the night two 
fun-loving residents rigged up a stuffed 
man and sat him at the head of the 
staircase to frighten those who came in 
at night. 

Not all of Jewel's spare time is spent 
on herself. Every Tuesday afternoon shi 
tutors at the study hall which Central 
church organized for the community 
students who want special help with 
school subjects. Usually Jewel spends 
this time with one little third-grader whi 
needs a quiet place to do her homework 
since the number of small children at 
home makes studying an impossibility. 
Seeing improvement in the girl's arithme 
tic since the tutoring began is the only > 
reward Jewel needs. 

Helping people, sharing problems, 
having fun, following rules — all of thesi 
combine to make Brethren Fellowship 
House. But Jewel states the basic in- 
gredient of this ministry very simply. 
"You have to make a special effort to ge 
along with everybody." D 

4 MESSENGER 2-13-69 





Some comnionhi held assiim])- 
tions (ihoiit the economic and 
moral lives of the poor are re- 
viewed in Jiiiht of eom])eUin<i fact 

by Loyal Jones 

In this year, 1969, there is disenchant- 
ment with ideas and with groups of 
people which captured our imagination 
and good intentions just a few months 
ago. In the John F. Kennedy years 
and in the first two years of President 
Johnson's administration the majority 
of the American people really wanted 
to do something about inequality (up 
to a point) and we wanted to rid 
ourselves of poverty once and for all. 
Moreover, we had faith that minority 
groups and poor people in general 
could develop themselves, if given a 
chance, and could take their places 
in society. 

Look at us today. Many of us no 


. Ai 


longer believe in the development of 
the poor. We have lost faith. We 
have spent billions on the poor, but 
instead of their appreciating it, as we 
secretly thought they would, the 
blacks have rioted, the Mexican- 
Americans have organized, and the 
poor whites are grumbling. Even the 
Indians, who have been quiet for 
three-quarters of a century, are getting 

In this situation, even some liberals 
begin to look for explanations and 
justification for their failure to change 
the poor, and they adopt convictions 
long held by conservatives, namely 
that the poor have no one to blame 
but themselves, that they are the way 
they are because they are inferior, 
either by genetics or by choice. Most 
of the beliefs along these lines are 
myths; that is, they are perpetuated 
by the "in group" for its owai con- 
venience, and while they may hold 
partial truths, they are mainly un- 
supported by facts. 

What are these myths about the 
poor which are widely held by those 
who "have it made" in our society? 
I offer a few which I have observed. 

1. "Most of the poor live in 
ghettos." Nearly half of the poor, 
fourteen million, live in rural areas. 
In metropolitan areas one in eight 
persons is poor. In rural areas one 
in four is poor. Eleven million of 
these fourteen million are white. ^ 

2. "The rural poor live on farms." 
Just less than four million live on 
farms. Nearly ten miUion poor are 
rural nonfarm.' The rural poor live 

in Appalachia, the Ozarks, the Deep 
South, the Eastern Coastal Plains, 
New England, Upper Great Lakes, 
Indian reservations, and in many other 
rural areas. 

3. "The poor have only themselves 
to blame." Statistics and common 

sense tell us that if you happen to 
be born black or red or with a 
Spanish name, or in a hollow in 
Appalachia, or in an urban slum your 
chances of successful competition in 
this world of 1969 are much less than 
if you were bom an Anglo-Saxon in 
Winnetka or even St. Matthews. I 
don't have a footnote on this state- 
ment. Does anyone want to challenge 

4. "The brighter members of a 
subculture migrate to seek their 
fortune, leaving the duller ones at 
home. The better educated tend to 
migrate."" People in large numbers 
have left England and Scotland, 
Ireland, Denmark, and Norway, and 
Novia Scotia and New Brunswick in 
Canada, with no decline in i.q. levels 
among those who stayed home. No 
evidence is available proving the 
theory of selective migration, that is, 
migration based on i.q.' 

.5. "Inbreeding causes a decline in 
I.Q. level, and there is much inbreed- 
ing among the poor in Appalachia." 
Fact: Inbreeding has a deleterious 
effect only if there is the same 
inherent weaknesses in the make-up 
of both parties who marry. Inbreeding 
is often done by animal breeders to 
improve the strain. Inbreeding per se 
does not alter the quality of the 
offspring. If, however, there is inter- 
marriage between members of a family 
with a genetic weakness which is 
present in both of those who marry, 
the results can be bad. i.q. studies of 
Hutterites and families in the Blue 
Ridge Mountains who have inter- 
married for several generations showed 
the groups in the normal i.q. range.' 

There is some intermarrying in 
Appalachia, but as James Brown has 
pointed out in his studies, it is 
almost always among second, third, 
and more distant cousins. I might 

point out that the royal famiUes of 
Europe inteiTnarried in this fashion 
and except for hemophilia they seem 
fairh' normal. 

6. "The poor have lower inherent 
intelligence." Persons from subcultures 
make lower scores on standard i.q. 
tests than mainstream persons. How- 
ever, studies show that when the 
economic status of a group improves, 
so do their i.q. scores. A study of 
Indians showed somewhat lower than 
normal i.q. scores, except among Osage 
Indians on whose reservation oil had 
been discovered several years before, 
causing a considerable alteration in 
their style of life. Their i.q. scores 
were higher than normal. Black 
persons scored lower than whites in 
World War One army tests, but 
northern Negroes scored higher than 
southern whites in World War Two 
army tests." Equal opportunity pro- 
duces equal ability in groups of 
people. Cultural deprivation does 
have a harmful and perhaps 
permanent effect on individuals, 

but this does not imply that the 
poor are genetically inferior. Studies 
have shown that Appalachian children 
test normal or above at an early age 
but can actually lose up to twenty 
I.Q. points by the time they are in 
their teens.' 

7. "Many adc mothers have 
illegitimate children so as to increase 
welfare payments." It is hard to 
refute this myth. However, Edgar 
May reported that of the scores of 
mothers he interviewed for his book. 
The Wasted Americans, not one gave 
the slightest indication that she 
increased the size of her family so 

as to increase the size of her check. 
In Mississippi 323 families were 
dropped from the adc program 
because of illegitimate births. When 
these same families were reexamined 

6 MESSENGER 2-13-69 











" siiiU" 





u '■•III 

r/^^II lillll 

II iiiif 

i'^<^'^ II: IIIIF 
?l llli 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 7 


three years later, 176 additional 
illegitimate births had occurred.' 
Incidentally, there is a rumor going 
around that the Internal Revenue 
Ser\ice is upset because they fear 
that affluent people are having babies 
so they can have more income tax 

8. "The poor have lower morals 
than other people." When we speak 
of morals we usually mean sexual 
morals. Illegitimate births are on the 
increase - 224,300 in 1960. In this 
same year a study ordered by the 
Senate Appropriations Committee 
indicated that thirteen percent of 

illegitimate children were on adc. 
Other figures show that the percentage 
is higher than this, as much as 
thirty-seven and a half percent in 
Baltimore and forty-one and one 
tenth percent in New York County. 
Yet the Planned Parenthood Federation 
estimates that there are 1,000,000 
abortions per year." Since, I assume, 
one would have to pay a sizable 
amount for an illegal abortion, most 
of these involved females from other 
than poor homes. The figm'es 
indicate that sexual activity is not 
limited to the poor. Furthermore, 
since these statistics are based only 
on pregnancies, that is, "mistakes," 
one could assume that those who are 
less sophisticated or ignorant of 
contraceptive practices would have 
more "mistakes" to their credit. 

9. "The poor are content with 
their condition; they don't worry 
about it." The percentage of those 
treated for mental illness in the 
bottom one-fifth of the economic 
strata is two and one-half times 
higher than those treated in the upper 
fourth-fifths. Of those in the upper 
four-fifths .seeking psychiatric help, 
thirty-five percent had psychotic 
(versus neurotic) disturbances. In 

the bottom one-fifth, ninety percent of 
those treated were psychotic.'" Tliese 
figures do not give a picture of a 
carefree group. 

10. "If the poor would only get 
out and get jobs, they wouldn't be 
poor." About 3,500,000 poor men 
over sixty-five years of age are heads 
of households. And 2,500,000 poor 
women are heads of households; 
2,250,000 poor single persons are 
over sixty-five; 16,000,000 poor people 
happen to be children; total, 
24,2.50,000." Most persons in these 
categories cannot work. 

11. "The poor don't want to 

work." Fact: Newspapers reported on ' 
March 5, 1968, that a study in New 
York City of mothers on welfare | 

showed that seven out of ten prefer 
to work rather than stay home at 
public expense. At the recent hearint;s 
held by Senator Kennedy and Repre- 
sentative Perkins, the people said o\cv 
and over, "We want jobs, not hand- 

The Council of the Southern 
Mountains ran a Manpower Project 
during 1965, seeking to find means 
of getting training and jobs for the 
clironically unemployed in Appalachia. j 
At the end of this project, in a | 

report called Men Want Work, the I 
director drew as his first conclusion: 
"Men want jobs. They would like 
meaningful work with dignity, but 
they want to work. A job is the ke\ 
to man's place in his family and in 
his community. He needs a job to 
maintain his self-esteem. "'" 

We who feel that we are 
enlightened like to say, when 
discussing the poor (allegedly with 
Lincobi), "There, but for the grace 
of God, go I." I suggest we ought, 
more truthfully, to say, "There go I, 
the grace of God notwithstanding," : 
because, except that we had a better 
chance, we are not so different from 
the poor. Q 

1 The People Left Behind, Report of Presi-j 
tleni's Commission on Rnral Poverty. Washing 
ton: Bureau of Documents. I9()7, p. 3. 

= Ibid., p. 3. 

■' Thomas R. Ford. Ed.. The Southern Appa-\ 
Inrhitin Region: A Suntey. Lexington. The Uni-j 
versity of Kentucky Press. 1962. p. 68. 

* Charles Drake. Mii^mtion Myths. The Coun- 
cil of Southern Mountains, Inc.. p. 2. 

= Ibid., p. 5. 

«Ibid., p. 4. 

' Ibid., p. 5. 

** Edgar May. The IVasted .-Imericans. Nevvi 
York: The New .American Library, 1964. pp.j 

» Ibid., pp. 50, 57, 60. 

'^' Dwight MacDonald. Out Invisible Poor., 
New York: Sidney Hiltman Foimdation, p. !2.| 

'^ Leon Keyserling, Progress or Poverty. \Vash-l 
ington: Conference on Economic Progress, 1964,1 
pp. :i5-49. 

'- David Lollis, .Men Hant Work. The Coun- 
cil of Southern Mountains, Inc., 1966. p. 43. 

8 MESSENGER 2-13-69 




Cod Evader 

byJudyM. Shuler 

I am a limited creature, 

For I see not eternity, but my finite now. 

I see not the grand design, but my own circumstances; 

And in my limitation, I am a God evader. 

I fill my world with diversions — material, emotional, spiritual. 
To avoid the beautiful and awful face of absolute goodness, I 

concentrate on my diversions. 
I make a place for myself in this finite world. 

For in the light of infinite love 

My own attempts to love provide too sharp a contrast. 

Exposed to the light and judgment of God, 

The rationalizations I have used to justify 

my minor failings, 

my comfortable weaknesses, 

my lifelong habits — 
All these are torn away, and I stand exposed. 

Like a moth, I am attracted and repelled by the absoluteness of God; 
Like Adam and Cain and Jonah, I flee from that which is my life. 

And my fleeing takes many forms — 

I fill my life with busywork, and avoid the meditation 
that might rouse disturbing thoughts. 

My mind joins in the evasion by devising clever arguments. 

My humor comes to my aid, to turn Into a joke a question 
seriously raised. 

I think in terms of "they" — the they's of society, the church, 
those other people. 
And all the while I need most that from which I am hiding. 

But God in his wisdom understands my dilemma. 
And with patience and love he shows me the way. 
For God in Christ is the way and the truth and the life, 
And his proclamation is this: 

While God's judgment is present, his grace is also there. 

While God's righteousness endures forever, his mercy endures too. 

While judging the sins, the habits, the failings I expose to him, 
He offers forgiveness and the strength to overcome. 

For my judge wants my wholeness, not my punishment; 

A life of abundance for me here and through eternity, not my damnation. 

And in this do I find the strength to face the terrible goodness of God, 
Assured that in his gracious mercy, 

I am understood, 

I am forgiven, 

I am accepted. 


2-13-69 MESSENGER 9 

by Richard Neuhaus 

"Oh, I just love Lent!" chirped the gentle little lady 
who is president of the Ruth Guild. That's strange, I 
thought. I find myself a little frightened by the 
coming of Lent. I can better understand the 
suggestion of Episcopal Bishop Horace Donegan of 
New York who urged that Lent be shortened to one 
weelr, since dreary thoughts about suffering and 
death should not preoccupy so much of the year. 

I don't agree with the good bishop. And 1 suspect 
his suggestion will not be implemented widely. 

The strange fact is that Lent is popular. 

Even the free church traditions observe Lent. 
Their New England or European forebears disdained 
special celebrations such as Christmas, Easter, and 
Lent because these were remnants of papalism or 
paganism. But the Baptist Church down the street 
now proclaims with a five-foot sign, "Welcome to 
Special Wednesday Lenten Devotions." ("Devotions," 
yet. Not services or meetings, but devotions.) Has 
Rome conquered, compelling a Protestant sellout, or 
is there perhaps a more fundamental reason for the 
hold that Lent has on the churches? 

Not long ago many among us Protestants claimed 
that special observances are unnecessary because 
the Christian life should be one constant reflection 
on the life of Christ. There was, we said, no need to 
set aside specific days to commemorate his birth or 
suffering or resurrection or ascension. In recent years, 
however, there has been a growing awareness that 
the many-faceted Christian reality is enhanced by 
special observances. 

Perhaps this is related to contemporary theology's 
emphasis upon the historical character of the 
Christian faith. Christian life is not a spirituality- 
in-general but a response to particular events. The 
observance of festival and penitential days, the 
celebration of events-in-time, keep us attuned to what 
God has been up to and is up to in history. 

Of course, the observance of the Christian 
calendar can become the most arid kind of ritualism. 
And surely it is true that the meaning of our Lord's 
suffering can no more be limited to Lent than the 
meaning of his resurrection can be limited to Easter. 
Nevertheless, in observing specific days and seasons 

we reflect the wisdom that has always accompanied 
genuine religion. 

In connection with religious observance, a story 
is told by Rabbi Israel Friedman about a small 
Jewish town, far off the main roads of an eastern 
European land. It had all the required municipal 
institutions — a bathhouse, a cemetery, a hospital, 
and court of law — as well as the necessary 
craftsmen. One trade, however, was lacking: There 
was no watchmaker. Over the years many of the 
clocks became so annoyingly inaccurate that their 
owners just decided to let them run down. Others, 
however, maintained that, as long as the clocks ran, 
they should not be abandoned. So, day after day, 
they wound their clocks even though they knew they 
were not accurate. One day the news spread 
through the town that a watchmaker had arrived, 
and everyone rushed to him with their clocks. But 
the only ones he could repair were those that had 
been kept running — the abandoned clocks had 
grown too rusty (from Abraham Heschel, Man's 
Quest for God. New York, Scribner's, 1954). 

Yet the reasons for the widespread observance of 
Lent are not complete without noting that people just 
seem to like Lent. The Lenten season has some mag- 
nificent drama. We all know the sermon series on 
"Characters of the Passion." Here are the players: 
evasive Pilate, boastful Peter, malicious Caiaphas, 
beloved John. Then there are the unfolding steps 
leading to Calvary. It is a poor preacher indeed 
who is not able to create a few moments of suspense 
about it all, even though we know well enough how 
it turns out. 

Lent also has in common with most popular drama 
a clearly moral story line. There are the good guys 
and bad guys, the enemies and allies, the saved and 
the damned. To be sure, the good guy disciples fall 
away momentarily, but that only adds a human 
touch and we know they will soon be reinstated. 
Even that facile element is rescued from being 
simplistic because one of them, Judas, is permanently 

Oh, it's good theater, all right. And not really 
disturbing, because all our rhetoric and prayers 

10 MESSENGER 2-13-69 


make clear beyond doubt that we identify ourselves 
with the good guys. The worst we are guilty of is 
the momentary lapse from faithfulness. Even the 
disciples were not above that; and, after all, no one 
is perfect. In any case, the Lenten drama as played 
in most of our churches never for a second allows 
the suspicion that we may be more accurately 
identified with the screaming mob and the scheming 

Another disturbingly appealing aspect of Lent is 
the encouragement of self-indulgent fantasy about 
pain. A psychiatrist might well do a study entitled, 
"Lenten Observances: A Case Study in Masochistic 
Fantasy." Not only do we seem to enjoy elaborate 
reflection on what must have been Jesus' excruciating 
pain, but the focus on blood is notable. To outsiders. 
Christians must seem to be hemophiliacs, wallowing 
in the most explicit descriptions of that saving flood, 
yearning even to hide in the bloody wound "cleft 
for me." Even a cursory examination of Lenfen 
hymns will shed light on this item of pietistic 

Lent as we observe it is a dangerous season. 
Dangerous because it encourages a kind of smug 
self-righteousness. Dangerous because it cushions us 
Item the shattering implications of Christ's commit- 
ment unto death. Dangerous because it invites 
self -indulgently pious fantasy about his suffering, 
while evading his call for us to lose our lives that we 
might be saved. 

These are the dangers in the aberrations of Lent. 
It is not surprising, however, that we are attached to 
our devotional aberrations, for the more honest 
observance of Lent could be devastating. Lent can 
be observed honestly only by persons who are 
vulnerable and who know they are vulnerable. Lent 
is relentless judgment upon the props and securities 
with which we seek to protect ourselves. Lent is the 
shattering condemnation of our style of life, a style 
designed to shield us from the future, and therefore 
a style of hostility to the future. Lent is not so much 
the familiar comfort of the old-time religion as it is 
a radical call to new dimensions of discipleship. 

"Repent, for the kingdom of God is at hand!" This 

imperative is at the center of Jesus' message, it is 
the raison d'etre of his own commitment. One fear 
of the future is to be abandoned, every protective 
shield is to be demolished. Now in radical freedom 
we walk toward the future in trust, throwing 
ourselves without reserve on the promise of God's 
coming rule. Jesus set aside every counsel to caution 
and impulse of prudence. His confidence rested alone 
on God's faithfulness. In disobedience to authority 
and convention, he walked to Calvary. Not without 
doubts or inner anguish; he saw fully the ambiguity 
of his course. Yet, step upon inexorable step, he 
moved to the cross. 

His confidence was vindicated. On the third day 
he was raised from the dead. It is only this 
vindication that makes it possible for us to reason- 
ably observe, indeed to celebrate. Lent today. 

We are saying that we, too, are prepared to 
abandon the false securities of the American way. 
We too would walk in commitment to the vision of the 
coming kingdom. We, as did Jesus, envision this 
kingdom as a new order, as the beloved community 
in which the hungry will be fed, the imprisoned 
liberated, the disinherited given their place of glory 
in God's dispensation. Like a surgeon's knife. Lent 
severs us from the fears and reactionary anxieties 
that plague our society and its institutions. Not 
the law and order of the present but the possibilities 
of the future command our loyalty. 

Of his slain brother Senator Edward Kennedy 
said, "Some men see things as they are and ask, 
'Why?' He dreamed things that never were and 
said, 'Why not?' " 

Why not? Because it is impractical, our society 
says. Because it might not work. Because it is 
expensive. Because we have never done it that way. 
Because you can get killed trying. Jesus knew he 
could get killed trying. He was not deterred. He was 
killed. He was not deterred. He was vindicated. 

Lent is the dangerous season. Dangerous and 
deathly in its aberrations to those who seek its 
meaning in nostalgic remembrance of the past. 
Dangerous and eternally fulfilling to those who walk 
with Jesus in restless anticipation of the future. D 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 11 

Meanwhile back home 

"In the beginning God created the 
heaven and the earth. ..." 

From 235,000 miles out in hinar space 
an astronaut team of one Catholic and 
two Protestants recounted the biblical 
story of creation. Back on earth, for 
most of the 50 million hsteners, the 
Genesis account was never before ren- 
dered in a more momentous setting. 
Neither had a Christmas Eve "service" 
ever been so widely heard. Reacted 
Mrs. Frank Borman, wife of the com- 
mander of the Apollo 8, to the creation 

"It's just what this small world was 
waiting for." 

Appraisals: Man's first voyage into 
lunar skies doubtlessly was enough of a 
spectacle to turn on even indifferent 
onlookers. And the future prospects in 
space appear even more incredible and 
enticing: closer approaches to the 
moon's surface; actual touchdown on the 

moon; space stations orbiting the earth; 
and flights to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, 
Uranus, and the distant stars. 

As to the epochal sLx-day spaceflight at 
Christmastime, some observers were 
cjuick to interpret it as a decisive up- 
staging of Russia by the U.S.A. This 
nation, its image tarnished by the Viet- 
nam war and by the rejection of its mili- 
tary will at many points abroad, may 
have seen in space a new arena for 
demonstrating its national prowess. At 
the vei"y least, the unfathomable space 
travel tale told by Jules Verne a cen- 
tun- ago was turned from fiction into 

Whatever triumphalism stemmed from 
Apollo 8, not only for the astronauts and 
their craft but for the men and the 
system behind them, there were also, 
appropriately, occasions for reflection. 
There was the creation reading during 
the circling of the moon. There were the 
prayers of the astronauts, of their 
famihes, of captivated earthlings every- 

where. And there were assessments by 
such commentators as The New York 
Times' Walter Sullivan, who in describing 
the video coverage from Apollo 8 noted: 

"The citizens of this planet were of- 
fered the humbling sight of their world 
as it is — a sphere moving through the 
void with no hint of the life that clings 
tenuously to its surface." 

Environment: It was this fact that 
life is tenuous — distressingly so for mass- 
es on earth — that led one scientist to ad- 
vance some hard questioning about the 
$24 billion Apollo project. In the view 
of Prof. George B. Kistiakowsky, former 
science consultant to Presidents Eisen- 
hower and Kennedy, so much must be 
done on earth that the man-in-space pro- 
gram could have beneficially been cut 
back and funds used to improve the en- 
vironment in which people live. 

Interviewed on "The World of Reli- 
gion" on CBS radio, the Harvard Uni- 
versity professor declared that if tech- 
nology's power were fully realized in 


The earth as seen 

240,000 miles away 

shown above the 

lunar horizon. 

Photo taken by 

crew of Apollo 8 

12 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

social dimensions, there would not be 
the "appalhng degeneration and col- 
lapse" of public ti-ansportation nor so 
many "ghastly" television programs. 

While voicing great admiration for 
the Apollo 8 astronauts, Dr. Kistiakowsky 
said that "in a sense" an unmanned 
Apollo 8 flight would have produced as 
much infomiation as orbiting three men 
around the moon. He did not, however, 
deny the emotional impact of the 
manned flight. 

But the main concern he voiced was 
that when so much attention is focused 
on projects such as the Apollo 8 mission, 
the nation fails to take adequately into 
account the social impact of modern 
scientific breakthroughs. Insisting that 
new technologies must not be merely 
exciting, nor beneficial to a few, he 

"We as a society have to be terribly 
careful that the technological innovations 
which are put into effect are really in 
the social interest for us as a society." 

Or put another way, the professor is 
inquiring whether the vaster and costher 
space probes in the offing can be con- 
sidered only on their own merits or 
whether the efforts must be weighed 
against man's deteriorating environment 
on earth. 

In this the scientist has raised a pro- 
foundly moral question. 

The shifting scene 

AS RESTRUCTURING of the General 
OSices staff passed the half-way mark, 
the momentum of personnel changes this 
month began to slacken. Likely the ap- 
pointments yet to come will be scattered 
throughout the next several months, all 
targeted to a completion date of Sept. 1. 
While the bulk of staff appointments 
to date has been from within the present 
staff, a considerable number of new ap- 
pointments are anticipated. Termina- 
tions already in the works, some at staff 
members' initiative and some at the Gen- 
eral Board's, plus an unseasonal mmiber 

of retirements assure at least a 25 per- 
cent turnover once the new sti'ucture is 

In recent actions the General Board 
has announced the following essentially 
new appointments: 

W. Harold Roiv, Washington repre- 
sentative, to begin in September, and 
executive for interchurch relations, to be- 
gin this month. In the Washington as- 
signment, Dr. Row will succeed John H. 
Eberly, who will retire Aug. 31. The 
position in interchurch relations is basi- 
cally new. 

Donald E. Roioe, director of recruit- 
ment and professional groNvth, World 
Ministries Commission, beginning part 
time at once while continuing some re- 
sponsibility as Annual Conference man- 
ager until June 30. 

Ralph E. Smeltzer, social justice con- 
sultant. World Ministries Commission, 
working in the areas of race relations, 
religious liberty, and neglected peoples, 
to coiTimence later this year. 

Wilbur E. Mullen, ministi'y to men fac- 
ing the draft, a position to be separated 
from Brethren Volunteer Service, of 
which Mr. Mullen is now director. The 
new post is under the World Ministries 

Hubert R. Newcomer, director of field 
services on a half-time basis. General 
Services Commission, to begin at once. 
Mr. Newcomer will also serve as Annual 
Conference manager under the Annual 
Conference Central Committee begin- 
ing officially July 1. 

Wilfred E. Nolen, on team of planning 
counselors, Parish Ministries Commission, 
with particular responsibility for celebra- 
tive expressions in worship, music, etc., 
to commence later this year. 

Named to continue in essentially their 
present assignments were the following: 

Kenneth I. Morse, editor of Messen- 
ger, ahgned with the Parish Ministries 

Wilbur E. Brumbaugh, managing edi- 
tor of Messenger and consultant on 
layout for material resources, Parish Min- 

istries Commission. 

Shantilal P. Bhagat and Kenneth E. 
McDoioell, community development con- 
sultants, World Ministries Commission. 

Gerald M. Flory, director of produc- 
tion, General Services Commission. 

Mrs. Charles (Helen) Flory, assistant 
for the Brethren Pension Plan, General 
Services Commission. 

Miss Doris Walbridge, assistant in 
marketing. General Sei"vices Commission. 

Roij L. Hiteshew, assistant tieasurer. 

Leland Wilson, director of department 
of interpretation and stewardship. Gen- 
eral Services Commission. 

Howard E. Roijer, news director. Gen- 
eral Services Commission. 

Announced earlier by the board were 
the names of the general secretary, the 
three associate general secretaries who 
head commissions, the treasurer, and five 
administrative assistants. 

Persons leaving the employ of the 
General Board include the following: 

/. Henry Long, executive secretary of 
the Foreign Mission Commission. Dr. 
Long left the staff in November and will 
be joining the faculty of Elizabethtown 
College in Pennsylvania. 

Revie Slauhaugh, director of sales and 
merchandising. Terminating his work 
last Jan. 1, Mr. Slaubaugh is entering 
investment counseling in Elgin. 

Miss Grace Hollinger, administrative 
assistant to the general secretary. The 
resignation is to be effective March 1. 
Miss Holhnger announced her plans sev- 
eral months ago to return to her home 
area in Pennsylvania. 

Donald E. Fancher, ministerial voca- 
tion consultant, effective August 31. 

Four persons will be leaving the staff 
on the normal retirement basis: Ora W. 
Garber, editor of book publications; Glen 
E. Norris, assistant in draft counseling; 
Harl L. Russell, director of pensions and 
special gifts; Anna M. Warstler, director 
of adult program and women's fellowship. 

The realignment is based on the struc- 
ture of organization passed by the 1968 
Annual Conference. 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 13 


Giants among men 

Two GIANTS AMONG MEN — Protestant 
Karl Barth and Trappist monk and au- 
thor Thomas Merton — had more in com- 
mon than the day of their deaths. While 
vastly different in background and ap- 
proach to religion, both stood impas- 
sioned before the majesty of God. 

Barth, considered by many the greatest 
Protestant theologian of the century, was 
in the tradition of John Calvin. Merton, 
renowned for his UTitings on the con- 
templative life, was in the tradition of 
St. John of the Cross. Both, in their 
ways, stressed the necessity for new and 
renewing consciousness in dealing with 
earthly destiny. Tliey walked confident 
of God's mercy. 

Barthian themes: For Barth, 82 when 
he died on Dec. 10, a time of decision 
came in post-World War I Europe. Later 
to become a world celebrated theologian, 
he was during the war a pastor in a Swiss 
Reformed parish, trained in the best 
tradition of Protestant Christianity. 

But something, to him, was wrong with 
the relation of theology to the world. 
Protestant thought was dominated by an 
optimistic, often humanistic, viewpoint 
recorded in history as "liberalism." Men 
on both sides of the Atlantic, before the 
war, looked at the future with an "every- 
day in every way we're getting better 
and better" vision. 

Then the supposedly Christian nations 
of the West went to war in 1914 — the 
bloodiest conflict experienced up to that 
time — and positive thinking about hu- 
man goodness was called into question. 
In theology, it was Karl Barth who set 
a new course. In 1919 and 1922 editions 
of "The Epistle to the Romans," a com- 
mentary on the Pauline letter, he in- 
sisted that Christians did not do well 
to base their religion on human scientific 
ability or spiritual merits. He shunned 
theological and humanistic optimism and 
emphasized the self-willed revelation of 
the "wholly-other" God as man's hope. 

Barth reasserted themes from the 
Reformation, which he felt had been 
schematized into sterility or ignored. 

But he did more than parrot Luther 
and Calvin. Never wanting to leave con- 
temporary man out of the picture, he 
utilized the existentialist philosophy most 
closely associated with the Danish the- 
ologian, Soren Kierkegaard. Man, he 
held, must take a "leap of faith." 

Merton on contemplation: Thomas 
Merton was 53 when his death occurred 
in Thailand on Dec. 10, an accident vic- 
tim. He was bom in France in the mid- 
dle of World War 1 of Anglican and 
Quaker parents. He grew up and studied 
in France, Bermuda, England, and New 

Converted to Catholicism in 1939, 
Merton two years later joined the Trap- 
pist Abbey of Gethsemani, Bardstown, 
Ky. His religious name was Father M. 

Choosing the contemplative life for 
Iiimself, he nonetheless wrote 30 books 
of poems and prose all centering on the 
search for God. Among them was the 
autobiographical Seven Storey Mountain. 
In one recent book. Conjectures of a 
Guilty Bystander, he v\Tote that "in times 
like ours, it is more than ever necessary 
for the individual to train himself ... to 
know the difference between the 'way of 
God and the way of Satan.' We cannot 
trust our society to tell us the difference." 

Whereas Barth faced his most trying 
social-political dilemmas in reference to 
Nazism before World War II and the 
spread of communism after that conflict, 
Merton was confronted with racism and 
increasing militarism in the U.S. The 
monk championed genuine equality for 
black Americans. He aligned himself 
with pacifist groups, backed conscien- 
tious objection, but did not approve of 
some activist protest measures. He 
termed war "an avoidable tragedy" and 
asserted that "the problem of solving in- 
ternational conflict with massive violence 
has become the number-one problem of 
our time." 

Merton put trust in nonviolence to 
correct social ills. "Nonviolence is meant 
to convey and to defend truth which has 
been obscured and defiled by political 
double-talk, " he said. "The half-truth . . . 

may turn out to be one of the most 
dangerous illusions of our time." 

Ecumenical stances: The Swiss pro- 
fessor and the American Trappist both 
recognized ecumenical attitudes as essen- 
tial to keep humanity off the primrose 
path to destruction. Neither, however, 
was noted as a meeting-going ecumenist. 

A monastic vocation and a commitment 
to writing did not pemiit Merton oppor- 
tunity for participation in many formal 
ecumenical convocations. He was involved 
in the loosely-organized Committee of 
Southern Churchmen, an ecumenical and 
interracial group, and he frequently en- 
tered into dialogue with Protestant semi- 
narians who visited Gethsemani. 

Barth was less than enthusiastic about 
the formation of the Protestant-Orthodox 
World Council of Churches in 1948. He 
issued a mild warning in 1963 to Protes- 
tants urging cautious interpretation of 
the meaning of the Second Vatican 
Council for ecumenical breakthroughs. 

Merton . . . obedience to Source of Life 

14 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

He subsequently changed his position 
on the WCC and worked on one of its 
commissions, though he did not attend 
its assemblies. After studying the docu- 
ments of the Vatican Council and having 
participated in a consultation in Rome 
on its theology, he became excited about 
"calm, brotherly hope" for strengthened 
Protestant-Catholic-Orthodox relations. 
His last years were marked by increased 
attention to Catholic theology and renew- 
al. At the same time, Catholic theolo- 
gians were energetically studying Earth. 

While disclaiming any status as a sur- 
veyor of "professional ecumenism," Mer- 
ton's latest books were filled with 
references to Protestant theologians. 
Earth among them. Merton's interests al- 
so encompassed Eastern religion, espe- 
cially Zen Euddhism. 

Earth in his 200 volumes did not 
write separately on non-Christian reli- 
gions, but he carried on what has been 
termed a "love affair with Judaism and 

Barth . . . hope in the "wholly other" God 

with the Jewish people." He refused to 
unhook Christianity from its Jewish her- 
itage and he abhorred the Nazi treat- 
ment of Jews. 

Man as prisoner: Barth visited the 
U.S. in 1962 and was profoundly un- 
happy with the treatment he saw of black 
people. In his Swiss homeland, he fought 
for the rights of workers in early years 
and throughout his life was pledged to 
prison reforms. He toured prisons in the 
U.S. and criticized the churches for not 
more loudly condemning situations he 
described as "Dante's Inferno." 

The theologian was well acquainted 
with the prison in Basel, his home, where 
he made simple expressions of his under- 
standing of Christianity in sermons to 
inmates. It was a fitting place for a 
pastoral-conscious Barth to preach, since 
he considered all men as prisoners of 
sorrow, hatred, habits, illness, distrust, 
or resentment. In some quarters Earth 
was understood to hold one of the dark- 
est known views of man. All, he said, 
have been made prisoners of disobedi- 
ence to God. God makes prisoners, he 
told Basel inmates, not to debase or 
shame but because God knows the funda- 
mental human disobedience. When the 
depth has been reached where a man 
must know that he cannot help himself, 
God's mercy has already reached out, 
has already found the man, and lifts 
him to the highest heights. 

A similar note was struck when Mer- 
ton wrote; "Faith is by no means an 
act of choice. ... It is birth to a higher 
life by obedience to the Source of Life: 
to believe is thus to consent to hear and 
to obey a creative command that raises 
us from the dead." 

Mozart's influence: Earth was pas- 
sionately devoted to the music of Mozart. 
He sometimes had difficulty reconciling 
this interest to the Catholic composer's 
rejection of Protestantism as "all in the 
head." Yet he listened with ascetic regu- 
larity to Mozart recordings each morning 
and evening as he worked on his 17- 
volume Church Dogmatics. He said, "It 
is a child, even a 'divine child,' who 
speaks in Mozart's music." 

Thomas Merton wrote a short essay, 
"Earth's Dream," in which he told of 
the great theologian dreaming of making 
a theological examination of Mozart. The 
musician answered not a word. 

"Fear not, Karl Earth," Merton said. 
"Trust in the divine mercy. Though you 
have grown up to become a theologian, 
Christ remains a child in you. Your 
books (and mine) matter less than we 
might think! There is in us a Mozart 
who will be our salvation." 

Barth found in Mozart's music an ab- 
sence of doubt which surely character- 
ized his own reliance on God. However, 
he likely would not have put the matter 
of human destiny in precisely the manner 
of Merton since he always stressed God's 
initiative in unlocking the door of mercy. 
"We must understand that the theme 
of the church cannot be man's morals or 
feeling but God's encounter with man," 
Barth wrote. "It must be God for man; 
God with man, and always in this se- 
quence, with God first." 

Misrepresented: New York's Union 
Theological Seminary president John C. 
Bennett wrote last month in Christianity 
and Crisis that it is a misfortune that 
Earth's image in the United States has 
been through stereotypes that "almost 
wholly misrepresent him" — such stereo- 
types as a quietist who counseled politi- 
cal inaction, as a teacher who depicted 
God as the "wholly other " far removed 
from man, as a theologian who turned 
polemic when dealing with Iris peers. 
The World Council of Churches' W. A. 
Visser 't Hooft said of Barth: "For many 
he was a fatherly friend who, as he grew 
older, became increasingly generous in 
his judgments and always reminded us 
that at the heart of the Christian gospel 
was the invitation to rejoice." 

In a poetic mood, Barth said: "The old 
light shines steadily anew. It shines for 
sinners, it shines for children." 

And Merton affirmed of God: "I will 
trust you always though I may seem to 
be lost in the shadow of death. I will 
not fear, for you are ever with me, and 
you will never leave me to face my perils 
alone." — From RNS sources 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 15 


Precedent was shattered when a church- 
sponsored film was shown recendy at 
two "secular" film festivals and won an 
award at each. Now its companion piece 
has been selected for inclusion in an 
exhibition that will bring together the 
best animated films from all over the 

These are not the usual beard-and- 
bathrobe productions about the Holy 
Land so characteristic of recent church 
film making. Nor are they sex-filled 
Hollywood spectaculars with only a 
vague resemblance to Bible stories. Both 
films are about the world — one serious 
and slightly frightening, the other satiric. 

"Homo Homini," a 10-minute color 
film, and "Acceleration," the two- 
minutes-plus companion piece, were 
commissioned by the World Council of 
Churches for showing on the opening 
night of its Fourth Assembly in Uppsala, 
Sweden. Both were made in Czechoslo- 
vakia by teams of artists headed by 
Vaclav Bedrich and Pavel Prochazka re- 
spectively, working in the studios of 
famed puppet film maker Tmka. John 
Taylor, the World Council of Churches' 
chief of film and photography, was pro- 
ducer of both films. 

Since the Uppsala Assembly, "Homo 
Homini" has been shown at the Edin- 
burgh Film Festival, where it received 
the Interfilm Award. Soon afterwards 

it was given the "Human Rights Film 
Award" at the national festival of the 
Netherlands. Mr. Taylor has been in- 
vited to receive the prize at next year's 
Dutch festival in Laren, where he will 
have an exhibition of his photography 
and graphic arts. 

Hangup: "Homo Homini " uses anima- 
tion, puppets, newsreel, stills, and music 
to depict a modern technocrat who feeds 
questions to a cybernetic head and gets 
answers to amazing technical problems 
but has great trouble with human ques- 
tions. The film, according to reviewer 
Gil Calloway, makes "a deeply rehgious 
inquiry into where we are and where 
we're going in our world. The answers 
the 'cybernetic head' produces are not 
all pleasant and should make us as 
church people think more realistically 
than the little puppet was animated to 

"Acceleration," according to the same 
reviewer, "is a quick, gay two-minute 
film with rather an Old Testament- 
Genesis theme that, in its 120 seconds, 
brings man from the Garden of Eden to 
the Space Age with the implied question 
— 'Has there been all that much progress 
after all?'" 

Now "Acceleration" has been selected 
for inclusion in the International Ani- 
mated Film Exhibition to be shown at 
the Los Angeles (County) Museum of 

Art in April. A selection from that show j 
will then tour museums, universities, and I 
film clubs under the auspices of the 
Internationa] Toumee d'Animation, a 
nonprofit-making organization dedicated ! 
to the encouragement of animation as a I 
major film art. ' 

Mr. Taylor expressed his appreciation 
to the Czechs in these words: "I ha\e 
the greatest respect for the Czechs who 
make short films, both because of their 
artistic integrity and their incredible 
talent." He mentioned particularly \'a- 
clav Bedrich, director of "Homo Homini"; 
surrealist Jaroslav Vasnik; and Pavel ! 
Prochazka, director of the minifilm 
"Acceleration, " which his wife animated. 

If the two films shattered festival 
precedents, they were equally unusual 
as church-assembly fare. Such gatherings 
tend to feature self-congratulatory "suc- 
cess stories " about churches and their 

Film Oikoumene: At Uppsala the 
whole first week of the 16-day assembly 
was dedicated to a consideration of the 
world and its problems. Documentaries, 
modern Swedish paintings, pop art from 
the U.S., protest songs, and dissonant 
contemporary church music were an 
integral part of the assembly program. 
All were intended to provide the dele- 
gates with a long, hard look at today's 
world in its stark reality. Only then 

16 MESSENGER 2-1 3-69 


would they be ready to determine how 
the Christian message could be heard in 
that world. 

Twenty-two major feature films and 
some 50 shorter documentaries were 
shown during the afternoon free period 
and at the close of evening sessions. A 
retrospective of Ingmar Bergman films 
not only gave an opportunity to see how 
his work has developed, but amazed 
many delegates by their relevance to the 
topics under discussion. 

Also shown as part of "Film Oikou- 
mene" arranged by Mr. Taylor were the 
works of young Swedish directors such as 
Jan Troell and the well-known French- 
men Trufiaut, Godard, and Bresson. 
There were films as different as Rus- 
sia's "Hamlet" and Pennebaker's cinema 
verite on Bob Dylan entitled "Don't 
Look Back," selections from Polanski and 
Nemec, the young Czech director who 
a month later made an impression at the 
Venice Film Festival. 

"The War Game," banned by the BBC, 
provided Peter Watkin's shocking view 
of the consequences of nuclear war. 

Films like Lumet's "Pawnbroker" and 
"Abschied von Gestem" by the young 
German director Alexander Kluge spoke 
so movingly of people of various cultures 
that some delegates said they should 
have been shown to the entire assembly 
in place of a platform speech. 

"Homo Homini" creator Vaclav Bedrich 
with puppet and cybernetic head 

Poets that few delegates would have 
heard or seen were "present" through the 
showing of "Wholly Communion " by 
Peter Whitehead, whose other prize- 
winner, "Let's All Make Love in London," 
introduced churchmen to the swinging 
London scene. The powerful Canadian 
film "Warrendale" depicted not only dis- 
turbed children but the basic question 
of communication between people. 

World view: While not all delegates 
were able to see all these films, they aU 
received a world's eye view of the church 
through the BBC documentary, "Christ 
and Disorder." Produced by Anthony 
de Lotbiniere, with a commentary by 
Observer writer Patrick O'Donovan, it 
introduced the second night's plenary 
session and was followed by folksinger 
Pete Seeger, whose protest songs are 
known to the younger generation around 
the world. 

"We could have made the delegates 
feel all warm inside by showing one of 
our own films telling how the churches 
are feeding the hungry and clothing the 
naked," said Mr. Taylor. "Instead, we 
ran the risk of asking an outside agency 
noted for its searching honesty to give 
us a frank appraisal of how others see us. 
While the result annoyed some delegates, 
it stimulated thought as to what the 
church should be doing." 

Only as the assembly moved into its 
second week did the focus shift to films 
specifically about church projects and 
programs. There were films on liturgical 
experiments as well as informational 
films on ecumenical projects that help 
people to help themselves such as the 
Mississippi Delta Ministry. There were 
films on the problem of worship in a 
secular age and documentary reports on 
the work of a modem missionary among 
the Masai of Kenya and youth volunteers 
at work in Greece. 

Trends: "The Uppsala assembly was a 
giant step in the relation of the church 
to film and other visual arts," says John 
Taylor, who conceived and carried out 

the extensive assembly film program. It 
illustrated t^vo trends clearly visible in 
the church's attitude towards films, ac- 
cording to Mr. Taylor. 

On the one hand, more and more 
churches are giving recognition to well- 
made secular productions stressing uni- 
versally recognized values. In the U.S., 
for instance, the National Council of 
Churches and the Roman Catholic 
Church's film divisions a year ago started 
to present a joint award. The first recipi- 
ent was Fred Zinnemann's "A Man for 
All Seasons," which opened the feature 
film program at Uppsala. 

The European churches have concen- 
trated more on film evaluation and edu- 
cation than on production. In the Neth- 
erlands Protestants and Catholics publish 
a high-calibre journal of film criticism. 
The churches have a network for dis- 
ti-ibuting short films and features, which 
means the Dutch have been exposed to 
many important films not available 
through commercial channels, including 
some from Eastern Europe. Recognition 
was recently given this program with the 
appointment of Jan Hes, its originator, 
as director of the National Film Institute 
of the Netherlands. 

Uppsala also illustrated that fewer and 
fewer "jeep" films are being made by the 

wee's Taylor . . . more than warmth 


churches and other intemational agen- 
cies. In such films a jeep with an or- 
ganizational symbol prominently dis- 
played roars into an underdeveloped 
village, and a dedicated expatriate from 
one of the churches, the Red Cross, or a 
United Nations agency bounds out and at- 
tacks the problems of the village with 
vigor and dispatch. And the villagers 
live happily ever after! 

"More and more agencies are realizing 
that it is better to make a good film 
elaborating a social problem or situation 
than to brag about their own work," says 
John Taylor. "The fact that they are 
concerned enough to make and distribute 
the film is sufficient credit." 

Information films: However, there is 
still a place for the informational film 
containing straight documentation on an 
organization and its work. In the year 
preceding the Fourth Assembly, the 
World Council completed three produc- 
tions of this nature and worked with 
member churches and T\' stations on a 
number of others. 

"One Out of Manv" is a documentarv 

The Paul Prochazkas, creators of "Accele- 
ration," an epilogue on rapid social change 

on the World Council of Churches set 
against the crises of its time. Conceived 
primarily to inform church members 
about the ecumenical movement of 
which they are a part, it has been shown 
on television in many parts of the world 
from Sweden and Holland to Australia — 
a tribute to its objectivity. Now the 
Japanese are making a translation. 

"India's Race With Time" is a I2-min- 
ute film showing how Roman Catholic, 
Protestant, and other voluntary agencies 
cooperate in a government-initiated food 
production program. "The Team" in 
color tells of a pilot project which taught 
churches and governments the \alue of 
youth volunteers and self-help projects. 

Contribution: The significance is not 
merely that more films and visuals of all 
kinds were in e%'idence at Uppsala than 
at any other international church gather- 
ing. Rather, this development signals 
something of the centi'al place which 
high-quality, thought-provoking films 
have in helping Christians better grasp 
the world that is. 

Taking a cue from Uppsala, church 
bodies everysvhere could do well to con- 
sider the rich potential of contemporary, 
honest, searching films and other visuals 
produced in other lands and shared 
across national bounds. — Frances Smith 

Urban hospitality 

Members of the Pittsburgh, Pa., Church 
of the Rrethren decided some time ago 
to open their homes to close relatives of 
Brethren hospitalized in the city. With 
out-of-town Brethren frequently coming 
in to use the area's specialized medical 
facilities, the hospitality venture was seen 
by the parish as an appropriate expres- 
sion of concern and love. 

After two years of operation, the 
project brought the following reflections 
as carried in the Western Pennsylvania 
district newsletter. Wrote Pastor R. Rus- 
sell Bixler of the effort: 

"First, the Pittsburgh Brethren have 
a firm conviction that God has placed 
this ministry upon them and that they 
are fulfilling his divine command through 

this particular congregation in this par- 
ticular location. 

"Second, the project has drawn the 
congregation closer to the rest of the 
Brotherhood. With few Brethren living 
in the Pittsburgh area, sometimes our 
members have felt isolated. Each famih 
involved in the project has established 
close ties of friendship and love with 
other Brethren families from out of 

"Third, they have seen the heal- 
ing ministry tremendously broadened. 
Names of the sick Brethren are printed 
in the Sunda\ bulletin and the congrega- 
tion prays for them. Mrs. Harold Wolfe, 
project chairman, and others visit when- 
ever possible. They have discovered 
that many Brethren are open to any 
miracle God will do for them — and 
there have been a number of striking 
healings. A sadness is e.xperienced when 
there are those who cannot quite believe 
that God wants them to be whole and 
therefore do not experience the healing 
that could take place. 

"The persons involved in the project 
feel it is important to help strengthen 
the faith of the close family members. 
There is a ministry at home following 
hospital visiting hours. Most of those 
who come to Pittsburgh hospitals are 
too ill to be cared for in their community 
hospitals, and the whole experience is 
often quite difficult if not tragic for the 
accompanying family member. To re- 
turn each night to the four bare walls 
of a rented room can be terrifyingly 
lonely to one already filled with fear 
and grief. But in the Brethren homes 
over a cup of coffee the host and hostess 
can listen to and share the problems, can 
love them, pray with them, and perhaps 
cry with them. 

"Most of the guests have returned 
home with a testimony of God's love and 
his healing power, and so his name is 
glorified. But the most pleasant surprise 
of all has been that those in the Pitts- 
burgh church have received more bless- 
ings than anyone else. Indeed, did not 
Jesus promise, ' ... he shall not lose 
his reward'?" 

18 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

iT speak up 

Professional Ethics: A D 

We Americans currently suffer from a 
disease that might be labeled image-itis. 
All of us are victims to some extent. On 
the national level, we see it in the concern 
many Americans voice over the declining 
prestige of our country in the eyes of the 
world. Parents in particular have little 
or no resistance to it. But nowhere is this 
condition so notably present or so far 
advanced as in our churches and among 
our ministers. It takes expression in bad 
backs and migraine headaches, utter 
fatigue and stomach ulcers, and a host of 
physical symptoms. This disease is 
labeled professional ethics, and it oc- 
cupies a place in the training of our 
ministers and their wives during their 
seminary careers. Actually, it is an es- 
tablished code of conduct for those who 
happen to be in a particular profession 
or who, because of their position, feel 
they must play a certain role. It is the 
unquestioned acceptance of professional 
ethics as a valid demand upon ministers 
and people that needs to be scrutinized. 

For it is precisely because of image- 
itis that ministers and those to whom 
they minister (and just as surely ministers' 
wives) are denied the rights of being 
persons in relation to other persons. The 
minister and his wife are called upon — 
or assume that they are called upon — to 
"rub elbows with hundreds and hearts 
with none" (Roy Burkhart) in the local 
congregation. If they want to share in 
depth with certain members of their con- 
gregations, they hold these desires in 
abeyance because it "just isn't done" or 
"it isn't professional" or "what will the 
Board think?" or "it might hurt Sara 
Small's feelings" — or other symptoms of 
image-itis. Conversely, the members who 
crave depth relationships with their min- 
isters (and this situation may be all too 
rare) refuse to express these needs out of 
respect for them or awareness of their 
situation. Thus, all lose. 

Does it not seem strange that the very 

institution which has as its stated purpose 
the full realization of personhood in in- 
dividuals is led by those who are trained 
to deny to themselves (and others) one 
of the most important avenues for this 
realization? Often, pastors compensate 
for the loss by grouping themselves with 
other ministers, who may or may not be 
able to give them the insights and aware- 
ness and sensitivity to others that come 
from looking at life and self from differ- 
ent vantage points. Further, this leaves 
in the membership those frustrated seek- 
ers \\'hose wholeness is in a measure un- 
fulfilled because they did not happen to 
be among the ecclesia. Can you imagine 
Linus shutting Snoopy out because 
Snoopy was not called to be a person? 

We need to break down the arbitrary, 
man-made walls between person and per- 
son (be it pastor and people or otherwise) 
and satisfy our hunger for depth-sharing 
wherever it is found. Ministers and 
members alike need to remember that 
each person needs to be before he can 
give. But to crumble these sturdy, well- 
established walls we will need many 
horns blowing loudly and proclaiming 
(1) by the people that they will regard 
their leaders first of all as men and 
women with hungers and needs akin to 
their own; and (2) by ministers and their 
wives that their growth into true person- 
hood is more important to them than the 
ego-satisfaction of role-playing. — Eliza- 
beth Click Rieman 

for a 

It's time we took a second look . . . upon the greatest story ever told. 
The Easter story. The story of God's grace, forgiveness and eternal love. 

Renew this timeless promise in your life and in your family's life. 
In the weeks- leading up to Easter, concentrate on the meaning of this 
all-important Christian event and its meaning in your life. 

Daily devotions will help. The Upter Roo.m has carefully planned 
Bible readings, prayers and meditations to bring you the true mean- 
ing and understanding of Easter. 

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1908 Grand Avenue Nashville, Tennessee .37203 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 19 


One may avoid regret and 
remorse in retrospect if he 
hears his calling to a lifework 
with less purse and more 
purpose in mind 

by Frederick Buechner 

In the year that King Uzziah died I 
saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, 
high and lifted up; and his train filled 
the temple. Above him stood the 
seraphim; each had six wings: with two 
he covered his face, and with two he 
covered his feet, and with two he flew. 
And one called to another and said: 

"Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; 

the whole earth is full of his glory." 
And the foundations of the thresholds 
shook at the voice of him who called, 
and the house was filled with smoke. 
And I said: "Woe is me! For I am lost; 
for I am a man of unclean lips, and 
I dwell in the midst of a people of un- 
clean lips; for my eyes have seen the 
King, the Lord of hosts!" 

Then flew one of the seraphim to me, 
having in his hand a burning coal 
which he had taken with tongs from the 
altar. And he touched my mouth, and 
said: "Behold, this has touched your 
lips; your guilt is taken away, and your 
sin forgiven." And I heard the voice 
of the Lord saying, "Whom shall I send, 
and who will go for u.s?" Then I said, 
"Here I am! Send me." And he .said, 
"Go. ..." 

Isaiah 6:1-9 
"Man .shall not live by bread alone, 
but by every word that proceeds from 
the mouth of God." 

Matthew 4:4 

The telephone rings late one night, 
and you jump out of your skin; you 
try for awhile to pretend that it is not 
ringing, but after awhile you answer it 
because otherwise you will never know 
who it is, and it might be anybody, 
anybody. Then a voice says, "Listen, 
something has happened. Something 
has got to be done. I know you are 
busy. I know you have lots on your 
mind. But you've got to come. For 
God's sake." 

Or you are walking along an empty 
beach toward the end of the day, and 
there is a gray wind blowing, and a 
seagull with a mussel shell in its beak 
flaps up and up and then lets the 
shell drop to the rocks below, and there 
is something so wild and brave and 
beautiful about it that you have to 
write it into a poem or paint it into 
a picture or sing it into a song; or if 
you are no good at any of these, you 
have to live out at least the rest of 
that day in a way that is somehow 
true to the little scrap of wonder that 
you have seen. 

Or I think of the school church that 
I served for a time where the offering 
each week was given to an institution 
for retarded children, and when the 
plate was passed around, some of the 
students, resentful of having to go to 
church at all, would drop in their 
penny or would drop in nothing at all. 

Then maybe someday a friend would 
drag one of them down to where the 
money went, and he would get to 
know some one of the children a little, 
and when he went back another day, 
the child would come running up to 
him in a way that made him suddenly 
see, with a kind of panic almost, 
that for that child, the sight of him 
was Christmas morning and a rocket 
to the moon and the no-school whistle 
on a snowy morning. And then it was 
like the phone ringing in the night 
again or the seagull riding the gray 
wind. It was a summons that he had 
to answer somehow or, at considerable 
cost, not answer. 

Or in the year that King Uzziah 
died, or in the year that John F. 
Kennedy died, or in the year that 
somebody you loved died, you go into 
the temple if that is your taste, or you 
hide your face in the little padded 
temple of your hands, and a voice 
says, "Whom shall I send into the 
pain of a world where people die?" 
and if you are not careful, you may 
find yourself answering, "Send me." 
You may hear the voice say, "Go." 
Just go. 

Like duty, law, religion, the word 
vocation has a dull ring to it, but in 
terms of what it means, it is really 
not dull at all. Vocare, to call, of 
course, and a man's vocation is a 

20 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

man's calling. It is the work that he 
is called to in this world, the thing 
that he is summoned to spend his life 
doing. We can speak of a man's 
choosing his vocation, but perhaps it 
is at least as accurate to speak of a 
vocation's choosing the man, of a call's 
being given and a man's hearing it, 
or not hearing it. And maybe that is 
the place to start: the business of 
listening and hearing. A man's life is 
full of all sorts of voices calling him 
in all sorts of directions. Some of 
them are voices from inside and some 
of them are voices from outside. The 
more alive and alert we are, the more 
clamorous our hves are. Which do 
we listen to? What kind of voice do 
we listen for? 

There is a sad and dangerous little 
game that people play when they get 
to be a certain age. It is a form of 
solitaire. They get out their class 
yearbook, and look at the pictures of 
the classmates they knew best and 
recall the days when they first knew 
them in school, ten or twenty years 
ago or whatever it was. They think 
about all the exciting, crazy, wonder- 
fully characteristic things their class- 
mates used to be interested in and 
about the kind of dreams they had 
about what they were going to do 
when they graduated and about the 
kind of dreams that maybe they had 

for some of them. Then they think 
about what those classmates actually 
did with their lives, what they are 
doing with them now ten or twenty 
years later. I make no claim that the 
game is always sad or that when it 
seems to be sad our judgment is 
always right, but once or twice when 
I have played it myself, sadness has 
been a large part of what I have felt. 
Because in my class, at the school 
that I went to, as in any class at any 
school, there were students who had 
a real flair, a real talent, for 
something. Maybe it was for writing 
or acting or sports. Maybe it was an 
interest and a joy in working with 
people toward some common goal, a 
sense of responsibility for people who 
in some way had less than they had 
or were less. Sometimes it was just 
their capacity for being so alive that 
made you more alive to be with them. 
Yet now, a good many years later, I 
have the feeling that more than just 
a few of them are spending their lives 
at work in which none of these gifts 
is being used, at work they seem to 
be "working at" with neither much 
pleasure nor any sense of accomplish- 
ment. This is the sadness of the 
game, and the danger of it is that 
maybe we find that in some measure 
we are among them or that we are 
too blind to see that we are. 

When you are young, I think, your 
hearing is in some ways better than 
it is ever going to be again. You hear 
better than most people the voices 
that call to you out of your own life 
to give yourself to this work or that 
work. When you are young, before 
you accumulate responsibilities, you 
are freer than most people to choose 
among all the voices and to answer 
the one that speaks most powerfully 
to who you are and to what \ou 
really want to do with your life. But 
the danger is that there are so many 
voices, and they all in their ways 
sound so promising. The danger is 
that you will not listen to the voice 
that speaks to you through the seagull 
mounting the gray wind, say, or the 
vision in the temple, that you do not 
listen to the voice inside you or to 
the voice that speaks from outside but 
specifically to you out of the specific 
events of your life, but that instead 
you listen to the great blaring, boring, 
banal voice of our mass culture, which 
threatens to deafen us all by blasting 
forth that the only thing that really 
matters about your work is how much 
it will get you in the way of salary 
and status, and that if it is gladness 
you are after, you can save that for 
weekends. In fact one of the grimmer 
notions that we seem to inherit from 
our Puritan forebears is that work is 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 21 

VOICES / continued 

not even supposed to be glad but, 
rather, a kind of penance, a way of 
working off tfie guilt that you 
accumulate during the hours when you 
are not working. 

The world is full of people who 
seem to have listened to the wiong 
voice and are now engaged in life- 
work in which they find no pleasure 
or pui-pose and who run the risk of 
suddenly realizing someday that they 
have spent the only years that they 
are ever going to get in this world 
doing sometlung which could not 
matter less to themselves or to anyone 
else. This does not mean, of course, 
people who are doing work that from 
the outside looks unglamorous and 
humdiiim, because obviously such 
work as that may be a ciTicial form 
of service and deeply creative. But it 
means people who are doing work 
that seems simply iixelevant not only 
to the great human needs and issues 
of oui' time but also to their own 
need to grow and develop as humans. 

In John Marquand's novel Point of 
No Return, for instance, after years of 
apple-polishing and bucking for pro- 
motion and dedicating all his energies 
to a single goal, Charlie Gray finally 
gets to be vice-president of the fancy 
little New York bank where he works; 
and then the terrible moment comes 
when he realizes that it is really not 
what he wanted after all, when the 
prize that he has spent his life trying 
to win suddenly turns to ashes in his 
hands. His promotion assures him 
and his family of all the security and 
standing that he has always sought, 
but Marquand leaves you with the 
feeling that maybe the best way 
Charlie Gray could have supported 
his family would have been by giving 
his life to the kind of work where he 
could have expressed himself and ful- 
filled himself in such a way as to 

become in himself, as a person, the 
kind of support they really needed. 

There is also the moment in the 
gospels where Jesus is poilrayed as 
going into the wilderness for forty 
days and nights and being tempted 
there by the devil. And one of the 
ways that the devil tempts him is to 
wait until Jesus is very hungry from 
fasting and then to suggest that he 
simply turn the stones into bread and 
eat. Jesus answers, "Man shall not 
live by bread alone," and this just 
happens to be, among other things, 
true, and very close to the same truth 
that Charlie Gray comes to when he 
reahzes too late that he was not made 
to live on status and salary alone but 
that sometliing ciiicially important was 
missing from liis hfe even though he 
was not sure what it was any more 
than perhaps Marquand himself was 
sure what it was. 

There is nothing moralistic or 
sentimental about this truth. It means 
for us simply that we must be careful 
with our lives, for Christ's sake, 
because it would seem that they are 
the only lives we are going to have 
in this puzzling and perilous world, 
and so they are very precious and 
what we do with them matters 
enormously. Everybody knows that. 
We need no one to tell it to us. Yet 
in another way perhaps we do always 
need to be told, because there is 
always the temptation to beheve that 
we have all the time in the world, 
whereas the ti-uth of it is that we do 
not. We have only a life, and the 
choice of how we are going to live it 
must be our own choice, not one that 
we let the world make for us. 
Because surely Marquand was right 
that for each of us there comes a 
point of no return, a point beyond 
which we no longer have life enough 
left to go back and start all over. 

To Isaiah, the voice said, "Go," and 
for each of us there are many voices 
that say it; but the question is which 
one will we obey with oui" lives, which 
of the voices that call is to be the 
one we answer. No one can say, of 
course, except each for himself, but I 
believe that it is possible to say at 
least this in general to all of us: we 
should go with our lives where we 
most need to go and where we are 
most needed. 

Where we most need to go. Maybe 
that means that the voice we should 
listen to most as we choose a vocation 
is the voice that we might think we 
should listen to least, and that is the 
voice of our own gladness. What can 
we do that makes us gladdest, what 
can we do that leaves us with the 
strongest sense of sailing true north 
and of peace, which is much of what 
gladness is? Is it making things with 
our hands out of wood or stone or 
paint on canvas? Or is it making 
something we hope like truth out of 
words? Or is it making people laugh 
or weep in a way that cleanses their 
spirit? I believe that if it is a thing 
that makes us truly glad, then it is a 
good thing and it is our thing and it 
is the calling voice that we were made 
to answer with our lives. 

And also, where we are most 
needed. In a world where there is 
so much drudgery, so much grief, so 
much emptiness and fear and pain, 
our gladness in our work is as much 
needed as we ourselves need to be 
glad. If we keep our eyes and ears 
open, our hearts open, we will find 
the place surely. The phone will ring 
and we will jump not so much out of 
our skin as into our skin. If we keep 
our lives open, the right place will 
find us. 

Jesus said, "Man shall not live by 
bread alone, but by every word that 

22 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

His Name /by Emily Sargent Councilman 

proceeds from the mouth of God," and 
in the end every word that proceeds 
from the mouth of God is the same 
word, and the word is Christ himself. 
And in the end that is the vocation, 
the calUng of all of us, the calling to 
be Christs. To be Christs in whatever 
way we are able to be. To be Christs 
with whatever gladness we have and 
in whatever place, among whatever 
brothers we are called to. That is the 
vocation, the destiny to which we 
were all of us called even before the 
foundations of the world. 

O Thou, who are the God no less 
of those who know thee not than of 
those who love thee well, be present 
with us at the times of choosing when 
time stands still and all that lies 
behind and all that lies ahead are 
caught up in the mystery of a moment. 
Be present especially with the young 
who must choose between many voices. 
Help them to know how much an old 
world needs their youth and gladness. 
Help them to know that there are words 
of truth and healing that will never 
be spoken unless they speak them and 
deeds of compassion and courage that 
will never be done unless they do 
them. Help them never to mistake 
success for victory or failure for defeat. 
Grant that they may never be entirely 
content with whatever bounty the 
world may bestow upon them hut 
that they may know at last that they 
were created not for but for 
joy, and that joy is to him alone who, 
sometimes with tears in his eyes, 
commits himself in love to thee and to 
his brothers. Lead them and all thy 
world ever deeper into the knowledge 
that finally all men are one and that 
there can never really he joy for any until 
there is joy for all. In Christ's name 
we ask it and for his sake. Amen. 

From The Hungeri-ng Dark, by Frederick 
Buechner. (c) 1968 by The Seabury Press, New 

Iong ago when earth was ah-eady old but man was 
young, a man walked with God in a garden. Not 
by night — he slept then beneath bright stars and the 
far dark of space beyond them. And not by day. All 
I day he kept busy with his friends in the garden — the 
plants and trees and all the animals. He was giving 
to each of them a name, a proper name, as he talked with 
them. He played with the animals; and he ate the fruit in 
the garden and drank from the four rivers fed by its 
central spring, assuaging his hunger and thirst. 

Although the man knew that God was always nearby, 
he saw him only at twilight each evening when sweet dew 
covered the grass on the river banks and a cooling breeze 
stirred the willow trees. They always met at the spring in 
the center of the garden, near the voung apple tree putting 
out its two branches; and they walked together. They talked. 

The man did not yet have any name for God. After he 
had named all the plants and trees, all of the animals in the 
garden and the creatures living below the river waters, 
he tried to discover a name for God. He looked every- 
where for suggestions, exploring the four rivers and the 
garden again and again and lifting his eyes to the dark 
brightness of the rising sun surrounded by moving softness 
of far clouds in a crimson sky. He watched the lamb and 
the lion, listened to the whirring wings of the dove in flight, 
and pondered the grace of the serpent. But he could not 
think of a name for the wholeness of God who made liim. 

Sometimes the man wondered why he did not ask God 
himself about a name for him. Why? They talked of many 
things as they walked together each evening. They laughed 
and sang together; and they were silent together, needing 
no words. But the man dared not ask — or believed he dare 
not ask. Each evening as the moon waxed brighter, he 
could see God more clearly yet called him by no name, 
perhaps fearing to call him by too small a name. 

More and more often he traveled to the far outreaches 
of the garden in his search for a name for God. And so it 
happened that there came a time when he was late in 
coming to their meeting place at the spring in the center of 
the garden, near the young apple tree with its two growing 
branches. He had lingered too long, following the eastern 
river in his search. He was still far oft when he noticed that 
the dew was heavy on the grass and the yellow arc of 
moon loomed high above the trees. Startled by the waning 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 23 

HIS NAME / continued 

moon and suddenly famished with hunger 
and thirst such as he had never known, 
he found himself hiu'i-ying, stumbling, 
running to meet God. But suddenly, 
there, short of the spring and the apple 
tree, there was God coming to meet him. 
And the man fell down, his terror 
ebbing with liim. 

"You were hungry?" God asked, hfting 
him up. 

"Yes, yes . . . and thirsty, though I'd 
eaten and drunk; and I ... I was. . . ." 


The man, enfolding the wonder of God 
coming to meet him, could only whisper, 
"Lonely . . . alone." 

God answered his thought, "I was 
lonely, too." 

"You?" Quickly the man looked to the 
dark brightness of God. "You, lonely?" 

And God answered him quickly, "Yes, 
I was lonely." Then he added, "I will 
always come to meet you when you tuni 
to the center of the garden. You can 
come or stay (I made you in my likeness 
of being); but I will always come to meet 
you in your turning." 

The man, still questioning God with 
his eyes, saw then, behind him under the 
waning moon, a shadow cast on the 
ground by the young apple tree with its 
two growing branches; and he trembled, 
though he had never seen a sword before. 

"Always," God said again. "Remember 
this: Beyond delay and wandering, 
beyond another quest, and another, in 
loneliness, alone, I will always come to 
meet you in your turning." 

Then the man saw the brightness of 
God within the darkness more luminous 

than the sun in its rising. Suddenly he 
knew that the sword which had pierced 
his heart with unutterable grief at his 
separation from God had pierced God's 
heart too, God's being. And the man, 
seeing that the failing moon had length- 
ened the sword-shadow into a tall cross 
planted in the center of the earth 
(though he had never seen a cross 
before ) , found the residue of tmnult 
within him resolving into a strange quiet 
of a new and unnamed longing. 

The man was silent then as he walked 
with God. But before their parting until 
tomorrow, the man, remembering how 
God had come to meet him, began to 
speak without knowing what he did. 

Haltingly, he asked, "Is this love your 
name? Love?" D 


Throughout both the Old and New Testaments are 
numerous references to Hght and darkness, almost 
invariably in a context suggesting the power of light 
over darkness. In the ninth chapter of Isaiah an 
interesting and inspiring bit of scripture reads, "The 
people who walked in darkness have seen a great 
light." Centuries later Jesus refen'cd to himself as the 
"light of the world." 

The fact that multitudes who have had opportu- 
nity to see the "great light" have not chosen to walk 
in it, and even the fact that often those who have 
committed themselves to walking in that light seem 
to choose to walk in darkness, cannot invalidate the 
power of the great light of God's eternal truth to 
hght the paths of mankind. 

In the fall of the year, when the farmer is harvest- 
ing his com crop, the days are steadily becoming 
shorter. Late in the season it mav be seven o'clock 
or later in the morning before it is sufficiently light 
for him to see to operate his machinery in the field 
without artificial light. Yet he knows that he can rise 

early, get his equipment ready for the day's work, 
and even start to the field in the darkness with full 
confidence that when he gets there it will be light 
enough for him to follow the corn rows. He knows 
you cannot hold back the dawn. 

It seems to me that one of the convictions neces- 
sarv for effective living of the Christian faith is that 
the power of the great light of God's titith eventually 
to overcome the darkness of evil and falsehood is as 
inexorable as the capacity of the dawn to dispel the 
darkness of night. 

Pessimism and utter despair are completely incom- 
patible with the Christian faith. 

ROBERT BEERY, a farmer who lives near 
North Manchester, Indiana, is the chairman 
of the church board at the Manchester 
church. Except for a so7i still in high 
school, every member of his family, is a 
graduate of Manchester College. 

24 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

day bir day 

A LONG-DISTANCE Call shocked us with 
the sad news that Mary Lee's father had 
died suddenly of a heart attack. His 
death compounded our grief, for we had 
just lost her mother three months before. 

In a short time we were speeding along 
on the Interstate Highway to join the 
other relatives. Why did death come like 
this? How can we bear to go through 
another bereavement experience? Why 
did God take him away? These and 
other questions haunted us as we drove 

It was rather quiet at the family home- 
stead when we arrived. The pastor came 
to ofier sympathy on behalf of the 
church and to bring comfort. He read 
a brief scripture passage and offered a 
prayer of consolation. The funeral direc- 
tor returned to obtain biographical data 
and make tentative funeral arrangements. 

Two days later the immediate family 
gathered in the church chapel for a 
private service followed by the burial in 
the church cemetery. The next day a 
memorial service was conducted in the 
church sanctuary for the public. 

No family can escape the hand of 
death. Sooner or later it will strike, often 
when we least expect it and when we are 

How can a family use the experience 
of death for spiritual growth? What re- 
sources are available to aid in this time 
of crisis? How can the bereavement situ- 
ation be used to praise God and build 
faith? We found the following sugges- 
tions very helpful to us. 

' Suggestions 

1. Accept the fact that the physical 
presence of the deceased is gone. This 
cannot be glossed over. Tell even the 
younger children this reality. 

2. Call your pastor when you call the 
funeral director. Allow your pastor to 
give spiritual comfort as soon as possible. 

3. Make the funeral services as faith- 

building as possible. Some families are 
discovering that a private service and 
burial followed by a public memorial 
service is more meaningful than the tra- 
ditional funeral. 

4. Let the funeral music express faitli 
and hope. Use the hymns that point to 
God and affirm eternal life. 

5. Limit the display of flowers. A me- 
morial fund to help the living, in lieu 
of flowers, is a more creative way of hon- 
oring the dead. 

6. Don't be afraid to express grief. 
Jesus wept by a graveside. Pent-up feel- 
ings of sorrow can be harmful. 

7. Talk freely about the deceased in 
the family circle and with friends. Ex- 
press to others the way you feel. This 

can be healing. 

8. Return to the normal activities of 
living Cjuickly. Keep the mind and body 

9. Go to church as soon as possible. 
You need the strength which comes from 
worshiping the living God and from the 
support of the congregation. 

10. Comfort others in sorrow. Because 
\'ou have walked "through the valley of 
the shadow," you can lielp others in a 
unique way. 

11. Read Bible promises of comfort 
and hope, some of which are indicated in 
the Daily Reading Guide. Helpful books 
include // It Were Not So, b\- Roy Burk- 
hart, and To Live Agairi, by Catherine 
Marshall. — Paul and Mary Lee White 

DAILY READING GUIDE February 16 -March 1 

Psalm 46. God helps in our troubles. 
Psalm 91. God is our refuge and fortress. 
Jalm 121. God is our eternal keeper. 

Psalm 23. The shepherd leads through the shadows. 
"2 Samuel 12:15-23. A king handles sorrow. 
Gen. 23:1-20. Selecting a burial plot. 
Gen. 50:1-14. Brothers bury their father. 
John 11:17-44. Lazarus is raised from the dead. 
Mark 15:33-39. Christ died that we might live. 
Matt. 28:1-15. Christ conquered death and the grave. 

Acts 7:54-60. How a deacon died, 
tlohn 14:1-20. The promise of a comforter. 
"Timothy 4:1-8. Getting ready for death. 
Rev. 21:1-7. Heaven is like this. 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 25 

Bible Crossword/ by Carol and John Conner 


I Tree (Ps. 104:17) 
4 Fundamental 

9 Do wrong (Ps. 39:1) 

12 Exist 

13 Tree (Ps. 52:8) 

14 Sorrow 

15 Discloses 

17 Mark (John 20:25) 

19 Not hard (Matt. 11:30) 

20 Metal (Dan. 2:40) 

21 Least good 

23 Drives forward 

26 Encourage 

27 " porridge hot" 

28 Exclamation 

29 Sea where Egyptians drowned (Heb. 

30 Palatable 

31 Stinging insect (Ps. 118:12) 

32 Manuscript (abbr.) 

33 Boat 

34 Cook bread (Gen. 19:3) 

35 Mexican blankets 

37 Hand-arm joint 

38 Bad (Matt. 7:18) 

39 Shared food 

40 Carved precious stone 
42 Definition 

45 Japanese sash 

46 Stir vigorously 

48 Marsh 

49 Damp 

50 Helpers 

51 Scottish fee 


1 Very much (Prov. 31:10) 

2 Wrath 

3 Loved and respected 

4 Praise oneself (Prov. 27:1) 

5 Unite 

6 Short for sister 

7 Average (abbr.) 

8 Disease (Matt. 8:15) 

9 Pigs (Matt. 8:32) 

10 Electrically charged particle 

II Fishing equipment 

































































16 A direction (Ps. 103:12) 

18 Heavy cord (Is. 5:18) 

20 Angry 

21 Takes off chill (Mark 14:54) 

22 Overweight 

23 Mexican coins 

24 Vegetables 

25 Large piece of cloth (Acts 10:11) 
27 Members of jury 

30 Pudding 

31 Steward of estate 

33 Earthen dwelling (Heb. 11:38) 

34 Broken grain husks 

36 Cancel punishment 

37 Makes independent (Ps. 131:2) 

39 Only 

40 Animal (Is. 7:21) 

41 Lincoln's nickname 

42 Wet dirt 

43 Bom 

44 Wildebeest 
47 Hello! 



^HBa usmu 

26 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

READERS WRITE / continued from page 1 

and communities given assistance in pro- 
gram planning, by this once prestige or- 
ganization. . . . 

I have heard that many young men leave 
BVS and return to draft status because they 
are placed in situations which they are 
not able to cope with. This, along with 
lack of communication between the staff 
and the unit, combine to create a dis- 
heartening experience with the program. 

A few weeks ago a BVSer gave many of 
his personal views which paralleled those 
of the draft card burner, the person who 
refuses to pay ta.xes, the general dissenter. 
Are any of these young people, while in 
training, oriented by Dr. Spock? If not, 
where do they get these similar views? 
Our church has an alternate service. Why 
abuse it? . . . 

It is my personal belief that it is more 
honorable to achieve and receive by merit 
than to desire and acquire by demands. 
Breaking the law does not create change. 
I think Christ would rather we try and have 
laws changed than to have laws broken. 

Samuel L. Nedrow 
Mechanicsburg, Pa. 


My wife and I completed the entire 
course offered by Mission Twelve. When 
we were originally asked to be members 
of this group, we hesitated because of our 
ages, feeling that younger persons could use 
the benefits over a much longer period of 
time. Since I had been active in the life 
of the church in Idaho since 1913 and 
served on the district level, they urged us 
to enroll and we did. We were not sorry 
i we enrolled and the experience was very 

Now I come to the part that has given 
me much concern. The third session deals 
entirely with God in the world and what 
our part is in accomphshing what we need 
to do in meeting the needs of the world. 
I am fully in accord with the program of 
meeting man's needs on whatever level they 
exist. In the final session of all the groups, 
another brother and I emphasized that in 
all this effort we should work from the 
church as base and have the goal of leading 
men to a Christian confession with baptism 
as Christ taught. I also said that we have 
to believe the Bible story of the conception 
and birth of Jesus or else he would not be 
the son of God and our foundation for our 
faith would not be on something solid. At 
this time a leader rebuked me for using 
such old ideas. Our present generation de- 
lights in pointing out some mistakes of the 
past. But if our leadership is leading us 
away from something as fundamental as 
that, their mistake will be far greater. 

G. G. Bollinger 
Payette, Idaho 

Solidify Your Security 


A Church of the Brethren General Board annuity agreement is espe- 
cially appealing to those looking ahead to retirement. But it is equally 
attractive to men and women of later years. Your investment check may 
be for as little as $100 or for a much larger sum. Increasingly individuals 
are seeing the wisdom of converting seciu-ities to the annuity plan. 

Your income checks will come to you unfailingly for the remainder 
of life. Payments are made at rates up to 8%, depending upon your age. 
Your income is largely non-taxable. Payments will be continued to a 
survivor if you so desire. 

Annuity resources have significantly enlarged the Brotherhood's min- 
istries at home and abroad. Why not enjoy — as many others do — the deep 
satisfaction while living of investing in God's work through Brotherhood 
channels? Fill in the coupon and mail it today. You assume no obligation 
in doing so. 

Harl L. Russell, Director of Special Gifts 
Ralph M. Delk, Assistant in Special Gifts 
Church of the Brethren General Board 
1451 Dundee Avenue, Elgin, Illinois 60120 

Please send your new pamphlet, "A Gift That Guarantees Income," and the 
rate for my age. (If you desire rate for inclusion of another as a coannuitant, 
please fill in his or her birth date as follows: 

Month Day Year 

My birth: Month 

My name; 

fAy address: Street, RFD 



Should you desire information concerning a Memorial Annuity Agreement, please check 

2 13-69 MESSENGER 27 


From Baroque to Brecht 

Claudio Monteverdi's Vespcra of 1610 
is undoubtedly one of the landmarks of 
European sacred music, standing some- 
where on this side of the boundary be- 
tween the Renaissance and the Baroque. 
Indeed, it has a flash and flair outstand- 
ing for its time and enduring today. 
There is no strictly "right" way to per- 
form works of this \intage, but two re- 
cent performances indicate how far 
interpretations may di\erge. Robert 
Craft, a protege of Stravinsky, has been 
criticized by musicians for his aberrant 
renditions of the moderns he specializes 
in. I thought his Monteverdi Vespers 
(Columbia) was pretty good. 

But then I heard the edition by Denis 
Stevens (Cardinal) and was simply 
astounded at the revelation of this music's 
gi-andeur. The Stevens edition is in eight 
sections, as compared with Craft's thir- 
teen. I have made no meticulous study 
of what Stevens leaves out or why, but 
what he does with his shorter version 
is magnificent. Apparently Craft has 
adapted the work to the large forces at 
his disposal, sacrificing detail. Stevens, 
by adapting his forces to the music and 
its age, gets a multidimensional fullness 
that accords full range to soloists and 
organ without losing the dramatic luster 
of the orchestral parts. 

At the other end of the seventeenth 
century we find Henry Purcell and his 
Ode for St. Cecilia's Day (1692), which 
somehow sounds more antique than 
Monteverdi — at any rate it is more sub- 
dued, yet full of the felicities of English 
lyricism. Succeeding sections praise and 
illustrate various musical instruments, 
each vying for the favor of music's 
patron saint. Michael Tippett, himself 
a composer of note, conducts the 
Ambrosian Singers and a chamber or- 
chestra in his own edition of Purcell's 
Ode, hitherto absent from the record 
catalog. Welcome aboard, Mr. Purcell! 

Handel, Scarlatti, and Bach represent 
the heyday of the Baroque. Two years 
ago, Lukas Foss composed his Baroque 
Variations, using works of each. They 
are not variations in the usual sense but 
dreamlike aural manipulations of volume 

28 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

and tempo. The result is thoroughly en- 
joyable and sometimes great fun, as when 
in the final variation the xylophone 
transmits "Johann Sebastian Bach" in 
Morse code. It requires high musician- 
ship to make it both fun and music, but 
Foss has plenty. Overside is John Cage's 
Concerto for Prepared Piano and Orches- 
tra, Lukas Foss conducts the Buffalo 
Philharmonic on this iNonesuch original. 
With a dozen recordings of the 
Mozart Requiem now extant, who needs 
a new one? Colin Davis, who conquered 
Handel's Messiah a couple of years ago, 
has taken over Mozart's greatest work. 
Who needs the other versions? His pac- 
ing, phrasing, e\en his use of silence, 
and other details add up to a perfection 
not attained by any other conductor, and 
that includes Karajam, Beecham, Jochum, 
and Walter. Discover this young con- 
ductor. It's like the beginning of a new 
era in music. The Requiem is intrinsi- 


cally powerful; under Davis' baton that 
power is communicated with both im- 
mediacy and subtlety of nuance, includ- 
ing remarkable tenderness of feeling. It 
is not to be missed. 

Leaping to the 1930s, we come to the 
final collaboration of Bertolt Brecht and 
Kurt Weill, the sardonic and melanchoK 
Seven Deadhj Sins (of the Middle Class). 
Written soon after their flight from Hit- 
ler's Berlin, it is a modern morality pla\ 
without apologies to tradition. The music 
is more in Weill's soon-to-be-abandoned 
symphonic idiom than in the cabaret 
style of Three-Penny Opera. The per- 
fomiance by Gisela May with Herbert 
Kegel conducting the Leipzig Radio 
Symphony (Deutsche Grammophon) 
won the Grand Prix du Bisque. The 
singing is in German but an English 
translation is provided. — William Rob- 
ert Miller 

Marriage Is for Persons 

INSCAPE, by Ross Snyder. Abingdon Press, 1968. 

94 pages, $2.50 
AFTER YOU'VE SAID I DO, by Dwight Hervey 

Small. Fleming H. Revel!, 1968. 244 pages, 

THE NEO-MARRIED, by Howard Hovde. Judson 

Press, 1968, 141 pages, $2.95 paper 

James A. Peterson. Association Press, 150 

pages, $4.95 

In a world where there are so many op- 
portunities to escape from the realities 
of life it is refreshing to find a book that 
lets us look inside ourselves and find that 
reality to be exciting and full of adven- 
ture. In his book Inscape Ross Snyder poetic form and insight to help the 
reader understand the ways in which two 
persons can experience love and marriage 

and creation at the deepest levels of their 
being. "You are migrating into a new 
world and a new life. Singing a new 
tune. A lifetime together will be all too 
short to explore its meanings. We can 
only point to some of these meanings." 
This is a book that must be felt not 
just read. The headings of the chapters 
are enticing themselves: "Troth" (Wild 
Exuberance of Creation, Opening Into 
Life Space, Love's Powers, Individua- 
tion); "Genes" (The Thisness of a Person, 
Those Who Meet in Darkness); "Lumen" 
(Bread Becomes Personal Life, Calling a 
Person by Name); "Habitat" (The In- 
Being Family, Deepdown Church); "Nev- 
ertheless" (This Too, Is, Defiance of Dif- 
ficulties). The last chapter is "The Earth 

Image," with two short but powerful 
articles. Earth World and Inscape. One 
quote in particular had meaning for me: 
"I was meant to be Truth. And from 
time to time in faith and in decision I 
find this truth — and pour myself out 
without reservation. I enjoy this inten- 
sity of experience in being alive. I say 
to myself, "This I was meant to be.' And 
there is the meeting — when I encounter 
someone who has discovered his truth 
and his integrity. This person is an au- 
thentic existence. He invokes my truth, 
for he treats me as a part of freedom. 
And I discover myself as a fellow partici- 
pant in the risk of life and in the King- 
dom of Being. Then I crave even more 
to be depth and concentration of the 

After You've Said I Do begins and 
ends by telling us that two persons must 
leam to communicate in everv' way pos- 
sible if a marriage relationship is to be 
a meaningful experience. This book 
would be very helpful to marriage coun- 
selors, to couples planning to be mar- 
ried, and almost a must to those who are 
married for use as a resource book, a 
point of reference when communication 
breaks down. Some of the important 
marriage issues that the book touches 
on in a helpful way are: how to get 
out of the quiet times when no one is 
talking; what to do when two people 
begin talking in two directions; how to 
listen and really hear the other person; 
how to handle conflict and crises without 
losing a meaningful relationship with the 
one nearest you; how to handle "circuit- 
jammers," (people and things) that jam 
up our communication system in the 
home; how we need to grow together 
in our language habits (both young and 
old); how to keep from being silent and 
calling it virtuous; how to keep the body, 
mind, and soul in perspective (in other 
words, sex is also a wonderful way of 
communication if it is used and not mis- 
[used). The chapters touch on how to 
1 deepen and strengthen the dialogue of 
love and tie it tightly and closely to the 
spiritual life of both partners. This book 
is easy to read, but does not have to be 

read at one sitting to be valuable. It is 
a good book for two people to read 
together, sharing the reading and 

The Neo-Marricd is especially for 
pastors and marriage counselors. Even 
though it is predominately a book for 
class sessions, it is not difficult reading. 
It can also be read chapter by chapter, 
out of sequence, without losing its vital- 
ity. It deals primarily with the main 
issues of two persons living together. 
The covenant aspects of marriage, fam- 
ily finances, in-laws, sex and family plan- 
ning, communications, expectations, love, 
the art of listening, marriage and the 
church, life goals are focusing points. 
The most valuable portions of this book 
are the plan given for marriage counsel- 
ing and the excellent bibliography of 
resources. It should be in eveiy pastor's 
library and would be also helpful in the 
church library. 

Married Love in the Middle Years 
will help husbands and wives, along with 
marriage counselors, psycliiatrists, physi- 
cians, and clergymen to understand the 
possibilities of the richer joys of matur- 
ity. The book is a valuable source of 
reliable information on the latest findings 
and insights in the areas of sexual ful- 
fillment, family relationships with chil- 
dren and grandparents, personal identity, 
financial security, and physical and psy- 
chological well-being. It is put together 
in eight easy-to-read chapters and yet 
can be read and reread with ease as a 
resource. In view of the changing pat- 
terns of our society, we need help for 
the 20,000,000 couples who must leam 
how to adjust to children's leaving home, 
retirement, change in occupation, physical 
changes, moving from home, and gener- 
ation gaps. One of the interesting chap- 
ters is the one on "Making the Most of 
the Middle Years." In this chapter the 
author picks up five handles for success: 
curiosity, creativeness, comprehension, 
compassion, and commitment, all dis- 
cussed separately and very helpfully. An 
observation near the end of the book 
makes us realize the importance of this 
time of life: "The joys of intellectual 

searching, the warm response of new 
friends, taking steps toward better 
health, the satisfactions of time invested 
in a good cause are all theoretical unless 
one practices them. Man is the only 
creatm-e that is given the power to make 
choices, to improve thus upon yesterday, 
and to level the road for tomorrow. 
Days for men and women do not have 
to be the same; they can be full of inno- 
vation and exhilaration. Man does con- 
trol his destiny. There is no other mo- 
ment in life that is so decisi\e as the 
hours at the midpoint when he, in es- 
sence, either by neglect, by defensive- 
ness, by denial, or by creative enterprise 
charts the rest of his life. Decisions for 
growth and specific steps toward that 
growth make the middle years the prime 
of life." — David Ockerman 





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FREE catalog C-18 (Choir Robes); 
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WANTED — Minister who could supplement his 
income from employment or Social Security by 
serving the Rice Lake Church of the Brethren. 
Write Mrs. Leonard Vine, Route 2, Box 315, 
Rice Lake, Wis. 54868. 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 29 


A. B. Pierson, pastor of the Morrill, 

Kansas, congregation, was recently 
elected to the task force on ecumenical 
dialogue and education of the Midland 
Empire Regional Ministry, with head- 
quarters at St. Louis, Mo. Pastor Pierson 
was a member of the provisional com- 
mittee and one of the incorporators of 
this new ministry. 

The Enos B. Heiseys of Hershey, Pa., 
are hosts to a goodwill People-to-People 
inspection mission of agricultural leaders 
to several countries in the South Pacific, 
among them Tahiti, the Fiji Islands, New 
Zealand, and Australia. . . . Named as 
the first full-time chaplain of Bethany 
Brethren Hospital and Garfield Park 
Community Hospital in Chicago is 
Bobert L. Stinnette. He began his duties 
Jan. 1. 

■I- -:- •^ •:- •!• 

Pastors Owen Stultz of Oakland, Md., 
and Bert Bichardson, Johnson City, 
Tenn., received praise for their contribu- 
tion to a conversation between repre- 
sentatives of town and country clergy 
from all the major denominations and the 
Rural Affairs Office, a branch of the 
Office of Economic Opportunity. In a 
letter to moderator M. Guy West, James 
D. Templeton, director of the Office of 
Rural Affairs, cited the two Brethren 
pastors for the "knowledgeful way in 
which [they] discussed rural oppor- 

.1. ^ ^, ,1. ^ 

A Grants Pass, Oregon, man, Chester 
Lapp, was licensed recently to the min- 
istry. ... A change of address received 
too late for publication in the denomina- 
tion's 1969 Yearbook comes from George 
L. Detweiler. The Detweilers have 
moved to 51 Linden Ave., Greencastle, 
Pa. 17225. 

A four-and-one-half-month wait for a 
visa has forced the Arthur Deans to 
change plans to go to Nigeria. Mr. 
Dean, who for nine years comiseled 
chm^ches across the Brotherhood on 
building developments and was to have 
rendered similar services in Nigei-ia, has 
accepted employment with The United 
Methodist Church. 

For "service to humanity," Larry 
Ulrich of the Flower Hill church in the 
Mid-Atlantic District, was awarded the 

30 MESSENGER 2-13-69 


Legion of Honor from the International 
Supreme Council of the Order of 
DeMolay. The award is the highest rec- 
ognition within the organization. 

A former Church of the Brethren mis- 
sionary to China, Mrs. Hazel Coppock 
Sollenberger, died Jim. 12, 1969, at Los 
Gatos, Calif. She was 77. The Man- 
chester College and Bethany Seminary 
alumna served in China with her hus- 
band from 1919 until 1936, when poor 
health forced her to return to the States. 

4* 4* "J* 


Five couples are celebrating golden 
wedding anniversaries. They are Mr. 
and Mrs. Evan Watkins, W'elda, Kansas; 
Mr. and Mrs. Harley Grove, South 
English, Iowa; Mr. and Mrs. John O. 
Beyer, Keedysville, Md.; Mr. and Mrs. 
Luther Bollman and Mrs. and Mrs. Ralph 
VV. Cunningham, all of Saxton, Pa. . . . 
Our congratulations go to other couples 
marking anniversaries: Mr. and Mrs. 
Fred Nelson, Medford, Oregon, fifty-one; 
Mr. and Mrs. Minor Kiracofe, Lima, 
Ohio, fifty-four; Mr. and Mrs. John 
Adams, Lima, Ohio, fifty-four; Mr. and 
Mrs. George Wineland, Martinsburg, Pa., 

Mr. and Mrs. Eldie Smith, Martins- 
burg, Pa.; fifty-nine; Mr. and Mrs. Ansel 
C. Mishler, Mogadore, Ohio, sixty; Mr. 
and Mrs. Milton S. Stoner, Lititz, Pa., 
sixty; Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Herring, 
Arnold, Md., si.Kty; Mr. and Mrs. Price 
Heckman, Polo, 111., sixty; Mr. and Mrs. 
Harry Greenleaf, Martinsburg, Pa., sixty- 
four; and Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. 
Miller, Garnett, Kansas, seventv-one. 



March 7 

World Day of Prayer 

March 18-21 

Church of the Brethren General 


March 23 

Passion Sunday 

March 30 

Palm Sunday 

April 3 

Maundy Thursday 

April 4 

Good Friday 

April 6 


April 20 

National Christian College Day 

May 1-7 

Mental Health Week 

May 11 

Rural Life Sunday 

May 11 

Mother's Day 

May 11-18 

National Family Week 

May 15 

Ascension Day 


A "Mini-View" of Ministry is the 

theme of the Conference on Church 
Vocations to be held Feb. 28 — March 1 
at Bethany Theological Seminary, Oak 
Brook, 111. The conference will provide 
an opportunity for youth to become | 

acquainted with life, work, and stud\' at 
the .seminary and will include a night ; 
out in Chicago. Arrangements for par- 1 
ticipation may be made through campus! 
ministers, professors of religion, or pas- • 
tors. Persons wishing to submit names ofi 
possible participants may contact Dr. | 
Paul Robinson, President, Bethany The- 
ological Seminary, Oak Brook, 111. 60521.; 
Invitations to the conference will be 
extended bv Dr. Robinson. 

Legislators, government executives, 
diplomats, and members of the press will, 
be among resource persons at the Breth-| 
ren Seminar on Christian Citizenship for 
Adults, Feb. 23-28 at Washington, D.C:.. 
and the United Nations. Advance regis- i 
strations were to have been submitted ' 
before Feb. 10, but persons who still 
wish to attend tlie gathering may pay a 
nominal fee for late registration. Local 
pastors have more details. 

J. Benton Rhoades, director of agricul- 
ture and rural life for the National 
Council of Churches, will address the 
fifth annual Men's Pennsylvania Inter- 
district meeting March 8-9. For the first 
time, ladies are invited to the gathering. 

Florida's Winter Park and Orlando 
churches will cooperate in a week of 
special meetings, with C. Wayne Zunkcl, 
pastor of the First church, Harrisburg, 
Pa., preaching, February 17-23. 


An advertisement declaring "Peace Is 
Possible" and urging, among other ac- 
tions, support for Sen. Vance Hartke's 
bill calling for a Department of Peace at 
the Cabinet level of government, ap- 
peared in the Fort Wayne, Ind., 
Journal-Gazette. A group of predom- 
inantly Brethren persons in the Fort 
Wayne-North Manchester area spon.sored 
the message. ... A Happening in Sex 
Education, sponsored by Southern Ohio's 
Children's Work Cabinet, involved chil- 
dren's workers, parents, and pastors over 
the district Jan. 25 at Mack Memorial 

church at Dayton, Panehsts included 
Ken Groff, Dayton guidance counselor; 
Robert Mock, minister to students at 
Manchester College; Dr, Delbert Blicken- 
staff, Versailles, Ohio, physician; and 
Jerry Barnett. an elementary school 

The three Detroit, Mich., churches 
hosted a peace seminar for youth in 
January at Harper Woods' First church. 
Included in the progi-am were a film, a 
presentation on the background of the 
peace churches, and some current alter- 
natives for young men facing the draft. 
. . . Robert Sherfy of Bridgewater, Va., 
church led the annual Bible conference 
at the Sebring, Fla., church in January. 

Twelve Bridgewater College students, 
members of the campus business club 
and enrollees in a course in tax account- 
ing, are assisting low-income persons in 
the preparation of their federal income 
tax forms. ... A ten-year development 
program campaign at Juniata College has 
topped the million-dollar mark in con- 
tributions since it began in September 

^ 4- -f -J- •!• 

An innovative approach to training 
pastors and laity in Ecuador has been 
evolved through the Center of Theologi- 
cal Studies. Begun in 1966 by the 
United Evangelical Church, with Church 
of the Brethren missionary Merle Crouse 
' as director, the program currently is 
I attracting the interest of a dozen Ecua- 
j dorian church-related groups. Based at 
I Quito, the Center has opened ten ex- 
tension centers, enlisted twenty-eight 
'teachers from six countries, and added 
courses in sacred music and pretheologi- 
cal studies. 


The Church and You, a leaflet by 
Wilbur R. Hoover, pastor of the Rocky 
Ford, Colo., church in the Western Plains 
District, is a new item for church mem- 
bership classes and other uses. It sup- 
plants Rufus Bowman's "What Does 
Church Membership Mean?" The tract 
may be had in any usable quantity upon 
request from the Church of the Brethren 
General Offices, 14.51 Dundee Ave., 
Elgin, 111. 60120. 

Invest Yourself lists a variety of 
opportunities for the involvement of 

youth, youth leaders, and young adults 
in ecumenical programs during 1969. 
It describes ecumenical opportunities in 
work camps; community action, 
organization, and service; institutional 
and individual service; working 
seminars; caravans; and study seminars. 
Persons wishing to examine the catalog 
listing may consult local pastors or 
write The Commission on Youth Service 
Projects, 475 Riverside Dr., Room 832, 
New York, New York 10027, including 
third-class postage and 50 cents for 
a single copy. 


In addition to staff appointments re- 
ported in this issue, two other persons 
have been approved by the Executive 
Committee of the General Board. 

They are Merle Crouse, named 
church development consultant on the 
World Ministries staff, and Richard N. 
Miller, designated as a member of the 
material resources team for Parish 

In his new position, Mr. Crouse will 
serve as general liaison between overseas 
churches and councils and the commis- 
sion. A central part of his work will be 
in new forms of ministry, church ex- 
tension, and leadership development. 
Such emphases as theological education 
and literature will also be a part of his 
administrative responsibility. 

Currently Mr. Crouse heads the Cen- 
ter of Theological Studies in Quito, Ec- 
uador, where he has lived for ten years. 
A Bridgewater College and Bethany 
Seminary alumnus, Mr. Crouse holds a 
master's degree from Princeton Theolog- 
ical Seminary. 

As a material resources team member, 
Richard Miller will cany responsibility 
for the Educational Plan and its inter- 
pretation, servicing and evaluating the 
Keysort cards and Library of Resources, 
and proposing revisions. He will edit 
Leader magazine as well. 

Mr. Miller cunently serves as district 
executive secretaiy for Ilhnois and Wis- 
consin. Prior to his present position, he 
was pastor of the Dayton, Ohio, Prince 
of Peace church. He is a graduate of 
Manchester College and Bethany The- 
ological Seminary. 

The two men will begin their work 
with the staff in late summer. 

Adams, Blanche, Lanark, 111., on Dec. 14, 1968 
Benson, Henderson L.. Palestine, 111., on Jan. 

7, 1968, aged 66 
Bowman, George VV., Hardin. Mo., on July 26, 

1968, aged 74 
Cooper, Dewey. New Carlisle, Ohio, on Oct. 14, 

1968, aged 69 
Dillman. Lloyd, North Manchester, Ind., on Jan. 

10, 1968, aged 75 
Earhart, Marian, Wenatchee, Wash., on Dec. 25, 

1968, aged 72 
Eis, Earl, North Manchester, Ind., on Nov. IB, 

1968, aged 63 
Force, Samuel, Bradford, Ohio, on Dec. 5. 1968. 

aged 88 
Frantz, Phares, Denver, Pa., on Nov. 7, 1968. 

aged 89 
Gingrich. J. Robert, East Petersburg, Pa., on 

Dec. 21, 1968, aged 43 
Hawbecker, Isaac, Lanark, III., on Jan. 4. 1968, 

aged 91 
Henkle, Waitie, Wenatchee, Wash., on Oct. 26. 

1968. aged 87 
Herzog, Arilla, Pontiac, Mich., on Dec. 16, 1968, 

aged 50 
Holland, Laura B., Wenatchee, Wash., on Jan. 

5. 1968, aged 82 
Hylton, A. L., Roanoke, Va.. on Dec. 4, 1968 
Jones, Peggy, Ellicott City. Md.. on Dec. 23. 

1968, aged 54 
Kinzie, Carrie, Roanoke, Va., on Oct. 13. 1968 
Kramer. Dora G., Canton, 111., on Jan. 3, 1968, 

aged 73 
Lineberry, Bessie, Salem, Va., on Nov. 23. 1968 
Martin. Rosa N., Eglon, W. Va.. on Jan. 11. 

1968, aged 76 
Mishler, Lloyd. New Paris, Ind., on Nov. 5, 1968, 

aged 76 
Mosholder. Samuel J., Rockwood, Pa., on Oct. 

IB. 1968, aged 44 
Mulligan, Clyde, Defiance, Ohio, on Oct. 30. 

1968. aged 70 

Murphy, Vallie, Harrisonburg, Va.. on Jan. 4. 

1969, aged 70 

Oldham. Carrie. Johnstown. Pa., on April 13. 

1968. aged 85 
Fletcher, Oran, Rockwood, Pa., on May 20, I96B, 

aged 61 
Richman, Mary L., Quicksburg, Va., on Jan. 

5. 1969. aged 85 
Riffleman. Annie D.. Columbus Furnace. Va., 

on Dec. 26. 1968. aged 79 
Royer. Sylvia. Arcanum. Ohio, on Jan. 3. 1969, 

aged 77 
Rucker, Mrs. Iva, Roanoke, Va., on Dec. 13. 

Showalter. Russell. Hutchinson. Kansas, on Nov. 

13, 1968. aged 88 
Skyles, Lloyd, Union, Ohio, on Oct. 22. 1968, 

aged 89 
Spitzer. Gecrgia E.. New Market. Va.. on Jan. 

1. 1969. aged 86 
Truex. Emma. New Paris, Ind.. on Nov. 24, 1968, 

aged 73 

2-13-69 MESSENGER 31 



The Hand That Made Us 

"The dark terrestrial ball": Joseph Addison's rcallv fine 
ode, "The Spacious Firmament on High," leaves the 
impression that whereas sun, moon, and stars are 
knninous, the earth is a dark planet spinning somberly 
througii space. It is therctore quite refreshing to find 
in the films and the experiences ot our astronauts an 
entirely different concept ot the earth. The moon, which 
for centuries has been thouglit sihery, chaste, and fair 
turns out to look like a vet imbaked pancake whereas 
the earth sparkles with the colors of land and sea and is 
girdled with a cincture of dazzling clouds. Thus by 
an ironic twist the astronauts have given us more exciting 
information about the earth than about the moon. 

"The radiant orb": It is something we needed to hear. 
Our cartoonists never tire of showing the earth as a 
nielancholv invalid stretched on a hospital bed, with a 
bandaged head, an arm in a sling, a leg in a cast, and a 
doctor standing by wringing his hands. We are 
reminded dailv bv sober-faced newscasters, who sniff 
tragedv as eagerly as a bird dog his quarry and who 
cross land and sea to direct the noses of their cameras 
into every active garbage pile, that this is a "hell of a 
world." Every evening at five or six we get the catalog 
of dolors: unhappv politicians, priests, prisoners, prophets, 
professors, and college presidents; and various kinds of 
intransigent power blocs. We get a full statement 
of the world's grief and grievance until the impression 
grows that we are inhabitants of a madhouse. We are 

32 MESSENGER 2-13-69 

even tempted to believe that when there is not enough 
sad, bad news, the media have ways of manfacturing it. 

Our people seem to crave the bizarre and the gloomy. 
The gloomier and the more bizarre the reporting, the 
more detergent, deodorant, antfhistamine, carburetion, 
and Careen Giant peas it merchandises. It's a sort of 
paradox. The more hopeless the world — as presented 
by the news media — the more reason to invest in it. 

"Every prospect pleases": The value of the astronauts' 
view of the \\ orld is that it assures us in our faith that 
Cod created it. Looking at the world from a distance 
is looking at a pointillist painting from a position 
where the points of color fuse. It tells us that the structure 
is good and beautiful. It tells us that the evils may be 
real enough but that thev are ultimately under the 
so\ereignty of him who has despoiled death and hell. 

This fair image of the earth should fill us with an 
intense desire to make it in fact what it appears to be in 
essence. The image of the earth should make us terribly 
impatient with all the things which pock its surface: 
injustice, poverty, starvation, racism, war, violence, crime, 
ingratitude, joylessness, atheism, pollution of air and 
water, waste, and wantonness. It should remind us that 
man is capable of redemption. For God has proclaimed 
creation good; and in spite of man's crooked uses of it, 
he is determined ultimately to give it back to us clean, 
sparkling, and ravishingly beautiful — the gilt of his 
most precious blood. — Karl Olsson 


Books for 

the 20th 





Keith Miller 43 ^q 

The author of the phenomenally successful THE TASTE OF NEW WINE 
has written a second book which deals basically with the problems of 
the person whose Christian faitli has become commonplace — lost its 
power to change life from dull existence to real living. Mr. Miller once 
again involves tlie reader in vital, creative living, and approaches certain 
problems of renewal in the institutional church from a very personal 


Elisabeth Elliot .$2.95 

Elisabeth Elliott offers some revealing thoughts on Christian conduct and 
service. In depth, and with great penetration, she considers basic ques- 
tions which tlie alert Cliristian must ask about his faith. Calling on her 
unusual personal experiences, tlie perceptive Mrs. Elliot illuminates the 
truth of particular situations and brings them into sh;irp relief. She con- 
siders: What is the meaning of worldliness? How does the message of the 
gospel apply to situations in everyday life? Just what is Christian service? 
In a day when there seem to be so very few absolutes, how does one 
define sin? 


James Marcellus Lichliter ^^ gg 

The audior interi^rets the deeper spiritual vitalities which lie behind our 
inherited religious forms in order to present the meaning of Christianity 
in terms tliat make sense to the modem mind. In dealing with man's in- 
ner nature, helping people to understand themselves in deptli and to 
come to grips widi the constructive and destructive forces of human 
nature. Dr. Lichliter seeks to balance the current theological emphasis on 
political and social involvement widi the necessity of Christian commit- 
ment and conversion. 


Charles S. Dutliie $2.75 

The author outlines a structure of Christian belief for our time — a be- 
lief that cannot be achieved without an element of struggle. For each 
new generation must rediscover the gospel for itself. Two themes are 
eff^ectively intertwined in this outline. One is a faith based on fellowship 
with and obedience to Cod — a faith that results in the service of love 
toward one's neighbor. The second is a faith which by its very nature 
seeks to understand — to understand Cod, his relation to man, the mean- 
ing of history, the world, and the goal to which creation is moving. 

Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 60120 



A Home in the City. The fclloicship Jwtisv of Roanoke, Virginia's, Central Church 
provides a home away from home for thirty-seven yoitng women, by Connie 


page 2 

Myths About the Poor. Some commonlij held assumptions about the econom- 
ic and moral lives of the poor arc (jiiestioned in light of facts, liy Loyal Jones, 
page 5 

Lent: The Dangerous Season. A time for commitment to new dimensions of 
disciplcship is often the occasion for .self-indulgent, pious fantasy about Christ's 
suffering, by Richard John Neiiliaus. page 10 

The Church and Films: Farewell to the Beard and Bathrobe Days. Award- 
winning films produced htj the church are creating, belatedly, a new image 
of religion in the motion picture art. h\ Frances Smith, page 16 

The Calling of Voices. Regret and remorse in retrospect may be avoided if one 
heard his calling with less purse and more purpose in mind. In' Frederick 
Buechner. page 20 

Other fe.^tubes include "His Name," how man named God, by Emily Sargent Councilman 
(page 23); a poem, "Conjectm-es of a Guilty God-E\ader," by Judy M. Sliuler (page 9); 
Day by Day (page 25); Bible Crossword for children, by Carol and John Conner (page 26); 
four recent books on marriage reviewed by David Ockennan (page 28); and record reviews, 
by William Robert Miller (page 28). 

COMING NEXT^^^mmm^^K^^mm^^^^^^^^m^^^^mmmm^^^^^ 

Anne Albriolit reports on a visit with the Edward Kintner.'i. married for .sixty-five years, who 
recall a lifetime of experiences related to a clmrcliman who has been "Always the Teach- 
er." . . . Berniece Roer Neal takes a look at modern church architecture and examines the 
viewpoints of designers as well as worshipers, some of whom exclaim, "But It Doesn't Look 
Like a Church!" . . . Vemard Eller considers some a.^pects of life at the historic Ephrata Clois- 
ters tJiat may speak to our current situation. 

I*HOTO CREDITS: Co\er from "Good News for Modern Man." tlic New Tcst.iincnt in Today's English Version, with 

line drawings Ijy .Swiss artist .^nnie \'allotton, piiblislicd by tlie .American liililc Society. lSfi5 Broadway, New York. New 

York I0l)2:i. Copyright 1966; 2, ;!. 4 Douglas Higgins; 5. 7, 8 Ed Eckstein; 12, 14, 15 Religious News Seryice; 16, 17, 
18 John Taylor; 25 Paid M. Schrock 

Kenneth I, Morse, editor; Wilbur E. BRUMBAUctt, 
managing editor; Howard E. Rover, director of news 
service; l.lNny Czapmnski. assistant to the editors. Mes- 
senger is the official publication of the Church of the 
Brethren, Messenger is copyright 1969 bv the Church of 
the Brethren General Board. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20, 1918 under Act of Congress of Oct. 
17. 1917. Filing date, Oct. 1, 1968. Messenger is a 
member of the Associated Church Press and a sub- 

scriber to Religious News .Senice and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, 
are from the Revised Standard Version. Subscription rates: 
S4.20 per year for indiyidiial subscriptions; S*^ 60 per 
\e;tr for church group plan: S3. 00 per year for 
e\erv home pl;m: life subscription S60: htisband 
and wife. $75. If you moye clip old address 
from Messenger and send with new address. 
.Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 


VOL. 118 NO. 



But it 
doesn't look 



■ it; 

■ I 

r'***f - 



i^ nZS' '1 

K '^A^m 

readers write 


There are at least three avenues to 
"justice." ( 1 ) Let's have justice. Everyone 
he kinder to me. ( 2 ) Let's have justice. 
Go on. Do what the man says. ( 3 ) Let's 
have justice. Who are all involved in tliis? 
Exactly what are the facts? What will do 
the most good and work the least harm to 
those most involved? 

Number one is most popular. Number 
two is probably second. Number three I 
can't discuss intelligently. I don't recall 
ever seeing it tried. Paul Miller demon- 
strated this attitude in this column (Jan. 
16), but I do not know diat he has done 
anydiing — or what resulted. 

Roy White 
Citronelle, Ala. 


Current political scientists are saying 
diat tlie major political parties must make 
drastic changes or perish. The church is 
facing the same alteniati\es in a rapidly 
changing society. Statistics of our church 
reveal the problem very starkly. 

In the last few years we have tried one 
program after anotlier, with little evidence 
that they have made much imprint on the 
prolileni. The church must be more ac- 
ceptable and functional for the generation 
which is in the process of choosing or reject- 
ing the church. . . . 

Last year I used a questionnaire with a 
youth group and tried to discover their atti- 
tudes and desires as we discussed each 
question. The general results follow. 

The puri^ose of the church was our first 
consideration. It was felt that it should re- 
late directly to the individual's purpose of 
living. From this we somewhat agreed 
that each of us is here to develop progres- 
sively a soul or person to his highest poten- 
tial. Then the church should have as its 
purpose to implement the building of per- 
sonalities or souls and retire the vague and 
trite purpose of "saving souls." 

This purpose would eliminate the fal- 
lacious classification of human activities as 
either sacred or secular. Into focus would 
come the trutii that nothing is truly good 
for the individual unless it is also good for 
the whole of humanity. . . . All human ac- 
tivity is evaluated according to its merits of 
contributing to tlie highest development of 
the person in being himself, assuming the 
theology that we are bom to be good. 

Having established a purpose, we next 
discovered that there was a big task to set 
up organizations and methods to realize 
goals inlierent in our purpose. The possi- 
bilities reach into every group and human 
activity. Some old activities would be in- 
corporated. One new group would be set 
up to study the potential and ambitions of 
each member of the group; on the basis 
of this, activities would be organized to fill 
the needs. The whole program becomes mu- 
tually beneficial for the teacher and die 
pupil. . . . 

We believe our church would be im- 
proved by making changes in these direc- 


Waterford, Calif. 


The Headers Write column of Messenger 
. . . presents an important cross section of 
grass-roots thinking. . . . 

The comments are not always profound 
or even relevant, but they are always direct 
and imderstandable, at least from the point 
of view of the writer. They are good 
"time and temperature" signs. They arc 
individual and personal. The views ex- 
pressed run the measmed distance from 
liberalism to fundamentalism and ortho- 
dox\'. From tliis \iew they arc typically 
Church of the Brethren. . . . 

In my experience of a long lifetime the 
most determined and closed mind is often 
found in the extreme liberal and not always 
in those who struggle to hold long-estab- 
lished values. This is true in education as 
well as in religion. Too often, those who 
come to believe that God has given them 
a new and final vision feel justified in 
ignoring and even insulting those who hold 
the long-established standards, even to the 
extent of splitting churches down the mid- 

dle to prove to their own egos that (i( 
has given to them a saviorhood status ai 
a directive for all to accept or be lost. Qui 
often the liberal wants freedom of licli. 
only for himself. Freedom of choice carri; 
a heavy responsibility. 

In structure, at least, the Readers \\ ri 
personnel represent freedom and respons' 
bility of the individual — his concern an 
his right to be heard. As far as I ha\ ' 
observed they do not represent any con "i 
plicity or, as the courts would say, an ■ 
conspiracy, nor any one section of th 
Brotherhood, nor any monopoly by th 
l)right boys or the dull ones, nor any monoj 
oly by clergy or laymen. I see the colum 
as truly a cross section, spontaneous an 

The letters symbolize die birth pangs 
change in both church polity and the anj 
plication of spiritual and moral treatmer] 
to our special order. This is highly 
portant. . . . 

Guy N. Hartman 
Myersdale, Pa. 


We were very happy to read your articl 
on SUm Whitman (Jan. 16). We hav 
listened to him for some time and hav 
enjoyed his singing. There is sonictliing o 
such great depdi about his singing. He put 
across to us a sincere feeling we have neve 
found anywhere else. His is the kind o 
music you have to sit down and grasp. Yoi 
don't play it while you run the sweeper o' 
wash the windows. 

He sings it from his heart, and if yoi 
listen and accept, you feel it in your heart 
There is something special about him. Ii 
his albiun God's Hand in Mine, I have th( 
feeling he really has his hand in God's. 

Mr. and Mrs. D.^^le R. Miller 
Dallas Center, Iowa 

BYLINES: Anne (Mrs. David) Albright lives in Fort Wayne, Indiana, where her husband is pastor of the I 
Beacon Heights church. . . . Professional writer Berniece Roer Neal's work, which appears in nationa 
magazines and religious publications, has been cited by the University of Missouri School of Journalism 
and the St. Louis Writers' Guild. ... A professor at Near East School of Theology at Beirut, Peter 
Doghramjl is doing graduate work at Princeton Theological Seminary. . . . Charles E. Zunkel has 
pastoral responsibilities at the Crest Manor church. South Bend, Indiana. . . . Author and teacher 
Vernard Eller is professor of religion at La Verne College in California. . . . Missionaries on leave 
from Nigeria, Mildred and John Grlmley live in the North Atlantic District of Pennsylvania, where he 
is pastor of the Immanuel church at Paoli. 

MESSENGER is owned and published every oUier week by die Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Board, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, III 

Edward Kintner hoped that he could strengthen the faith of students through the teaching 
of science. As professor, preacher, and faithful companion to his wife of 65 years, he is 

Always the Teacher 


by ANNE 

he woman in the hospital bed sat up 
as soon as I entered the room. She 

[reached her hand out to greet me and 
her blue eyes were as bright as her smile 

I even though she did not know me per- 

isonally. Her hair was a white cloud 
about her face and a small braid down 
her back caught the loose ends. She was 

'eighty-foui- years old. 

Her husband, aged eighty-nine, rose 

I from his chair in the corner of the room 
where he had been reading, to stand by 
her bed. He e.xplained that his wife was 

'rather hard of hearing and that she 
should not sit up long. She dropped back 
on the pillow. He thoughtfully offered 
me a lap-board on which to write my 
notes; obviously he spent much of his 
time in this room writing and reading. 

When I liad telephoned the Peabody 
Home in North Manchester tlie day be- 
fore to make arrangements to visit with 
Dr. and Mrs. Edward Kintner, I had 
suggested meeting him in their apartment 

land then going to the hospital wing to 
see Mrs. Kintner. He had given me 
directions for finding the hospital room. 
"You'll find us both there," he liad said. 
If I had thought twice I would have 
realized that, since I knew they had been 

[together for the past sixty-five years. 
They celebrated their sixty-fifth wedding 
anniversary September 30, 1968. 

rs. Kintner had been in the hospital 
wing a week or so, and as Dr. Kintner 
explained why, illustrating clearly and 
carefully with hand movements the alter- 
nating pumping action of the heart's 
auricle and ventricle, one could imagine 
him in the science classroom where he 
had spent sixty-five years. In his black 
"plain" coat and neatly trimmed beard 
and mustache, I could also imagine him 
in the pulpit of the churches of my 

younger years, where the same sixty-five 
years had likewise been invested. 

Over a period of many \ears I had 
heard reports concerning the remarkable 
Kintner family; how, after retiring from 
Manchester College as head of the biol- 
ogy department at age sevent\-one. Dr. 
Kintner commuted the thirty-five miles to 
Fort Wayne several times a w-eek for 
thirteen years to teach three years at the 
Lutheran Hospital School of Nursing 
and t\velve years at the Indiana Uni- 
versity extension; how Mrs. Kintner had 
been runner-up for the Indiana Mother 
of the Year Award; how the family of 
eight children had all followed their 
father into vocations in science; and, 
most of all, how each of the children 
was active in the work of the church. 

How can one account for success like 
that in child rearing? 

Mrs. Kintner had a ready answer. 
"They had a wonderful daddy!" This is 
particularly important when one realizes 
that seven of the children were boys. 
Dr. Kintner is reputed to have puzzled 
new acquaintances by saying, "I have 
seven sons and each son has a sister!" 

Mrs. Kintner went on to explain that 
she has often been asked how she reared 
her family. She likes to answer that the 
Lord had a big hand in it. 

"The hardest thing we did was to see 
that the children did what we assigned 
them to do," she said. Dr. Kintner con- 
tinued, "If the boys wanted their good 
shirts ironed, they knew where to find the 
iron and how to use it. The boys learned 
to wash dishes, too. " 

Dr. Kintner believes their rural back- 
ground was valuable; both parents grew 
up on a farm. Though the Kintner home 


2-27-69 MESSENGER 1 


was in North Manchester, their father 
saw that the children learned about 
responsibility in a rui'al setting. 

"When the boys got big enough to 
help with the garden and drive the team, 
every last one of them worked on Charlie 
Comstock's farm." 

Every last one of the children must 
also have spent some time in his father's 
laboratory at the college. Dr. Kintner 
recalls one son's telling a friend that he 
didn't know yet what he was going to do 
vocationally. An older son intenupted, 
"He'll know after he hangs around the 
lab for awhile!" 

Two of the Kintner boys are now 
general practitioners; two are optome- 
trists. A fifth son practices dentistry. 
One is a pathologist and another an 
anesthesiologist. The Kintner daughter 
is a dietitian. 

As Edward Kintner's sons followed 
their father into science, many years ago 
Edward followed his father into 

"Father was a schoolteacher in a little 
country schoolhouse. He was always 
interested in education. When I went to 
high school, one of our neighbors said, 
'Tell Frank Kintner he ought to keep that 
strapping boy home to work on the 
farm!' Father would never have con- 
sidered that." 


ducation has come full circle — cur- 
rently the ungraded primary school is a 
progressive concept. Edward Kintner 
says he attended one in his childhood — 
the eight-grades variety. "A child could 
pick up a great deal of infonnation just 
by listening." 

Edward hadn't quite finished high 
school when he began his teaching career 
in this same kind of setting. His long 
association with Manchester College be- 
gan with the spring term of 1899. This 
ten-week session cost young Kintner a 
total of thirty-five doUars. 

After teaching his second year, he 
retuined to Manchester for the spring 
term of 1900 and this was the occasion 
for attending his first Annual Conference, 
held that year at North Manchester. 
The Conference was especially significant 
since he had been called to the ministry 
on January 13 by his home church, the 
Lick Creek Church of the Brethren at 
Bryan, Ohio. 

As we considered the scarcity of pas- 
tors today. Dr. Kintner theorized, "Maybe 
we should go back to electing ministers. 
That's the way I got into the ministry; 
otherwise I would never have become 

Young Kintner became the full-time 
pastor of a new church in Lima. Ohio, in 
1902. "Elder George Sellers told the 
Mission Board of Northwestern Ohio, 
'We have a young schoolteacher who 
might fill the position.' " 

Edward Kintner and Glada Snyder 
were married September .30. 1903. The 
honeymoon was a train trip to the 
groom's home where he was to begin his 
first series of evangelistic meetings at 
Lick Creek. "It's a shame to call those 
meetings an evangelistic series; it wasn't 
anything you'd write home about!" 

In 1905 the young couple was called to 
the Blue Creek Church in Ohio; in 1909 
the family of five moved to North Man- 
chester which has been their home ever 
since, so that the father could finish his 
college education. During his senior year 
he taught physics, botany, physical 
geography, and agriculture in the 

Kintner gi-aduated in 1912. He re- 
members, "President Winger called me in 
and said, 'If you are willing to take up 
graduate work, I think we can use you 
on the faculty.' " 

"I was the first student from Manches- 
ter to go to Ohio State. There's been a 
pretty steady stream ever since," Kintner 

"I came to Manchester as the science 
teacher and I taught classes in chemistry 
physics, zoology, and botany. When I 
retired, I was head of the biology depart 
ment. Dr. Morris took over physics and 
Dr. Holl taught the chemistry. Both mei| 
had been my students, " remembered 


former student recalls that Dr. 
Kintner didn't turn his teaching on and 
o£F at the classroom door; he was alway 
teaching, whether it was in the labora- 
tory or on a casual walk across the 
campus when he continually pointed ou 
objects worthy of study. 

"I hoped to help students strengthen 
their faith through the study of science 
rather than destroy it. Many students 
are disturbed by the theory of evolution 
As far as I'm concerned, most important 
are one's faith in God and belief in 
eternal life — they are most valuable in 
the long run. I wanted my students to 
keep that faith; then they could work 
in as much or as little of evolutionary 


by Elizabeth H. Emerson 

I have seen beauty in my Amer 
giant cities' jagged sl<ylines, 
Midwest's fields of yellowing gr 
Old Faithful's hourly rise and 
Niagara's tumbling-downward 

Arizona's multicolored gorges, 
a hundred heavenward-towerinj 

Columbia's onward surging watc 

2 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


feory as their religious beliefs could 

, Since Dr. Kinbier taught student 
I urses courses in anatomy, physiology, 
nd embiyology, I wondered if he ever 
i/ishes that he had become a medical 
loctor as his sons had. 

Dr. Kintner shook his head. "No," he 
nswered. "Science has always fasci- 
lated me, but I found teaching satisfying. 

often wonder how the students could 
iiiave been as satisfied with my courses 
,s I was in teaching them." In spite of 
he fact that this man has completed 
Master's and Doctor's degrees, been 
lamed a Fellow by the Indiana Academy 
if Science, and been honored by having 
he new science building at Manchester 
College named for him, he retains a 
laturalness, a basic humility. One close 
issociate says that Dr. Kintner possessed 
■Jie ability "to relate to persons on all 
evels — the common and the famous, 
:he small child as well as the learned 
scientist. ' (Dr. Kintner said that when 
t called to ask for an interview, he im- 

mediately thought of the title of one of 
Shakespeare's plays. Much Ado About 

Dr. Kintner 's interest in church work 
paralleled his activities in education 
down through the years. He "filled the 
pulpit" in over seventy-five church con- 
gregations in Ohio, Indiana, and Michi- 
gan Sunday after Sunday; and he was 
elder of a number of them, including the 
Manchester church. For forty years he 
was elder of his home church, the Lick 
Creek congregation. This involved an 
eighty-mile trip from North Manchester. 
Dr. Kintner recalls, "At the last council 
meeting I conducted there, I refused to 
let them use my name. I said, 'Forty 
years is certainly the limit; you can find 
someone else.' " 


fter reminiscing about incidents in- 
volving the Dunkard Brethren and their 
emphasis on die form of dress, Dr. 
Kintner glanced dowii at his own plain 
garb and grinned. "Of course, the Lick 
Creek church was always conservative. 

But I guess in my own case, it's either 
mental or spiritual inertia!" A former 
biology major under Dr. Kintner sees it 
differently; he finds Dr. Kintner's con- 
servative attire as opposed to his pro- 
gressive professional stance an intrigu- 
ing paradox. 

An earlier student found that a keen 
sense of humor endeared "Professor" to 
his students. "When someone made an 
incorrect statement, like the chemical 
formula for water is NaCl, Professor 
Kintner would sometimes say soberly, 
'Very important, if true.' " 

Age — however painful or poignant it 
may be — is as much a part of life as 
youth and the middle years, and it has 
its own peculiar contributions to make to 
the total. Perhaps our overemphasis on 
the importance of youth is cheating us 
of dimension and perspective. Grate- 
fully, I shall remember the Kintners as 
gracious, interesting, and immensely kind 
to share with me several hours of their 
present, as well as memories from their 
rewarding and remarkable past. D 

I have seen ugliness in my America: 
row on row of tottering houses 
sheltering half-fed, half-clad chil- 
mounds of waste from unearthed 

ready to slide down steep inclines 
to bury homes and schools and 

buildings housing human derelicts, 
fruit of three wars I have known. 

I have seen changes in my America 
in fourscore years; experienced 

voices carried over wires; 
lights hung by swinging cords 
replacing oil-fed, polished lamps; 
changed rides in horse-drawn 

for those with engines powered by 

traded these for cloud encircling 


I would see other changes in my 

O brother man, join me to help 
to bring the time when every child 
is rightly housed and fed and 

when rights of law and speech and 

of living become reality for all; 
when glaring wrongs are made to 

in beauty rivers, plains, and 


2-27-69 MESSENGER 3 


But it doesn't 
look like a 



4 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


hen you were a child, you probably 
placed your hands back-to-back, locked 
your fingers, then closed your hands and 

"Here's the church house, 

Here's the steeple. 

Open the doors. 

And see all the people." 

How simple life used to be. . . . 

Recently, as I drove up to visit the new 
St. Martin de Pones Catholic Church in 
Hazelwood, Missouri, I found myself 
muttering, "That's funny, it sure doesn't 
look like a church." 

For this church, along with most of 

the newer ones, looks like anything but 
a house with a steeple. It looks like the 
front half of the Ark — the rear end seem- 
ingly submerged in a sea of grass. Of 
cream concrete, it has a row of porthole- 
like windows .soaring upward along each 
side. The roof is of pale green concrete. 
But once inside, I must confess, I did 
have a rela.xed feeling of warmth and 

There is no doubt that many modern 
churches are causing some \ery emotional 
outbursts from many people. Not only 
because of style, but also because of size, 
function, and cost. I decided to perform 

a one-woman survey of some of these 
newfangled ti-ends. 

Why don't you come along? 

Which style? Trad or mod? 

So, it doesn't look like a church. Does 
it matter? 

I asked a Negro cab driver in St. 
Louis, Missouri. 

"Yes," he said. "It should look like a 
church. Not Hke a night club. Years ago, 
from blocks away, you could tell a 
chui'ch was a chui'ch. But not anymore. 
And I think a chuich should be a 
symbol — like a cross." 

I asked a professional architect, Mr. 
Venier I. Burks, of Burks and Landberg, 
St. Louis, if a cross were necessary on 
a church building. 

"No," he replied. "I think it's a kind 
of crutch." 

But shouldn't a chmxh look like a 

"Yes," he said, "it should look like a 
chm'ch. Not like a library, for instance. 
A building should transmit, somehov,', a 
feeling. Its feeling. For example: a 
bank: permanence, securits'. A ski lodge: 
playful intent of its users. A church: 
the attitude of parishioners." 

Would that mean the grandest build- 
ing of all — precious materials and a 
futuristic design? 

"Not at all. A spartan ghetto church 
is not likely to be made of marble. How- 
ever, a meticulous laying of brickwork, 
for instance, can give the suggestion of 
great dignity and beauty." 

Sounds simple. But is it? Even where 
money is no problem and the congrega- 
tion rightfully anticipates a church of 
great dignity and beauty, the finished 
building can evoke serious dissatisfaction. 

The new National Presbyterian Church 
and Center in Washington, D.C., cost 
$8.5 million and seats 1,250 in its sanctu- 
ary. Wolf Von Eckhardt, a critic for 
the Washington Post, says it's "ugly." Its 

2-27-6V MESSENGER 5 


trs. -•• 


architect terms it "exemplifying the 
church of today. " The critic terms its 
style, "Mod-Gothicist." He adds that it 
is difficuh to find the entrance. 

Another architect, Gyo Obata, whose 
designs have brought him many major 
citations, including the Church Architec- 
tural Guild of America Award, has said, 
'"Generally speaking, I think many mod- 
ern churches are meaningless. These bad 
churches say, 'I really don't care. On 
the other hand, if anyone asked me to 
do a purely Gothic — or Middle Ages — 
church, I'd ask him to go elsewhere. I 
stress this, not because I design con- 
temporary buildings, but because an 
architect just doesn't go backwards. " 

In fact, it is difficult to find an archi- 
tect speaking out for the purely tradition- 
al style church. Yet, when setting eyes 
upon lovely old St. Bride's in Fleet Street 
of London, for instance, one wonders 
how we can ever forsake the style com- 
pletely. That smallish Anglican church is 
as lovely inside as out. Christopher 
Wren must have been eyeing a wedding 
cake when he designed the exquisite 
four-tiered steeple. 

It looks like a church. 

Is that important? Or, as with each 
parishioner, is it what goes on inside 
that's important? 

rches getting too big for 

liu.;- :■■■;:;.. 

Tulsa, Oklahoma, has a skyscraper 
church, designed by a woman. It was 
completed in 1929, and its present value 
is over $5 million. Its adult membership 
is over 6,000 and the church school over 

I visited this 14-story Boston Avenue 
Methodist Church, and as I studied the 
long directory in the lobby before taking 
the elevator to the twelfth floor to see 
the minister, a wild picture ran through 
my mind. 

Having been a mother collecting her 

children after church school in an 
average-size church, I visualized the 
bedlam which might occur here to a 
family of, say, six children. Infant Mary 
is collected on the second floor south, 
two-year-old Peter on the first floor east, 
five-year-old Michael is captured on the 
second floor south, nine-year-old Robert 
on the third floor north, and it is as- 
sumed that eighteen-year-old David can 
make it down from the eighth on his own 
and meet the others on the 450-car 
parking lot — if he can find the car. 

Timmy is found in a congested hall- 
way, by an ushei". "Now don't cry, little 
boy, we'll find your mother. What floor 
is she on? Don't know? What class is 
she in? the Married Folks Class? the 
Friendly Couples Class? the Wesley Fel- 
lowship Class? the Mr. and Mrs. Class? 
the Homebuilders Class? the Roundtable 
Class? the Heritage — oh, here she is 
now! Aren't you lucky!" 

There's no excuse for not learning one's 
way about the skyscraper church. It 
says very plainly on each Sunday's pro- 
gram, "At the close of the second service 
a tour of our building is scheduled. 
Visitors are invited to join the guide 
immediately in the parlor." But even 
with a map, think of the members' 
traveling time! 

The church does have beauty. The 
interior decor is impressive. The Chil- 
dren's Building has been called the most 
beautifully equipped in the country. 
The Bride's Room has red carpet, pink 
walls, crystal chandeliers, gilt trim every- 
where. The tiny Groom's Room has a 
masculine color scheme in black, brown, 
and colorful plaids. The enlarged parlor 
contains pale blue wall-to-wall caipeting, 
lavender draperies, blue and lavender 
.sofas, and sparkling chandeliers. Instead 
of faux flowers, an arrangement of pale 
blue feathers rests on a polished table. 
The sanctuary is cii'cular, and "signified 
the infinite, without beginning or end." 

The exterior has soaring shafts of 
stained-glass windows. Between each 
shaft of glass is a wedge-shaped shaft oi 
stone resembling the shape that hands ' 
take in prayer and symbolizing the 
"receptivity of divine grace." 

The architect of this church, the late i 
Mrs. Adah M. Robinson, has said, "Thi' 
concept of a modem church should re- 
flect the ideas, ideals, and philosopln o 
our modern Christianity. We revere 
Gothic architecture, but we have arriveci 
at a different age. Modern religion is 
vital and of continuous growth. Moden 
lines are flowing, upward, open, free. " 

Well, so is old Gothic upward, open, li 
free — embroidered stone soaring like 
flames without rest. Is the heaven- 
scraper church an improvement? Does ii 
look like a church? feel like a church? 
function as a church should? Is a churcl 
building containing lobby directories and 
elevators and harried ministers a sanctu- 
ary for weary and frustrated business- 
men? Or is there too much of the Empire 
State Building in it? 

Willoughby Marshall, a Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, architect, predicts that 
we'll build smaller churches and more of 
them. And that many persons feel that 
any church seating more than 500 people 
is probably too big. 

Do you agree? 

Should a church be built for \%orship 

One architect told me that church 
leaders today want a building to express 
a God who is involved in human affairs. 

The award-winning and much pub- 
licized church designed by the Burks and 
Landberg finri, the Hope Presbyterian 
Church in Creve Coeur, Missouri, is a 
powerful expression of that idea. 

Its 50-by-80-foot main room dimen- 
sions were set by the requirements of a 
basketball court! 

This 300-member multipurpose church 

6 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


has ceiling hooks from which hang 12- 
by-4y2-foof felt banners made by the 
church women. The idea of the red, 
blue, green, black, and \'ellow hangings 
came from European cathedrals, but in- 
stead of remaining stationary, these are 
moved about to suggest different atmos- 
pheres or feelings. For a church wed- 
ding, the banners chosen might include 
one with a marriage symbol plus one 
depicting the occupation of the bride or 
groom. The banners take the place of 
costly stained glass, and they, along with 
the roll-up caipet, help to control the 
acoustics of the room. 

These multipuipose churches reflect 
the thoughts of a growing number of 
persons who believe that congregations 
should not put extra money into church- 
es, per se, as long as ui-ban problems are 

Some day this trend may mean that 
worship is no longer so much a matter 
of personal devotion as it is an expres- 
sion of Christian community by the whole 

On the other hand, we're told that the 
desire of many people for smaller church- 
es implies a longing for a more intimate 
worship experience. 

How do you feel about that? 


Should we build to rebuild in twenty 


I asked Mr. Arthur Stauder, of A. F. 
and Arthur Stauder, Architects, what 
he thought of the newest idea of building 
a church to last perhaps twenty years 
at the most and then tearing it douTi and 

rebuilding to fit the newer generation. 

"The time of building a cathedral on 
every neighborhood comer is a thing of 
the past," he said. "A church stiucturc 
can be too permanent." 

Any exceptions? 

"Well, I admit there are certain in- 
stances where a unique, elaborate struc- 
ture of beauty- may be called for, but 
often, a simple, tastefulh' designed 
church is more beautiful. Of course, a 
structure can be too flims\' and fall apart 
before it can be used long enough to 
pay its cost. But it is becoming more 
difficult to get the mone\- necessary to 
construct the marble and gilded churches 
of the past." 

Isn't there more mone\' available today 
than e\er before? 

"Yes, but less is available for church 
building. The gross church income is 
larger but there are other needs — higher 
salaries and overhead, for example." 

Mr. Stauder, what is your personal 
\iew on church building? 

"I see one basic problem and a choice 
must be made. Either build a \ery 
elaborate and beautiful church that 
would symbolize the faith in all its 
beauty and grandeur. Or, consU'uct a 
less pretentious building and use the 
leftover mone>' in today's ghettos and 
other current needy areas." 

Perhaps one answer lies in the in- 
stant — as in coffee — church. Don't 
laugh. A division of the Firestone Tire 
and Rubber Company recently sold an 
inflatable plastic fabric church to an 
Assemblies of God group. This huge bag 
is inflated and ventilated by three 
squirrel-cage blowers, and it takes thirty 
minutes for the huge bag to deflate. It 
is made of nylon-reinforced vinyl 
equipped with gold and white plastic 
panels designed like stained glass win- 
dows. It costs $40,000 and seats 3500 

Would it bother ijoii to worship in an 

instant church? 

I'm told that the architecture of a 
church can affect its users. Mr. Burks 
feels that the interior design is especially 

"Unless the worshiper feels the wor- 
shipful attitude," he said, "the church is 
a failure. Someone once said, 'Cities are 
for people.' I'd paraphrase that. 'Archi- 
tects are for people.' Don't forget, archi- 
tects differ from engineers. Architects 
are concerned with human values, en- 
gineers with mathematical constants. The 
more the architect can incorporate hu- 
man values, the better artist he is." 

Tomorrow, if >ou are asked for \our 
opinion on a proposed church building, 
what would you say? The following ad- 
\ice from Gyo Obata might help you with 
an answer. 

This well-known architect, whose firm 
has built everything from a forty- 
worshiper church in the Ozark Mountains 
to projects measured in millions, has firm 
ideas about church building. "First, the 
best architect is not necessarily from a 
large firm. Often a young architect who 
hasn't yet had a lot of commissions may 
be exactly what you're looking for. 

"Then, the greatest need is to under- 
stand the problem. On the architect's 
side, we always seek to penetrate to the 
essence of the client's problem and to 
understand it in all its individuality. Not 
necessarily to employ consciously any 
"style" but to have the style of each 
project grow from the materials, the 
structure, and the nature of the problem. 
This is, perhaps, the hardest kind of 
architecture to practice. It's easier to 
cram a program into a theory of design 
than it is to help a building be itself." 

Now is the time to think on these 
trends. Or, someday, you might find 
yourself driving up to your own new 
church and muttering, "It looks funny, 
it's the wrong size, it doesn't function 
well, and it cost too much money." D 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 7 


ITS. '^. 


by Peter Doghramji 

After 150 years of missionary work, all indications 
point to the fact that the missionary is not wanted. 
Why? What went wrong? Why is it that whereas 
mission was extremely necessary and therefore valid 
thirty years ago, now we are questioning its validity? 

I want to share with you tlie two most 
frustrating experiences of my hfe. The 
first goes back to my early childhood, 
when I was about eight years of age. The 
small e\angelical church in which I grew 
up was \ery conser\ati\e, fundamental- 
istic, and enthusiastically exangelistic. I 
was brought up uith missionary zeal to 
convert the nominal Christians into real 
believers. Therefore, a friend and I 
started to make house calls on nominal 
Christians e\"ery Sunday morning after 
regular church serxice. We read a por- 
tion of scripture, gave a short exposition 
of what it meant, invited our listeners for 
repentance, and offered a prayer on their 
behalf. This went on for about a year 
and our fame as two young missionaries 
spread throughout the entire community. 

On Christmas day, it was the custom 
that friends and relatives visited one 
another and conveyed their Christmas 
greetings in person, much as we greet one 
another today by mail. Our plan was to 
visit as many homes as possible and 
explain the meaning of Christmas to those 
ignorant people. Everything went fine — 
with scripture reading, exposition, 
prayer and, because it was Christmas, 
the customary Christmas candy — until 
we called on two rather elderly men who 
were engaged in some sort of discussion. 
They were surprised by our intrusion; 
but we were really frustrated when one 
of them, a guest, told the host to give us 
the candy so that we may leave. That 
was the last house on the list and the 
end of our mission. 

The second frustrating experience was 

during m\' seminarx' days. Each summer 
x\'e xx'ere expected to do some field work, 
both for credit and for cash. It xvas my 
second summer at the seminary and I 
was assigned to serve a small church 
called Jarablus. the ancient city of 
Carkemish. in northern Syria, at the 
intersection of the Turkish border and the 
Euphrates River. I xvas verx' excited 
about this opportunity as I xvas bursting 
with theology and homiletics. An elderly 
lax' preacher accompanied me on the trip 
to Jarablus to introduce me to the 
congregation. When we reached the 
toxvn, despite a xery reluctant bus. xve 
called on a prominent member of the 
congregation xvith the expectation that he 
would take us in for the night and 
arrange permanent hospitality for me for 
the rest of the summer. When the would- 
be host came to the door my friend 
introduced me as the answer to their 
prayers for a pastor. 

But even before we xx'ere invited in, 
this gentleman replied, "But we already 
xvi-ote to the Board that xve don't need a 
pastor because the congregation is too 
small to support a pastor; besides, it is 
harvest time and all the men will be out 
of toxvn for xvork." My friend left for 
home the same day, and I spent a sleep- 
less night at xvhat might be called a 
hotel, trying to figure out xvhat my ser- 
mon would be the next day, Sunday, to 
the congregation. When xve xx'ent to 
church the next day, I saxv a half-ruined 
building xvith part of the roof missing, 
and only four elderly xvomen and two 
young children as my congregation. But 

m\ friLstration reached its peak xx'hen 
during the sermon I xvas interrupted bx 
one of the xvomen saying, "No, my son! 
The real meaning of the verse which 
you read is this. . . ." And she xxent on 
to finish the sennon xvhile I stood in the 
pulpit listening to her exposition. 

After one hundred and fifty years of 
missionary xvork xve are bexvildered, 
puzzled, and, most of all, frustrated as we 
rethink the validity of mission today. 
All indications point to the fact that the 
missionary is not xvanted. Coming from 
the so-called missionary field. I can 
clearly hear the prospective missionary 
asking me, "Do you really xvant us?" 
Why? What really xvent xvrong? Why is 
it that xvhereas mission xx'as extremely 
necessary and therefore valid thirty years 
ago, noxv xve are compelled to cjuestion 
its validity? Hax'e all the hungry in the 
world been fed, or the sick healed, or 
the ignorant educated, or the good nexxs 
of God's reconciling activity been pro- 
claimed to all men? Why is it that 
mission was valid in the first century 
despite many adverse factors, xvhile it is 
seemingly not valid nineteen centuries 
later? Why is it that when the apostle 
Paul heard the call from Macedonia only 
in a dream he immediately xvent from 
Troas xvithout first asking for confirmation 
as to xvhether they really needed him, 
xvhile, today, we hear the same call 
ox'er the radio, through television, and 
in the nexvspapers, loud and clear, yet 
find it necessary to get some degree of 
assurance that xve are really wanted? 

Our immediate ansxver to these ques- 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 9 



VALIDl-n^ OF MISSION , ' continued 

tions may be that the situation has 
changed. The world of today is quite 
different from the world of yesterday. 
Paul the missionary was not in reality a 
foreign missionary; he traveled within the 
Roman Empire and, in times of difficulty, 
he could even appeal to his superior 
status as a Roman citizen. Today, the 
missionary is foreign in the strict sense of 
national origin, and to appeal to his 
superior status as a citizen of any par- 
ticular world power is a clear disad- 
vantage. The foreign missionary is often 
an embarrassment to the national or local 
church and an object of suspicion by 
the local authorities. In most cases he is 
a teacher of English or other academic 
subjects, a medical doctor, an adminis- 
trator, or an adviser, but rarely a preacher 
or pastor. Even then, his function is 
being taken over by the members of the 
local church or government agencies. He 
seems to be out of place, unwanted, not 
needed. The only validity of mission 
from the point of view of the national 
churches is their dependence on mone- 
tary assistance of the sending churches. 

Mission more valid than ever 

Despite this gloomy but realistic pic- 
ture I still believe that mission is valid, 
no less valid today than it was in the first 
century, the second, or the nineteenth. 
My basic reason for this assertion is 
theological. The validity of mission does 
not depend on the situation. Changing 
situations may call for changing strategy 
and methods. But who are we to ques- 
tion the validity of the command of our 
Lord to go into all the earth and preach 
the good news? Who are we to take 
him aside and question the validity of his 
going to Jerusalem and risking his life? 
Who gave the authority to the national 
or local church, or even the government 
authorities for that matter, to say that 
they do not want you? Who gave the 
right to the sending churches to reach 

the conclusion that mission must be 
deployed because we are not wanted? 

The very fact that we raise the ques- 
tion about the validity of mission should 
serve as a call to repentance. The sin 
of disobedience has secretly crept into 
our very profession of faith and obedi- 
ence to Christ. The devil is, among other 
things, an ingenious mathematician. He 
teaches us how to calculate the risks 
involved in mission. He teaches us the 
art of statistics so that we may measure 
the kingdom of God by our frustrations. 
The same tempter who approached Jesus 
comes to us today and tells us: "If you are 
really Christians, do something spectacu- 
lar so that you can show to all the world, 
scientifically and statistically, that Chris- 
tianit>' is better than all other religions 
and philosophies because of the results. 

"However, if you are doubtful and 
frustrated, stop pretending and bragging 
about your faith in God. You know that 
Christianity does not make much sense 
in this day and age; you know that it is 
irrelevant; you know that the result of 
twenty centuries of faith and belief 
accomplished nothing. Therefore, come, 
worship me; I will give you power to 
rule the world, to control others, to 
control the forces of nature and utilize 
them in your own best interests. Forget 
about others, including God. Don't risk 
your life for a futile cause, for God is 
dead; long live you!" 

Thus, the question about the validity 
of mission is ultimately the test of the 
validity of our faith. 

All that I have been trying to say so 
far is that the standard of the validity of 
mission is not man-made. Mission is the 
command of him who was himself the 
mission and the missionary. 

rf faith is the supreme risk that we 
ever take in response to God's taking the 
risk of entrusting himself and his work 
to us and if as believers we are com- 
missioned to be the light of the world 

and the salt of the earth, we cannot ex- 
cuse ourselves from our responsibilities 
even if the world prefers to live in the 
dark or does not use salt in food. The 
radicality of our faith is such that wh( 
we are not wanted and even rejected by 
men, when we are persecuted for the sal 
of our calling in Christ, we are not frus- 
trated but overjoyed. 

New strategy 

I said earlier that the validity of 
mission does not depend on the situatio 
although changing situations may call 
for new strategies and methods. Speakii 
about the Near East, I believe that all 
the direct and indirect restrictions im- 
posed about missionary work are remin( 
ers that God himself is at work to chanf 
Christians by changing situations. It is 
very easy to criticize past missionaries 
and to find their mistakes. I think we 
must always remember them with grati- 
tude to God, and only then try to chanj 
our methods according to the demands 
of new situations. Let me go over brief 
some of the radical changes which I thin 
are necessary today. 

In the first place, mission is not 
almsgiving. The formula "rich-help-pooi 
may be a useful tool in foreign policy. 
But as such it is unchristian and even 
idolatrous. The radicality of the gospel 
is such that even the poor are called upo 
to give, so that the Christian formula is 
poor-give-rich as well as rich-give-poor. 
The basic reason is that only God gives 
without receiving. Any person, com- 
munity, organization, church, or nation 
which gives without receiving is secretl 
making itself into an idol. As an illustra- 
tion, American missionaries in Syria an^ 
Lebanon have in the past hundred years 
written thousands of letters and reports 
about the miseries and woes of the na- 
tives and the remedies that are being 
offered to them. This is good. You must 
Continued on page 26 

10 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


Monday | Tuesday 





























^^ 31 






\ .> 


Action before unity 

For the second time in two years, the 
Church of the Brethren's committee as- 
signed to ecumenical affairs lias decided 
to put the brakes on merger explorations. 
Involved with the Brethren in the latest 
decision is the American Baptist Con- 

At a meeting last month of the Com- 
mittee on Interchurch Relations with 
representatives of the Baptists' Com- 
mission on Christian Unity, the decision 
was reached, stating "that it is not wise 
at this time to focus primarily upon pro- 
moting organic union of the two bodies. ' 

Rather, the two groups recommended 
"the development at all levels of dis- 
cussion, projects, and joint action in 
mission for the purpose of creating better 
understanding between our two groups 
and more effecti\e and efficient Christian 
action designed to help meet definite 
needs in the world toda>-, realizing that 
these actions may or may not lead our 
communions toward eventual merger." 

Feedback: The statement was based 
on feedback received from local and area 
encounters of Baptists and Brethren 
across the countr>'. Under stud\- in many 
of the grass roots meetings was a re- 
source document, "Principles for a Plan 
of Union," which had been drawn up 
in the course of conversations carried on 
by the two national committees. 

In a similar action in October 1967, 
the Church of the Brethren Fraternal Re- 
lations Committee, as it was then known, 
and the Churches of God of North 
America's Commission on Christian 
Unity also agreed to disband merger 
considerations. Since then no further 
meetings of the two groups lia\e been 
held nor are any scheduled at the na- 
tional level, although both are on record 
as favoring continued cooperation and 

Talks with the American Baptists are 
scheduled to occur on a yearly basis if 
not oftener. But the talks at least for 
the near future will be intended to spur 

joint action rather than to deal with 

Readiness: .According to Donald E. 
Rowc, acting e:;ecuti^e for the Committee 
on Interchurch Relations at the time of 
the January meeting with the Baptists, 
the decision reflected a widespread feel- 
ing that the two bodies lacked readiness 
at the local and district le\els for union 
to be pursued. Mr. Rowe explained that 
the position was arrived at mutualh'. 

There were also some expressions 
growing out of the meeting that if the 
two communions were to start anew in 
weighing closer ties on the local scene, 
the beginning point would not be a set 
of principles for union but more informal 
fellowship and cooperati\e action. In 
sexeral areas of the Brotherhood dialogue 
and action programs are just getting 
under way. 

At the national le\el, the latest meet- 
ing hosted by the Brethren in Elgin, 
111., was the ninth in\olving Baptist and 
Brethren representatives. The first meet- 
ing occurred in I96I, also in Elgin, at 
the initiative of the Brethren. 

Meeting after the joint committee ac- 
tion in Elgin, the .American Baptist Com- 
mission on Christian Unit)' was reported 
to ha\'e reaffirmed "its serious concern for 
ultimate union with the Church of the 
Brethren as soon as mutualK' acceptable; 
and that we recognize that common con- 
cerns for joint missionary strategies are 
good, but we see them in the context of 
fuller Christian unity." 

The conversations with the Baptists 
during the '6()s represent the most in- 
tensive ecumenical effort engaged in by 
the Brethren thus far. 

Roster: Currently on the Committee 
on Interchurch Relations are Edward K. 
Ziegler, Bakersfield, Calif., chairman; 
Dale W. Brown, Oak Brook. Ill; and M. 
Cuy West, San Diego, Calif., all elected 
by Annual Conference; and Kenneth S. 
Frantz, Des Moines, Iowa; J. Benton 
Rhoades, New York, N.Y.; and Harold 
Z. Bomberger, McPherson, Kansas, ap- 
pointed by the General Board. 

Just beginning as the new executi\( 
for interchurch relations, on a half-time 
basis, is W. Harold Row, former execu 
tive secretar)' of the Brethren Senicc 

Issues in evangelism 


the nation has been proposed for ]()7.' 
b\- a group of evangelical or conservati\( 
church leaders. The goal, as suggeslrd 
by one proponent, is to create a ficsli 
climate for evangelism b\' making toda\"s 
man aware of his lostness and need lor 

Sparked by the periodical, Christiaitilij 
Today, and in some degree by the 19(if) 
World Congress on Evangelism in Berlin, 
the cooperative venture began as a coali- 
tion move among evangelicals, especialK 
among some of the younger spokesimii 
who favor closer ties in fellowship and 
fortification as well as in outreach. Bnl 
generally through the five consultatiims 
held thus far to plan for 197.3, tlic tend- 
ency has been to pla\' down the bid i"i 
more visible unity and to give prioiil\ 
instead to a strictly evangelistic cam-' 

Exploration: This winter for the fiist 
time three Church of the Brethren clere\ - 
men joined in the consultations, sent In 
the General Board to sessions in .S: 
Louis. Altogether the parley included 
■50 churchmen from .30 denominations, | 
with a preponderance of the representa- I 
lion from the conservative and indepen- 
dent wing of Protestantism. The St, 
Louis gathering for Brethren and fur 
many others was exploratory, an occasion 
for assessing whether to recommend de- 
nominational or congregational support 
for the 1973 nationwide emphasis. 

The Brethren — Kenneth S. Frantz of 
Des Moines, Iowa; Kent E. Naylor of 
Waterloo, Iowa; and Carl E. Myers of 
Elgin, 111. — went to the recent consulta- 
tion convinced of the need for more 
breakthroughs in winning and relating 
persons to Jesus Christ. They returned 

12 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


to their homes with some gnawing doubts 
las to the soundness of this particular 

Pastor Kenneth Frantz of the Stover 
Memorial church in Des Moines, while 
open to directions which may yet emerge 
in subsequent planning for the 1973 
emphasis, expressed concern that the 
"evangelical orientation" of the planners 
"excludes major blocks of Christians who 
see e\angelism as not only the winning 
of a person to Christ but also the win- 
ning of the whole person that his life 
be lived in the Christian way." 

"If major denominations are to be in- 
volved," he observed, "evangelism must 
mean more than the results of a revi\al 

Omissions: "The segment of the 
church which has taken the love of 
Christ into the ghetto and into the needy 
areas of our nation's life was not present 
to express their views for Christian 
evangelism," reacted South Waterloo 
pastor Kent Naylor. He also said he was 
struck by the absence of youth, the black 
community, and the Roman Catholic 
church in the planning. 

Mr. Naylor described the plans which 
were presented in a 17-page prospectus 
as tightly drawn, allowing little op- 
portunity for revision in spite of as- 
surances to the contrary. Taking one 
specific, he noted, "I could not partici- 
pate in the pressure upon small children 
which is suggested in the child evange- 
hsm phase of the program." Moreover, 
he said the whole design "ignored the 
moral and temper of the church, both in 
language and in involvement of persons." 

"If there is to be a renewal in the 
church's witness with Christ, there will 
have to be a more broadly conceived pro- 
gram in order that creative expressions 
of our witness may be included," Pastor 
Naylor asserted. 

Separation: Carl E. Myers, coordi- 
nator of the Mission One emphasis now 
current in the Church of the Brethren, 
said one of his most pressing concerns 
was "the implicit negative judgment 

which the leaders of this movement make 
upon the e%'angelism programs of many 
of the denominations. There is an ob- 
vious separation in their minds between 
ministry to the soul and a ministry in- 
volving social issues and concerns. The 
planners tend to emphasize the personal 
dimensions of sahation and minimize the 
social context in which ultimate decisions 
are made." 

"There also .seems to be an unwilling- 
ness to listen to the world," Mr. Meyers 
continued. "The conversation is in the 
form of a monologue, without adequate 
knowledge of the feelings, questions, and 
even the doubts of the one who is to be 

Mr. Myers was one of a handful of 
individuals who voted at St. Louis 
against the definition of evangelism 
adopted by the planners. The definition, 
taken from the Berlin Congress, is, in 
Mr. Myers' view, "reflective of 19th- 
century concepts." Further, he said it 
assumes a "judgmental attitude" toward 
the world and takes a theological position 
"too restricted to be helpful." 

Adverse as their reactions are to the 
latest planning session for the 1973 
emphasis, the three Brethren could see 
their church's involvement in the efforts 
as viable, were some of their concerns 
threshed out in open foiaim and were 
flexibility in the program actually pos- 
sible, and not merely looked upon as 

Probing a pale moon 

"To Circle a Closer Moon" is the 
theme of a four-person television series 
which will focus attention on world pov- 
erty and the need for global economic 
and social development. 

To begin on Easter Sunday, April 6, 
on NBC's Frontiers of Faith (1;30 p.m. 
EST) , the four half-hour specials will 
deal with a plan to help build the will 
of citizens to reverse the trend of a 
widening gap between the rich and poor. 

Effecting change: The presentation 

Toward effecting change . . . "if men will" 

will stress the necessity of involving the 
American public in this issue and in 
developing means by which Christians 
may participate more effectively in for- 
eign policy formulation. "Aided and in- 
formed by the four TV programs, Ameri- 
cans of faith and goodwill are going 
to explore that pale moon of poverty, 
satellite of the planet called wealth," 
one of the program developers com- 
mented. The spokesman added that the 
effort is to be targeted toward "tackling 
the deprivations, hungers, and pressures 
of poverty and effecting changes to 
benefit society, if men will." 

NBC News and the National Council 
of Churches' Broadcasting and Film 
Commission are preparing the series, in 
consultation with the NCC's Department 
of International Affairs. Robert Bilheimer 
is the director of the International Affairs 
staff and Kurtis F. Naylor, a former 
Church of the Brethren pastor and serv- 
ice worker, is an associate. 

Local viewing: In every locality where 
the series will be seen, interested church- 
men and other concerned persons are 
urged to form groups not only for view- 
ing and discussing the films, but for fol- 
low-up study and action. 

A World Development Fact Sheet and 
Resource Guide, offering background on 
the theme of the series, is available from 
Susan Bax, coordinator of the World 
Development Project, 475 Riverside 
Drive, Room 8.52, New York, N.Y. 

In May kinescopes of the programs 
are to be made available for in-church 
use and other showings. 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 13 

Bk'V. ^^T^a 


In a world where demonstrations and 
confrontation, charges and counter- 
charges, coercion and manifestos fill the 
air, is there a place for men sitting down 
quietly together, speaking reasonably, 
growing in mutual knowledge and com- 
bining their strengths? 

Is rapprochement possible when such 
divisions as black vs. white, poor vs. sick, 
young vs. old, employees vs. manage- 
ment, revolutionaries vs. conservatives, 
students vs. administrators, Jews vs. 
Arabs all seek to push one another to 
new limits? 

Does the \\orld yearn for unity e\'en 
as it seems to plunge farther and farther 
from that goal? 

Occasional paper: In the midst of 
what appears to many to be unprece- 
dented polarization, with man set against 
man and group against group, one of the 

"Democracy is in 
decay . . . whien ttie 
basic commitment is 
not to persons but 
to abstract ideas, 
ideals, principles, 
and abstractions, as 
it apparently is to 
the extremists, left 
or right . . . 

nation's foremost "think tanks," the 
Center for Study of Democratic Insti- 
tutions, Santa Barbara, Calif., has col- 
lected some penetrating thoughts on the 
subject of dialogue. Entitled "The 
Civilization of the Dialogue," the docu- 
ment is one of the Center's "occasional 
papers" issued five times yearly. It in- 
cludes remarks on dialogue from a secular 
view as well as insight on "The Quaker 
Dialogue," "The Christian-Marxist Dia- 
logue," and other themes central to 

religious and philosophical thought. 

A pronounced note in the nine dis- 
cussions which make up "The Civilization 
of the Dialogue" is the nonviolent nature 
of dialogue. Discussion is seen as an al- 
ternative to coercive action; violence, as 
a symptom of the breakdown of dialogue. 
Basic requirements for dialogue, ac- 
cording to the paper, include autonomy 
of the parties involved, mutual respect, 
and some degree of community. Several 
contributing writers stressed the personal 
element in dialogue as basic, overshadow- 
ing to some degree questions of ideology 
and of mutual or conflicting goals. Demo- 
cratic society itself was envisioned as, in 
a sense, one enormous dialogue. 

Person-centered: "Democracy is in 
deca>', ' said John Cogley, former religion 
editor of The New York Times and a 
fellow of the Center, "when belief in the 
intelligence, competence, good sense, and 
decency of the average citizen is mis- 
trusted. When the basic commitment is 
not to persons but to abstract ideas, 
ideals, principles, and propositions, living 
in a democracy can turn out to be a hell- 
ish ordeal, as it apparently is to the 
extremists, left or right, who like the 
forms of democracy as abstractions but 
mistrust the people for whom the forms 
exist. . . . 

"The basic commitment of the dialogue 
is to persons. In dialogue, one person 
does not attempt to annihilate another 
or another's belief; nor should one find 
it necessary to defend oneself or one's 
own beliefs. Dialogue is unitive, not 
divisive; when it becomes divisive, it be- 
comes destructive." 

Mr. Cogley noted that Jewish philos- 
opher Martin Buber, whose work gave a 
major impetus to dialogue movements in 
our time, thought of dialogue in terms 
of "the complete openness of individuals 
to God and to each other. " 

Dialogue must be considered a means 
rather than an end, Mr. Cogley insisted, 

and it must mo\e toward love and open- 
ness even if it cannot be expected to 
begin with these qualities. "If the dia- 
logue is successful," he said, "the open- 
ness will be achieved. " 

Quaker pattern: In a discussion of 
dialogue in the Society of Friends, Hal 
lock Hoffman, board chainnan of the 
Pacifica Foundation and a fellow of the 
Center, stressed the same qualities of 
respect, openness, and love. 

"For a civilization to depend upon 
and function in the light of dialogue," 
he said, "it must be profoundly non- 
violent: The resort to force must not 
be possible. It must be based on the 
human relationship known as love, in 
which the method of deciding what shall 
be done is discussion and persuasion. In 
such a society, every man would seek a 
common understanding with all others, 
and all would do together what all, 
through their best inquiry and thought, 
have come to believe is best for all." 

Among the Friends, when a meeting is 
directed toward action rather than wor- 
ship, Mr. Hoffman said, the goal is not 
unanimity but unity. Although individual 
opinions may continue to differ, he said, 
"unit>' requires all to reach the same 
conclusion about what should be done 

Dialogue, to Martin 
Buber, was 
"complete openness 
of individuals to God 
and each other" 

in the name of all. . . . Some may hold 
that the action is the right action; some, 
that the action has the support of those 
who seem best to understand it and 
therefore would come to be understood 
by themselves as the right action in time; 
some, that the meeting should not further 
be withheld from action. " 

14 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

"Meeting" by U^ilbur Briwibaugh 

Unity first: The respect for each indi- 
vidual among Quakers is such that no 
action can be taken without unity. "One 
member of a meeting may prevent action 
indefinitely; he cannot be pressed to go 
along until he has chosen to go along. . . . 
The commitment to each individual is 
total; but in a developed Friends' meet- 
ing, so is the commitment to the meeting." 

Describing the process by which the 
Friends eliminated slaveholding among 
their members almost a century before 
the United States ended it, Mr. Hoffman 
said that John Woolman, the chief op- 
ponent of slavery, "met with slave own- 
ers, not in the manner of one seeking to 
correct the unrighteousness of another 
but as a seeker who assumed the slave 
holder was also a seeker after what was 
right. The process was social, reasonable, 
gentle, and respectful of all. The result 
was unanimity of action based on com- 
mon understanding. 

"Our American society today believes. 


instead, that discussion, persuasion, and 
mutual inquiry are pastimes, that all 
'they' understand is 'force.' It uses dia- 
logue as long as dialogue gets quick 
results but otherwise resorts to more 
coercive measures. As long as the par- 
ticipants retain a resort to other meas- 
ures, the dialogue is never serious; the 
participants need not take it serioush'. 

"The civilizing dialogue is nonviolent. 
As soon as we are prepared to pursue 
our lives together ruled by nonviolence, 
we will be on the way to achieving the 
civilization of the dialogue." 

Coexistence: In a paper on Christian- 
Marxist dialogue, Heinz Kloppenburg, 
vice-president of the Christian Peace 
Conference in Europe and editor of a 
West German periodical, Jiinpc Kirchc 
(Young Church ) , noted the amazement 
of a Communist philosopher who discov- 
ered: "There are Christians who really 
love us as human beings! It's incon- 

Communists have been reexamining re- 
ligion in recent years and questioning 
their former views that it was generally 
reactionary and doomed to extinction, he 
said. At the same time, he added, many 
Christians have been reexamining the 
traditional social alignment of their 

Confronting "the same human prob- 
lems — various foi-ms of oppression, ex- 
ploitation, humiliation, and human indig- 
nity," he said, Christians and Marxists 
are beginning to approach each other 
as persons. "People can coexist; conflict- 
ing theories are mutually exclusive," Mr. 
Kloppenburg observed. 

"Whatever else may develop," he in- 
sisted, discussions with Marxists "must 
have a purifying effect on the church 
itself." While the discussions springing 
up all over Europe may not yet have 
reached the level of "true dialogue," he 
said, they may "forecast" its "eventual 

Mutual change: "Discussions can cen- 
ter on partial questions of a political, 
economic, or intellectual kind and can 
do so consciously without raising doc- 
trinal questions," Mr. Kloppenburg said. 
"Their pragmatic character should not 
be devalued and can represent a gen- 
uine step toward bridging intolerable 
tensions. This of course is not yet dia- 
logue. The dialogue aims at the totality 
of the opponent and is noinished by the 
unique character of the interchange be- 
tween partners, each of whom is con- 
vinced of the validity of his owni view- 
point and brings to bear the totality of 

"People can coexist; 
conflicting theories 
are mutually 

his position. In, with, and through dia- 
logue, they both change." 

In the churches, as in other areas, op- 
ponents of change are precisely the oppo- 
nents of dialogue. And while that 
opposition remains, dialogue activity 
among churches continues to grow. One 
evidence is the widespread observance 
last month of the Week of Prayer for 
Christian Unity, endorsed by major Ro- 
man Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox 
leaders of the world. 

Speaking of the events highlighting 
the recent week's emphasis on Christian 
unity. Father Titus Cranny of the Ecu- 
menical Institute, Graymoor, N.Y., sug- 
gested that reconcilation of Christians 
will come ultimately "through prayer — 
the prayer to change ourselves and be- 
come worthy of God's grace; the prayer 
to inspire mutual trust and cooperation 
among all Christians." 

"Not everyone can be involved in dia- 
logue and study and activity," he said, 
"but everyone can pray." — rns 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 15 


Center's svmbol 

Partner's in health 

A NEW PAHTNERSHIP between the inner 
city community and health professionals 
has been undertaken by Bethany Breth- 
ren Hospital in Chicago. The result is 
a newly established Bethany Communit\' 
Health Center, a 
separate facility 
open to the 10,000 
residents of the 
west side neigh- 
borhood bounded 
by Madison, 
Kedzie, Eisenhow- 
er Expresswa\', and 
Central Park. 
As a family health center, the new 
operation provides preventative health 
services, including family planning, diag- 
nostic services, both medical and dental 
treatment, and social services. It also is 
aligned with other community agencies 
which work in the areas of home care 
of the chronically ill, rehabilitation serv- 
ices, mental health services, and drugs. 
Private effort: As a pri\ateK' financed 
effort, the Bethany Community Health 
Center is not supported by federal funds 
and hence must charge for services ren- 
dered. The state has approved payment 
for services pro\ided b\' the center to 
families receiving public assistance. 

Besides offering a family-based type 
of out-patient health care that simulates 
pri\ate famih' ph\sician care, the center 
development seeks to pro%'ide a team of 
medical workers and to increase the 
number of plnsicians in the communit>'. 

Among the Health Center staff mem- 
bers are two former workers in the 
Brotherhood program. Homer L. Burke, 
M.D., longtime doctor in Nigeria and 
Puerto Rico, and Clara Rae Walters. 
R.N., former nurse in Puerto Rico and 

Community link: The unique part of 
the effort is the creation of a Coinmunity 
Health Council to provide a direct link 
between the health care recipients and 
the trustees of Bethany Brethren Hos- 
pital. The council is comprised of 10 
local citizens. 

The dedication program for the center 
on Jan. 12 reflected its heavy community 
orientation. Participants included a local 
Catholic priest. First Church of the 
Brethren pastor Thomas Wilson, a circuit 
court judge, the boys' chorus of Marshall 
High School, a local Theater in the 
Streets dance group, private citizens, 
spokesmen for the Community Health 
Center, the Sears Roebuck Foundation, 
which contributed in a major way to 
equipping the center, and the Chicago 
Board of Health. 

Dr. Burke examines neighborhood child 

The Center's staff, left to right begin- 
ning at the front: Esther Williams, Bo- 
bertha Nelson, Lartia Burton, Dr. Ho- 
mer Burke, and nurse Clara Rae Walters 

Bethany Community Health Center, at Fifth and St. Louis 

Receptionist Esther Williams in a preexamination interview 

16 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


On the PEN' uith which the Treaty of 
Versailles was signed at the close of 
World War I in 1918 were the words: 

"If you want peace, prepare for 

As a nation we may think we have 
done the things which might be most 
instrumental in creating the possibilities 
of peace in our international relationships. 
Charles Wells, in the Nov. 15 issue of 
Betiveen the Lines, wrote, "Since the 
founding of our Republic, the opinion has 
prevailed that the business of the state 
should be that of peace as well as war; 
yet through 200 years of our history, the 
business of war has claimed much of the 
attention of poHtical and business leaders, 
while the cause of peace was perennially 
pushed aside." 

The time has come to create practical 
machinery for peacemaking in our na- 
tion. Believing this to be so. Senator 
Vance Hartke (D., Ind.), with the co- 
sponsorship of Senators Mark Hatfield 
(R., Ore.) and Wayne Yarborough (D., 
Texas) introduced in the Senate last Sep- 
tember, a bill (S.4019) proposing the es- 
tablishment of a cabinet level Depart- 
ment of Peace. At the same time a simi- 
lar bill (H.R.I 9.560) was introduced in 
the House by 25 Representatives. These 
bills were left to die, suffocated in the 
crush and congestion of the volumes of 
legislation which crowded the calendar 
in the last weeks of the 90th Congress. 

But the concern is not dead. In fact, 
the Department of Peace bill was sched- 

Brethren pastor 
Charles E. Zunkel sees 

the proposal for 
a Department of Peace 

at cabinet level 

as providing the moment 

for a historic 

peace church 

to work for peace 

as it never has before 

uled to be resurrected in Congress earlier 
this month. And there are hopeful signs 
for something to result because of the 
growing numbers of groups working to 
awaken popular interest and support. To 
name just one of fantastic growth, I men- 
tion "Another Mother for Peace" now- 
numbering more than .50,000 American 
women. There are many others. 

The Department of Peace idea is not 
a new one. In 1799, Dr. Benjamin Rush, 
a signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence and noted medical pioneer, advo- 
cated a "Peace Office for the United 
States" to "promote and preserve per- 

petual peace in our country." Senator 
Hartke, in his testimony before the Dem- 
ocratic platform committee, called atten- 
tion to the plea of Dr. Rush and read a 
three-and-one-half-page document writ- 
ten by the doctor. He did this in his 
appeal for a Department of Peace plank. 
In the intervening 200 years, periodic 
attempts have been made to create some 
such department by the introduction of 
bills, either in the Senate or House or 
both. A few of these were as follows: 
in 1935 a Senate bill by Sen. Matthew 
Neely; in 1935 a House bill by Congress- 
man Berman; in 1945, House bill 3628 
by Congressman Jennings; in 1947, a 
House joint resolution by Senator Everett 
Dirksen; in 1959, another such bill; and 
in 1960 Senator Hubert Humphrey intro- 
duced a bill for a Peace Agency at cab- 
inet level. 

Wh\' did all of these efforts fail? Was 
it not primarily because of the lethargy 
and lack of popular support from citi- 
zens, uhich is necessar}' for passage of 
such legislation? Added to that has been 
what Charles Wells calls "the pressure 
from the industrial-militar\' interests." 

If we want peace, we — every con- 
cerned citizen — must help prepare for 
peace. We must make our wi.shes known 
with our legislators in such force that it 
bears weight and gets action. 

The rationale for such a department 
as the one currently proposed is that 
our federal government has had a Sec- 
retary of War, known in recent years 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 17 


as a Secretary of Defense. We should 
have provided a similar cabinet level 
post — a Secretary of Peace — if we seri- 
ously were concerned to plan the strat- 
egies of peace. The newest proposal calls 
for this, a department having a Secretaiy 
and Undersecretary of Cabinet rank. 

It may well be asked, wouldn't a De- 
partment of Peace be merely a duplica- 
tion of already e.xisting agencies? Weren't 
the Arms Control and Disarmament 
Agency and the Peace Corps established 
in the interest of peace? Truly they 
were; but, as the authors of this most 
recent bill propose, this new agency 
would provide for the grouping within 
it of (1) the Agency for International 
Development (AID); (2) the Peace 
Corps; (3) the Arms Control and Dis- 
armament Agency, (4) the Export-Import 
Bank (which has loaned more money to 
developing countries for ar-ms than for 
economic de\'elopment); (5) the Atomic 
Energy Commission and the Space 
Agencies (both of which, in the words 
of Charles Wells "are supposed to be 
officially committed to the pursuit of 
peace but which ha\e become subsidi- 
aries of the militarv" ) . 

The abo\e-named agencies have been 
severely restricted under the aegis of the 
State Department, since its foreign policy 
has done more to frushate their pur- 
poses than to strengthen them. 

The hill proposes further an "Inter- 
national Peace Institute" to prepare 
citizens for effective leadership in inter- 
national peace objectives through an ad- 
vanced center for study. Our defense 
academies (West Point, Annapolis, etc.) 
have trained leadership for the military 
services. This Peace Institute, by con- 
trast, would equip leaders in competence 
in peacemaking and peacekeeping. The 
bill also proposes a "Peace by Investment 
Corporation" to establish and e.\pand 
people-to-people programs in the area of 
economic development in order to eradi- 
cate hunger and poverty, which are cru- 
cial to peacemaking. 

Senator Hartke, the bill s author, stated 
on the Senate floor, "There is no office 
or department working at peace full time 
to the exclusion of other possibilities, and 
so we have repeatedly failed to con\ert 
a peacemaking into a peacekeeping capa- 
bility. We must recognize that the State 
Department is not and can never properK' 

The only race 

xve cannot afford to lose 

is the human race! 

We who have touched the moon 
and set a course for the stars 
Must now begin the imperative journey 
toward a peaceful earth. 

This age demands 




Form card urging Congressmen to back creation of a Secretary of Peace. Cards avail- 
able from Another Mother for Peace, 407 N. Maple Dr., Beverly Hills, Calif. 90210 

be a Peace Office." 

The creation of a Department of Peace 
would, for the first time, extend to foreign 
affairs a pro\ision of checks and balances 
such as has long been considered neces- 
sary in the governing of domestic affairs. 
At present, there is no adequate check 
and balance to the policies of the State 
Department or the powers of the Depart- 
ment of Defense. 

"If you want peace, prepare for peace." 
The challenge and need lies with Mr. 
and Mrs. John Q. Citizen. The urgency 
is greater than most of us can realize. 

Prof. W. Warren Wagar, a history pro- 
fessor at the University of New Mexico, 
in an address at Oslo, Norway, at the 
meeting of the International Fellovv,ship 
of Reconciliation, said last summer, "I 
do not have good news for you. ... I 
have become intellectually, though not 
emotionally, convinced of the failure of 
mankind; of its imminent disappearance 
from our planet; of the wind-up of the 
experiment in civilization which began 
some six thousand years ago. " Among 
the problems which evoke such an 
outlook he named first "the problem 
of survival, the problem of war and 
peace." Despite the seemingly hopeless 
outlook he believes that we must work 
earnestly to avert the catastrophe. 

Persons who are willing to become 
informed and devote them.selves to .se- 
cure the creation of a Department of 
Peace should write their Senators and 
Congressmen, urging them to become 
co-sponsors. They may secure further 
information describing the newest Senate 
bill by recjuesting copies from Senator 
Hartke at the Senate Office Building, 
Washington, D.C. 20510. 

Anna Howard Shaw once wrote: 
"Nothing bigger can come to a human 
being than to love a great cause more 
than life itself and to have the privilege 
of working for it." For a "historic peace 
church" what could be more meaningful 
at this moment in history than to love 
peace and to work for it as we have 
never done before? We want peace; let's 
prepare for peace! — Charles E. Zunkel 

18 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

advice from a loser 

didn't really mlvd losing those court- 
lom battles," said William Talman, the 
erennially unsuccessful prosecuting at- 
imey on the Perry Mason show. "But 
m in a battle right now I don't want 
I lose. . . . I've got lung cancer. So 
ike some advice about smoking and los- 
ig from someone who's done both for 
sars. If you haven't smoked, don't start. 
■ you do smoke, quit. Don't be a 
)ser. . . ." 

BiU Talman recorded this film clip 
ist July as a Cancer Society commer- 
lal. But in this role he was not acting; 
e had wTitten the script himself. Si.x 
reeks later he was dead, the victim of 
mg cancer. His loss this time was a 
fe, a career, a wife, and si.x children. 

Classic: The Talman TV message, a 
lassie on the dangers of smoking, is 
nique, but it does not stand alone. 
)ther television reminders, some grim, 
3me humorous, most of them terse and 
oignant, continually do battle with 
igarette use. Their hard-sell approach 
terns from factual evidence established 
y the surgeon-general's report. 

The appearance of such messages on 
lass media was given a boost by a Fed- 
ral Communications Commission ruling 
/hich, citing the fairness doctrine, re- 
uires broadcasters who use cigarette 
dvertising to carry messages telling of 
he possible perils of smoking. They 
ave become, according to Business 
Veek, "one of the strongest influences 
1 the antismoking campaign." 

Downswing: While the actual sale of 
igarettes declined only nominally last 
ear, the alarm to the tobacco industry 
omes in the fact that the number of 
igarette smokers dropped by 1,500,000 
i-hile the population increased at the 
ame time by 3,000,000. The number 
if males smoking, noted Business Week, 
s down to a little more than 40 percent, 
rom a high of 5.5 percent in 1958. 

Whether or not the dip will be lasting 
ind mark a trend, at least this point is 
;ertain. The TV public has been warned. 


per/scoping the 
interchurch scene 

Step-up in aid: Joint Church Aid, the 
American religious organization formed 
to receive four aircraft from the United 
States government to aid Biafran relief, 
reported last month its acquisition of the 
C-97 "Stratofreighters" has enabled the 
doubling of food airlifted daily into the 
war zone. The development brings to 
12 the fleet flying shipments to Biafra 
from the Portuguese island of Sao Tome 
on behalf of religious agencies. 

Favors Negro president: Surprised 
by one religious columnist's prediction 
that he would be the next president of 
the National Council of Churches, the 
general secretary of the American Baptist 
Con\'ention, Edwin H. Tuller, reacted; 
'1 feel that the time has come in the 
life of the National Council for it to 
elect a black churchman from one of the 
predominantly black communions as its 
next president." 

Distinctions: Mrs. Coretta King is to 
deli\er a sermon in the pulpit of St. 
Paul's Cathedral in London on March 
16. She will be the first woman to 
preach there during an official Anglican 
service in the centuries-old cathedral. 
In another signal honor, Mrs. King in 
January received in New Delhi, India, 
the Nehru Award for International Un- 
derstanding voted posthumously to her 
husband by the Indian government. 

COs in France: Three conscientious 
objectors in France — two Catholic 
priests and a philosophy professor — were 
fined $200 each, given suspended sen- 
tences of three months, and stripped of 
all civic rights for five years for having 
filed their plea of conscientious objection 
too late under a special law. The trio, 
who had served the French Army "cou- 
rageously " in Algeria, explained their late 
petition by saying that it was only over 
the course of time that they came to 
reject violence as Candhi had preached. 

Fiscal notes: New York City's Union 
Theological Seminary has divested itself 
of .$500,000 of Dow Chemical stock. 
The step was taken as a symbolic act 


Erie Enstrom's memorial 


opposing Dow's manufacture of napalm 
for the Vietnam war. ... A switch from 
annual to biennial general assemblies by 
the Christian Church (Disciples of 
Christ) is expected to save its members 
$2 million every two years. Were state 
and area assemblies similarK' to meet 
biennially, another $3.5 million in costs 
could be cut, according to one denomi- 
national spokesman. 

With the artists: Playwright Tennessee 
Wilhams, 54, after a near-fatal bout with 
influenza, joined the Roman Cathohc 
Church. As a former Episcopalian, Mr. 
Williams was not required to be rebap- 
tized, but he personally requested the 
rite. "He said that he was only a baby 
at the time he was baptized before and 
that it had not really meant anything 
to him," commented the officiating Cath- 
olic priest. . . . Famed serigraph artist 
Sister Mary Corita, 50, since her resigna- 
tion from the religious order, the Im- 
maculate Heart Sisters, has resumed her 
family name of Corita Kent. Her prints 
have brought new flavor and contempo- 
raneity to Christian art. . . . Minnesota 
photographer Eric Enstrom, whose photo- 
graph "Grace" became one of the most 
popular religious pictures died at age 
92. Mr. Enstrom took the picture in 1918 
to show a war-weary world it had much 
for which to be thankful. 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 19 

I'm Telling You 

by Jo Thebaud 

The posse is closing in. 

No, I mean 

I don't want any help. 

Of course I want a meaningful relationship. 
Who doesn't? 

I just don't want a mortgage, babies, 
That sort of thing. 

If there is a God, why doesn't he 
Do something 

About overpopulation, starvation, war. 
People like me? 

Who said I needed help? 
I never said it. 

But I do. 

I mean — let me alone. 

No — don't let me alone. 

Just don't give me advice. 

I am up to here with advice. And Pepto-Bismol. 

And vitamins. And well-meant family 


I just want to come to myself. To God. 

To silence. And peace. 

I am not ready for more 

Human entanglements. 

I have been strangled. Yes, 


By all the people who say they love me. 

They don't love me. 

How could they? 

They love a name, a relationship, a family tie. 

A pasteboard cut-out. 

If they knew me — they would back off. 
But good — and for final. 

My head hurts. Daylight 

Is unbearable. 

Can you help me? It was very hard 

To ask. But I am afraid. And 

I don't want to let go — altogether. . . . 

Please — pull me back. Say — or do — 

Something. If you can. . . . 

AV Turn Now 

by Betty Fox Solberg | 


It was an African bore the cross 
For Christ en route to Calvary. 
He eased the burden on the road 
And served in sweet humility. 

Now my black brother is on a cross 
In this our land — a Calvary. 
On the other side dare I pass by? 
Dare I ignore his agony? 




by Joel Eikenberry 

Glancing around my me, 
I saw the plant. 
It was not yet 
Quite ready to bloom, 
Growing up there — 

Looking first up, then back, 
I saw the row. 
More plants than one, 
A hundred or so. 
Growing up there — 

Shifting my eyes all ways, 
1 saw the field. 
Beyond this row. 
An acre or two. 
Growing up there — 

Standing up now full height, 
I saw the farm. 
The fields stretched on 
And out of view. 
Growing up there — 

20 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

Agnostic's Pica 

I Saw, 
and Seeing 

by Jeanne Donovan 

by Mildred Morris Gilbert 

There must be ways that I can face 
Tomorrow with the quiet grace 
I need, for now that you are "there" 
And stillness echoes everywhere, 
Emptiness becomes a cross — 
How can I bear this crushing loss! 

Conquering the urge to weep, 
I crawl to bed, but not to sleep. 
For one who never prays. 
What are the ways? 

I saw, and seeing, 

knew that what I saw had to be mine. 

I could not, would not, live without it. 

In the world of things, it was what I wanted most. 

It's not important what it was 

that seemed to me worth such a price. 

(Yet cheap at twice the cost!) 

I saw it! 

I coveted that which to me was worth anything, 

even to giving up what I already had — 

love, honor, personhood — 

in order to be an owner. 

I bargained with myself, with evil, 

and even tried to make a deal with God. 

I coveted it! 

I took (there was no harm in it!), 

for I was tempted beyond all my strength, 

wanting to possess what was mine and no other's, 

for my hands alone to touch, 

for my eyes alone to see. 

I must have it, 

and so, possessing, I am possessed. 

The cost is beyond what I had first been willing to pay, 

even what I could pay, and yet, I took it! 

(That which was not mine to take!) 

Now must I live with the consequences of my sin? 

I saw but was blinded by my selfishness. 

I coveted and, having once wanted, 

could not be content with what was honestly mine. 

I took and, having taken, 

took from myself integrity; 

from others, trust; 

from God, obedience. 

Owning that which owns me, I lost all. 




Like water, like love: 

Constrict the channel — 
and you drown. 

Release it — 
and you irrigate the world. 

by Ernestine Hotf Emrick 

As a Little Child 

by Emily Sargent Councilman 

Piling up 

this crystal moment 
utterly wept, or utterly 
laughter spent . . . 

and after 

prismed light 

or shattered glass: 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 21 





ne week I attended Annual Conference 
in Ocean Grove, New Jersey, and the 
next I visited the Beissehte Cloisters at 
Ephrata, Pennsylvania. The first experi- 
ence spoke to the second. 

At least to me, one impression came 
through very strongly from Conference: 
An influence the Brethren "radicals" 
already are exerting is to make the 
church more open to minority, fringe 
concerns. It is in some respects surpris- 
ing and yet completely true to the ide- 
ology involved that the far-out radicals 
of the left (represented, say, by the 
Brethren Action Movement) should be 
much more open and friendly toward 
the right-wing conservatives of the Breth- 
ren Revival Fellowship than the "liberal" 
establishment ever has been. Of course, 
the radicals represent a minority that 
wants to be heard, but they want to hear 
and help the church hear the ultracon- 

sers'ative minority as well. It is highly 
significant that Ocean Grove '68 should 
be the Conference at which both the 
radicals and the fundamentafists got a 
better shake than either has had for a 
long, long time. 

Carrying that mood with me to Eph- 
rata, I was struck by the fact that from 
a historical perspective here is a move- 
ment that deserves much more voice than 
we have given it. Brethren historiog- 
raphy traditionally has dismissed the 
Beisselites as a bunch of screwballs — 
and for understandable reasons, since 
Beissel represented a very serious schism 
in the church. But if there is one prin- 
ciple dear to modem radicals of all per- 
suasions, it is that screwbalhsm is no 
grounds for dismissing a person. A 
screwball may have something very sig- 
nificant to say, and there are a good 
many cases in which screwballs have 

proved to indicate the wave of the future 
This is not to say that screwballism is 
in itself a virtue, nor, in the case of 
Beissel, is it to suggest that his monastic 
regime was the right thing and tliat our 
forefathers missed the boat in rejecting 
it. But we dare not "shut off" even those 
who we cannot conscientiously join. 
After all, Beissel must have had some- 
thing; many good Brethren — even to 
men the stature of Alexander Mack Jr. ■ 
joined the Cloister. And even those who, 
like Mack, later left it did not renounce 
everything for which the Cloister stood. 
Indeed, the evidence is that the Brethren 
who actually opposed Beissel were more 
open to the Ephrata witness than we 
moderns have been. 

We have no intention of evading the 
facts that Beissel seems to have been a 
tyrant and megalomaniac who allowed 
himself to be as much as worshiped and 

22 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

that his system included much that is just 
plain weird, but these aspects have been 
pointed up often enough. Ours is a 
deliberate effort to find the positive 
within the screwball. 

Over the past several years there has 
been taking place at Ephrata itself a 
development which can help make a 
reassessment of Beissel particularly fruit- 
ful at this time. If one times it right, a 
visit to the Cloister needs no longer be 
simply a tour of a bunch of old buildings. 
Citizens of the city of Ephrata have or- 
ganized a nonprofit foimdation, the 
Ephrata Cloisters Associates, of which 
the Ephrata Cloister Chorus is an 
auxiliary. On weekend evenings during 
the summer these people turn a visit into 
an occasion. Guides, dressed in the hab- 
its of the monastics, explain different 
features of the buildings and of the life 
that took place in them. Some of the 

arts and crafts — printing, calligraphy, 
weaving, basketmaking — actually are 

After the torn-, interest shifts to the 
outdoor theater where the musical drama, 
Vorspiel, graphically portiays something 
of the Cloister's life and history. The 
focus here is upon Beissel's unique choral 
music, a mode for which Ephrata was 
famous, which then became lost, and 
which but recently was recovered by Dr. 
Russell P. Getz, founder and diiector of 
the Cloister Chorus. Along with pictures 
and souvenirs, a recording of the music 
from Vorspiel is available from the gift 
shop, a chief source of finance for the 
Cloister Associates. 

I find thiee different aspects of the 
Cloister life speaking to our situation. In 
the first place, the Beisselites were ac- 
tive — and, more than active, creative 
and even innovative — in an area that is 
dear to the heart of modern liberals and 
in which the mainline Brethren are 
accused of being completely dead — 
namely "culture," the practice of the arts. 
Ephrata offers a unique study in archi- 
tecture, in printing, in calligraphy and 
illumination, in poetry (especially hym- 
nology), and above all, in music. Many 
of these cairy a peculiarly modem over- 
tone in the dominance of an almost 
psychedelic symbolism. Here is an in- 
stance in which religion and the arts were 
brought into the closest of relationships, 
and we should be able to learn something 
from it. 

In the second place, Ephrata can speak 
about intensive community, its nature, 
procedures, and disciplines. The Cloister 
was a very successful community in the 
way of formulating a manner of life that 
was self-sufficient, economically viable, 
productive, and satisfying to its members. 
It can help us consider the means by 
which human industry, imagination, and 
creativity might best be nurtured and 
harnessed for the common good. And in 

this regard it must be recognized that 
Ephrata performed services and made an 
impact that extended far beyond its own 
circumscribed boundaries. 

In the thii-d place (and this may come 
as a surprise ) Ephrata can be of value to 
us in the area of my professional interest, 
theology — the area, by the way, in 
which Beissel also was the most screw- 
ball. We shall devote the remainder of 
this article to a study (of sorts) of the 
Beisselite theology. Rather than attempt- 
ing anything like a complete collection 
of sources, we shall confine ourselves to 
the eleven hymns of Beissel that are sung 
in the Vorspiel drama and shall use as 
our textus receptus the rather rough and 
ready translations found on the dust 
jacket of the recording. 

These hymns afford striking documen- 
tation of a completely unsupported thesis 
I once proposed in The Christian Cen- 
tury, namely that the lately invented 
theology of hope always has been in- 
herent in the thinking of the radical 
Christian sects. Beissel, it readily will be 
noted, uses a mystical (yet bibfical) 
imagery v\'hich is quite foreign to modern 
theology and which may not be what we 
would (or should) choose to use. At 
the same time, however, it cannot be 
denied that modern literature is marked 
by the use of just such far-out images; 
perhaps the church ought not be so 
cautious regarding them. 

The crucial point is that this imagery 
dare not be allowed to confuse us. Upon 
first hearing, it may have the sound, but 
closer consideration makes it clear that 
Beissel's eschatology is not the apocalyti- 
cism we associate with nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century fundamentalism. There 
is here no attempt to use the Bible as 
an esoteric revelation from which one 
proceeds to plot out a detailed how, 
when, and where of the consummation. 
Beissel's concern, as that of today's the- 
ology of hope, is with what the fact (not, 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 23 



the detail ) of the consummation implies 
for life here and now. 

At least eight of these eleven hymns 
deal directly with hope themes — a ver\' 
high percentage indeed. We present five 
as being most representati\e. 

1. Unsrc Hoffnung 
Our hope must crown us tlicre in 
that ncir uorld. for we are counted 
among those whom God has chosen 
that they, with much joy, shall 
pasture there in pure delight and 
praise God in Eternity without end 
and time. 

Then will man see with his own 
eyes that which makes us here so 
small: Then we are made aware that 
we are altogether insignificant. When 
the new life appears, that which was 
hidden deep within God will he made 

While not seen by our eyes, our 
hearts understand that when all 
earthly things are passed away, hope 
will always remain. O. thou blessed 
hope, make this thy goal: Turn all my 
jtain and sorrows into purest joy. 
That man's hope bases upon God's 
intention to create a new world and a 
new, joyful, God-praising humanity is 
very much the emphasis of the current 
theology, as is the thought that what 

appears insignificant, powerless, and 
despised now in attualit\ can be the 
hidden manifestation of the coming age. 

2. Colt cin Hvrrshvr 
God a ruler of all nations, wdl lead 
Ills people lovingly, and ichen you go 
forth (to the heights), where he has 
adorned Zion beautifully, your victory 
will return. Thus will man see joy 
and wonder at God's world that now 
gives to God the King, who is exalted, 
riches and honour. 

The theology of hope also is strong on 
the concept of God as leader-lord in 
whose train humanity finds, above all, 
\ictory over that which dehumanizes man 
and dethrones God. The notes of jo\' 
and wonder over the world — the made- 
new, made-true world — also are 

.3. Der Wcg 
The way to the Fatherland is full 
of thorns and briars: He who conies 
to the place where he is conscious of 
the many dangers never lives without 
.sorrow. His heart is pained by love. 
That Christianity is a \va>', a way 
through the world to the kingdom (or, a 
way for the world to the kingdom), a way 
that leads through the crucifixion to the 

resurrection — this too is part and parcei 
of the theology of hope. * 

4. Der Glauhe i 

Faith is victorious through Jesus 
Christ, who has overcome all the pour 
of the enemies ivhich at all times 
have pressed upon my soul. He n(nv 
rules in mc through his power that I 
shall become virtuous. The ivays of 
God arc very strange and hidden froii 
our eyes. If man wanders to and fro 
from evening until morning he docs 
not find the things of God. 

Orthodo.xy tends to intei-pret Jesus' 
death and resuiTection simply as a per- 
sonal atonement procured for the sinnei 
with God. Beissel implies, rather, that 
the Ghrist event marks a cosmic victorx 
over the powers that enslave the world 
and prevent the coming of the kingdnm. 
And this shift is precisely one that cli.ii- 
acterizes the theology of hope. 


5. Aitf clu Keusches 
Vp. thou chaste virgin host! Deck 
thyself with jewels. Go forth in pomp 
and splendor to meet our Land). So 
can.'.t thou go joyfully to thy rest. 
Therefore prepare thyself. 

Cry: "The bridegroom is at Iiand." 
Vj). you wedding guests. Go with 
singing to meet your cliosen hride. 
In all haste, without delay, do not 
tarry or you ivill be left standing. 

It is here (and in other hymns of the 
same bent) that Beissel's imagery ma\' 
strike us as extravagant, but the mood 
is that which lies at the heart of the 
theology of hope: "The Lord of mankind 
is on his way, so up, men, and be men, 
true men who are \vorth\' of this Lord 
and the kingdom he brings." 

I am well aware that further explora- 
tion of Beissel's theology soon would 
bring us into encounter with wacky ideas 
that neither vou nor I would be inclined 
to accept, but that fact does not cancel 
the values that Beissel can contribute. 
And this is precisely the reason that the 
article is titled "Ephrata Revisited" and 
not "Ephrata Restored." D 

24 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


day hy day 

VERY FAMILY sooiiei" Or later will meet 
d or crisis situations. It may be an ill- 
;ss or death within the family or circle 
friends or relatives, a disastrous fire, 
1 accident, the loss of a job, or one of 
any things that a family must face to- 
other. Just as schools ha\e fire drills to 
repare the children for the possible ( but 
ways unhoped for) fire, so preparation 
needed to meet crises with faith, 
The Christian family can help prepare 
ir a crisis event by talking calmly about 
le possibilities and studying together 
16 Bible, poems, hymns, or stories of how 
:hers have met difficult situations. 
Members of Christian families should 
lake it a daily practice to seek God's 
uidance in everything — even in such 
nail matters as how to spend a holiday, 
ow to use one's allowance, how best to 
repare for a test in school, how to 
atch up a quarrel within the family or 
ith a friend. Then when hard problems 
)me, one is accustomed to depending 
pon God. Discussing with the family 
lings that bother us gives us more un- 
erstanding and can help prevent small 
roblems from becoming large, difficult 

A simple, imaginative way of pray- 
ig in which even the younger members 
[ the family can share is described in the 
)llowing: When a loved one faces a 
■isis, hold out your ami with the hand 
pen, palm up. Shut your eyes and im- 
gine that you are holding your loved one 
n your hand. Imagine taking a white 
loud from the sky, representing the love 
F God, and wrapping it around your 
ived one. Then take your hand away, 
)r God's love is enough; God loves this 
arson even more than you do. Picture 
our loved one receiving love, faith, and 
ilmness and becoming a whole, joyous, 
nd happy person. Trust God's love and 
ower to work the miracle. Your prayer 
'ill be answered in one of several ways. 
lie problem may be removed; the per- 

son may receive insight on how to solve 
the problem; or the problem may remain, 
but he will receive strength and courage 
to accept it. 

Suggested activities 

I . Read some good books which can 
be understood by children on developing 
faith and receiving God's love. An ex- 
cellent one is Agnes Sanford's Let's Be- 
lieve. A helpful book for young families 
is Gertrude Priester's Let's Talk About 
God, especially Section IV, "The Teach- 
ings of Jesus." Some of Norman Vincent 
Peale's paperback books contain excel- 
lent suggestions on ways to meet prob- 
lems. Special helps will be sent by him 
upon request. The Will of God, by Les- 
lie Weatherhead, is helpful for youth and 

2. Avoid easy answers concerning 
illness, death, or misfortune. Such an- 
swers as "It is God's wiU," "It was his 
time to die," or "God took him" are not 
too helpful and may even be unchristian 
concepts. God may allow tragedy but he 
does not cause it or will it. Discuss the 
world of law and order God has created 
and how daily we live with the risk of 
bumping up against these laws at times. 

3. Invite the pastor into yom- home 
to discuss the anointing service for heal- 
ing and to share on the meaning of life, 
death, and difficult problems. Most pas- 

tors would be eager for such an oppor- 
tunity of sharing with a family on such 

4. Pray for those who are ill or facing 
problems, mentioning them by name. 
You might even pray for those whom 
\'ou read about in the paper or hear 
about ill the TV news \vho have had an 
accident or are in a problem situation. 

.5. Write notes of sympathy or cheer to 
those facing problems or crises — even 
people whom you do not know well. It 
is a great help to one facing difficulties 
to know that someone cares. 

6. Visit a home for the aging or for 
the physically or mentally handicapped. 

7. Study some hymns (found in The 
Brethren Hijrnnal) on the meaning of 
life, death, and eternal life. "My Jesus, 
As Thou Wilt" (No. 360) is one that 
speaks of complete dependence on God. 
A beautiful hymn is "Jesus, I Live to 
Thee" (No. 451), which is a poem based 
on Paul's idea that he is with the Lord 
whether he lives or dies. Hymns on death 
and eternal life include one by Christo- 
pher Sower Jr., "Death, Where Is Thy 
Sting?" (No. 418). Others of help are 
"I Know Not What the Future Hath" 
(No. 422), "Great Is Thy Faithfulness" 
(No. 429), "God of Grace and God of 
Glory" (No. 321), "The King of Love My 
Shepherd Is" (No. 80). — Edward and 
Ruth Lyons 

Satui ' 

March 2-15 

Prov. 3:5-8. Trust and God will lead. 
Psalm 23. Have confidence in the Lord as guide. 
Psalm 130. Forgiveness, hope, and trust are found v/ith God. 
2 Kings 5:1-14. A little girl gives hope and challenge, 
ien. 39:20-23. A man has faith even in prison, 
s 16:19-34. Paul sings and prays in prison. 
Gen. 13:5-18. Abraham meets a crisis. 
Gen. 26:17-25. A father deals with quarrelsome neighbors. 
James 5:13-16. Healing is possible through confession and anointing. 
Philemon 1. Paul helps a friend face a difficult situation. 
Heb. 12:1-3. Have enduring faith. 
Psalm 31:19-24. Have faith in spite of problems. 
Psalm 37:5-7; 40:1-3. Commitment and waiting are a way of faith. 
Is, 6:1-9b. Worship gives us faith to meet problems. 

2-27-69 MESSENGER 25 




^, to Sustain ,_.,„ 
Christian Hiahpr: 

react to the world arounc I I I V^l l^>l ( 

It has been said that the influence of a teacher is boundless, 
reaching out over time and space to shape the future 
Through the lives of his students. 
^hose who support higher education 
helping to provide the 
means by which stu- 
dents live, learn, and 
them. Your gift to 
Christian higher education is oriL v_y that abides, providing 

measure of influence that cannoi 
be bounded by time. Support Chris- 
tian higher education by giving an 

abiding gift to any of the six colleges c 


La Verne College 
La Verne, California 

McPherson College 
McPherson, Kansas 

26 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

Bridgewater College 
Bridgewater, Virginia 

Juniata College 
Huntingdon, Pennsylvania 

of the Brethren. 

Manchester College 
North Manchester, Indiana 

EUzabethtown College 
EUzabethtown, Pennsylvania 


continued from page 10 j 

know what is going on in the Near Easi 

But I have never seen one single report 
about the miseries and woes of the peop 
in America submitted to us in Syria 
and Lebanon for our prayers and for jl 
possible help. In this country I hear so | : 
much about poverty, crime, and all foml 
of sins which are not even heard of in ] 
my country. Why don't you cr>' aloud 
and have the courage to ask for help? , 
Why do you say, "We don't really need 
you," even before we have the chance o 
asking the question? Mission is not a 
one-way street. You need missionaries 
from Asia, Africa, and Emope as much i 
as they need your missionaries and you 
help. No church in the world, whether , 
rich or poor, can dare say that it do€ 
not need missionaries. 

From church to world 

Secondly, mission is not commerce. 
Perhaps the preceding remark will gi\ e 
the impression that mission is mutual ,t;iv( 
and-take between churches. But this 
does not mean that mission is merely 
exchange or commerce. Mission nia>' be' ; 
from chm"ch to church, a common sharin; 
of what they have since they all have 
one Head in common. But mission is 
from church to world, not from a partict; 
lar church to a particular world, but fron 
the church of Christ to the world for 
which he died. To put it concretely, the ^ 
time has come that a missionary from 
Syria together with others from Japan, 
America, and the Congo will work as a 
team in a given situation. Mission will 
still have national and cultural colorings 
but so is true light. In this area the 
Roman Catholic Church is far ahead of i 
evangelical churches. 

In Syria and Lebanon we want you; w( 
really do. This does not mean that we 
want only you. During the last few year: 
there have been no more than eight 
foreign missionaries in Syria every year. 
All of them were in Aleppo College, anc, 


11 were Americans. After the Arab- 
israeli war in June 1967, there has not 
leen a single missionary. But if among 
he eight missionaries we had only one 
ir two Americans and the rest Indians, 
' apanese, or Africans, we would still 
iiave missionaries in Syria, and our in- 
titutions would not have been stigma- 
ized as those which serve the interests 
if American foreign policy. If mission is 
o be truly directed to the world, it 
ihould truly start from the church. This 
neans that churches must put their house 
n order. Yes, we want you — not as 
American missionaries, but as church 
nissionaries. A missionary does not start 
lis travel from New York and end it in 
Beirut. Rather he starts where the church 
s gathered together in prayer and fast- 
ng, and then proceeds to Beirut. For 
he church is not a place, but a historical 
Fellowship of believers. 

Destination not another country 

The destination of the missionary, 
that is, the world, is equally important. 
The real destination of the missionary is 
not another church but the world. This 
calls for a radical revision of sending 
Fraternal workers to local churches, 
although this procedure may continue 
with good results. There are 3.5 million 
Americans outside America. You could 
have 3,500 missionaries if one in a 
thousand acted as a mi.ssionary. Paul was 
a full-time tent maker. A missionary 
today can be a teacher, doctor, business- 
man, diplomat, or just a tourist. Let us 
recall that the church in Antioch was 
formed by those who were persecuted 
and driven out of Palestine. 

If the American tourist is wanted even 
by countries behind the Iron Curtain, 
then the missionary will go out as a 
tourist. Something hke this happened 
two years ago when some Armenian 
teachers and educators were invited by 
the authorities in Soviet Armenia. One 

of them is a friend of mine and a pastor. 
He established contacts with the small 
Annenian Evangelical Church in Ar- 
menia, worshiped with them, shared witli 
them our common joys and sorrows, and 
all this in his spare time. This was only 
the beginning. More contacts were made 
by others later on, and a bridge of 
fellowship is being established despite the 
Iron Curtain. But even this is not 
enough. The church in another country 
may be a station on the way but not the 
destination of mission. The good news 
must still be preached to all those who 
have not heard it. The call to repentiince 
and discipleship must still be made to 
all those who have not yet received it. 

Your soldiers are going to places over- 
seas where they are not very welcome. 
More than 500,000 of your young men 
have been told in Vietnam that they are 
not wanted. But your government thinks 
it necessary to continue to send soldiers 
despite the hostility of the other side. 
The most that these soldiers can ac- 
complish is justice. But you have the 
good news of reconciliation, forgiveness, 
and abundant hfe. Or have you? You 
see, if you go out as missionaries to the 
world, then something drastic and very 
radical must take place here at home. 
So far mission has often had a wrong 
start and a false destination. It has 
started from the world and ended in the 
church in the so-called mission field. It 
has started from Western technology, 
money, and power and ended in the 
church in Syria or India. The time has 
come that mission really started from the 
church and ended in the world with 
another church as a station along the way 
rather than as permanent abode. 

This means that the missionary is the 
bearer of the guilt of his country. He 
will be judged by non-Christians on 
Christian standards. He will be derided, 
ridiculed, and charged with hypocrisy. 
But this is the cost of his discipleship. □ 


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A Story of Spiritual Struggle 

A LEOPARD TAMED, by Eleanor Vandevort. 
Harper, 1968. 218 pages, $5.95 

A Leop.ard T.\mep i.s a stoi\' of .spiritual 
.struggle in a foreign setting. For such a 
picture it is quite fitting that Elisabeth 
Elliot should ha\'e written the introduc- 
tion, and she writes, "This book ma\' help 
us to see a great deal, some of it nearh' 
unendurable, and if we can look cou- 
rageously, we may perhaps be enabled 
to believe in the God who has taken 
to himself the whole responsibilit\- for 
the ultimate answers." 

This is a stor>' of the gospel and the 
people of the southern Sudan. Ha\ing 
lived many years with people of similar 
culture in Nigeria, we felt "at home" in 
this book — e.xcept for one important as- 
pect of Miss Vande\'ort's stor>'. Today 
the people of the world are responding 
to the Chi-istian message in great num- 
bers. This book takes us to an area 
where the winds of change and the mo\- 
ing of the Spii'it ha\'e scarcely begun to 
stir. It thus nurtures the negati\e con- 
victions of a past generation that the 
work of Christian mission is a slow, frus- 
trating experience, producing very little 
"visible fruit." The emphasis on an un- 
responsive situation in the land of Nasir 
is to be deeply regretted when so much 

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of the wider Sudan of Africa is excep- 
tionally responsive. Kuac, the centi'al 
Nuer figure, \isits the All-Africa Chris- 
tian Conference held in Ibadan, Nigeria. 
This incident reveals the great contrast 
bet\\'een that which is being experienced 
in the land of Nuer and in much of the 
rest of Mrica. "The people of Ibadan 
and Lagos amazed and startled him; he 
was discouraged b\' their progress." 

Tliis book rings true to primitive life 
and brings \aluable insights to the west- 
ern reader on such matters as Christiani- 
t>- and cultural adjustments, language 
and theological intricacies, personal rela- 
tions between missionaries and nationals, 
and an African Christian's trials in his 
aloneness. But we can scarcely believe 
that the missionar\' herself or the mission 
she represented could be so naive and 
outdated as the story suggests! 

Se\'eral examples: Miss Vandevort tells 
of Kuac's guilt feelings but at the same 
time feels she must "invent a need in 
order to validate the Christian message," 
not recognizing that for the Nuer, as for 
us, "guilt" is a need to wliich the gospel 

And again; Kuac is "pastor of the mis- 
sion church." Certainly, much of the 
lack of responsiveness was due to the 
fact that it was a mission church and not 
a Nuer church. Later we read, "The 
church was now Kuac's responsibility 
and was no longer under the mission's 
care." Where were the deacons and 
elders of the Cluistian fellowship? Was 
he completely alone? No missionary 
"partner" with whom to share? An Af- 
rican chief has advisers; how much more 
the leader of a church? And again: Kuac 
was impoverished by the subsidies from 
government and mission. Was there no 
planning for self-support? At Kulp Bible 
School in Nigeria, Chm'ch of the Breth- 
ren evangelists learn the word of God 
and impro\ed agricultural methods, thus 
de%eloping a sense of self-respect and 
God-motivation. In the author's experi- 
ence, her mission seems unprepai'ed to 
help substantially in areas of health and 
agriculture; it was not prepared to minis- 
ter to the "whole man." Yet, responsive- 

ness comes onh- in meeting felt need 
After sixt\" >ears the unresponsiveness i 
the Sudan was staggering. After fori 
\ears in Nigeria, the responsix'cness ho, 
been o\'erwhelming. 

The situations are different. Also, th 
approach has been different. But Ca) 
cannot be blamed for that difference, no 
for the lack of response. The autho' 
wrote, "Not much had changed o\e 
the . . . sixty years since the first mi;-; 
sionai) had come. . . . They came bei we had belie\-ed God would dl 
something and he had not done it." Thi! 
failure pushes the author into the self 
centered position of finding "a measurei 
ment of adecjuacy of my knowledge o 
him ... to understand that God is God 
and lease his defense up to him." Wher 
did she get the idea that God needec 
to be defended in the first place? It i 
God's intention as revealed in the Nev 
Testament that the message is to brinj 
forth faith in the hearers. Lack of sucl 


results cannot be charged to God. 

The "straight story," as Mrs. Ellio' 
sa\'s in her introduction, is needed. Thii 
is not that "Cod did not work," bul 
rather that he has chosen to worl 
through people. Miss \'ander\ort writes 
"If God did not work, neither could I. 
This is to misunderstand the message o: 
the incarnation which brought man anc 
God together! Where people (pagan 
Moslem, and Christian) do not meet oi 
produce the lequired conditions, he can 
not work! We cannot take shelter with 
Mrs. Elliot and Miss \'andevort in "the 
God who takes to himself the whole re- 
sponsibility for the ultimate answers. 
This is quicksand! Those thus in retreat 
receive a false sense of peace in their 
own supposed personal experience of 
God, while their strategy (or lack of it) 
for a world "white unto harvest" fails 
to "bring in the sheaves." The ap 
palling fact is that God has shared 
the responsibility with man! The "who 
ever" and the "go" and the "you are my 
witnesses" cause Paul to write as an in- 
evitable consequence, "Working together 
with God we entreat you not to accept 
his grace in vain." 

28 MESSENGER 2-27-69 


Bergman's 'Shame' - The Loss of Soul 

MUST CONFESS to an obvious prej- 
idice as a critic: Ingmar Bergman is 
or me the towering film maker of oui- 
ime. There is, thus, some anguish in 
his corner when a Bergman film appears 
vhich is less than his best. "Shame" 

Skammen in the Swedish) is a second- 

1 ' 

evel Bergman, but even so this is a film 
vhich fascinates with its images and 
echnical expertise and which is far bet- 
er than most of last year's offerings. 

hi "Shame" the problem seems to be 

hat Bergman has mixed his metaphors 

ibout the internal struggle of self with 

ocial commentaiy. "Shame" is Bergman 

n an antiwar mood. More precisely, we 

I ire starkly presented with the gradual 

degradation of a weak man's soul as the 

J-ealities of war en\'elop him. 

Despite the almost overwhelming 
,;ense of depression emanating from this 
iepiction, the viewer is not really moved 
3y what happens to Jan and Eva Rosen- 
tburg (Ma.x Von Sydow and Liv Ullman ) . 
Bergman establishes them as an ordinal-)' 
;ouple — married six or seven years, 
childless. Their initial dialogue is inane. 
She is slowly castrating him with con- 
stant remarks about his ineptness. He 
is given to fits of emotion and depres- 
sion. Still, a moment or two of genuine 
warmth and love creeps in to enhance 
the relationship. 

When the enemy aiTives and is de- 
feated the Rosenburgs are accused of 
being collaborators. Though misti'eated, 
they are eventually reinstated by an old 
friend. Colonel Jacobi (Gunnar Bjoni- 
strand ) , who seeks their complete affec- 
tion. Jan ultimately betrays Jacobi, and 
the couple begin their attempt at escape 
and their fall into final degradation — 

loss of all hmnan feeling. 

It is possible at one level to see 
"Shame " as total symbolism: man's at- 
tempting to exist after the death of God 
(Eva says, "We moved here after my 
grandfather died a year ago" ) . On his 
o\\'n, man discovers fleeting moments of 
compassion, but the overarching fact of 
life is the loss of soul that comes in 
attempting to survive. By using Jewish 
names for his characters, Bergman seeks 
to universalize this hell: Despite the 
great suffering of some groups (epit- 
omized historically by tlie Jews ) , our 
condition is one in which we all exist 

The cosmic element is also offered by 
Eva. who says at one point, "I some- 
times think my whole life is a dream — 
someone else's dream — and I wonder if 
when the dreamer wakes up he will be 
ashamed." But this attempt to blame 
it all on someone outside omsehes is 
only a fleeting moment; it is within his 
o\vn interior that man disco\"ers himself. 

At the end, drained of emotion (as is 
the audience) Jan and Eva have escaped 
nothing. Even their impending death is 
not a true escape from what has hap- 
pened and what they have done with 
their lives. 

What does not quite work in "Shame" 
is the admixture of social commentary 
and universality. What does come 
across — as in the greatest Bergman 
films — is the lengths to which tlie hu- 
man psyche will go to avoid confronta- 
tion with itself, with others, or with God. 
and the depths which our souls can 
reach on the eternal journey of under- 
standing. — Dave Pomeroy 

The political and economic state of the 
Sudan, especially as it relates to the mili- 
tant aspect of Islam as experienced there, 
the apparently antiquated mission meth- 
ods, and the lack of concern for the 
whole man for whom Christ died — 
which in some areas of the world has 

flowered in strong educational, medical, 
agricultural, and indigenous develop- 
ments— are some of the reasons God did 
not work. The responsibility rests heavily 
upon God's witnesses within the social 
milieu — not upon God alone. — Mildred 


A G/ FT through 

A gift of life insurance to further world 
outreach ministries is usually made in 
one of these two ways: 

(1) through the purchase of new insur- 
ance with the General Brotherhood 
Board the designated beneficiary. 

(2) through naming the General Broth- 
erhood Board as beneficiary on an 
existing policy. 

Revocable or Irrevocable 

If the donor reserves the right to name 
a new beneficiary there is no present 
income tax benefit. However, if the 
Board is retained as beneficiary until the 
donor's death the face amount of the 
policy is not eroded by state or federal 
taxes, probate charges, etc. 
If the donor does not reserve the right 
to change the beneficiary the "cash val- 
ue" of an older policy is a permitted de- 
duction and may be reported with other 
gifts on the Federal Income Tax return. 
A second tax benefit is the donor's right 
to take income tax gift deduction credit 
for each future premium he pays as 
though it were an outright gift to the 
General Brotherhood Board. 

Review Your Policies 

An insurable person may capitalize a 
significantly large future gift by obtain- 
ing new insurance. A great many others 
have policies already in force for needs 
(to educate chilcfren; to pay off the mort- 
gage, etc.) that no longer exist. Why not 
be good stewards of your life insurance 
resources? Review the beneficiary pro- 
visions and you also may be able to de- 
rive material benefits and spiritual satis- 
factions in naming the General Brother- 
hood Board as beneficiary on one or 
more existing insurance policies. Mail 
the coupon today for further information. 
You incur no obligation. 

Harl L. Russell, Director of Special Gifts 
Ralph M. Delk, Assistant in Special Gifts 
General Board 
1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120 

Please send information on 

Giving an existing policy. 

Giving a new policy to further 

the world ministries of the 
Church of the Brethren, 





2-27-69 MESSENGER 29 

fciS.. V. ' ^^.iJ'Stll 


Norman F. Reber of York, Pa., editor 
of the Pennsylvania Farm Magazine, re- 
ceived the annual award of the New 
Holland Machine Company for his 
achievements in Pennsyhania agricul- 
ture. Mr. Reber is an ordained minister 
in the Church of the Brethren and a 
member of the Newville church. . . . 
E.xecutive secretary of the Michigan 
District, John Tomlonson, has been 
named secretary of the Michigan Coun- 
cil of Churches. 

W. Harold Row, executive for inter- 
church relations for the Brotherhood, 
joined twenty-two leaders of world 
religions Feb. 21-23 to attend a meeting 
in Istanbul, Turkey, of the hiterim 
Advisory Committee for a World Confer- 
ence on Religion and Peace. Dr. Row 
is a member of the committee, which 
was to make a decision on whether 
to hold a world conference, probably 
in 1970, and where it would be held. 
Funds for the planning and the con- 
ference come in part from the Norman 
Baugher Memorial Fund, which was 
designated for use toward furthering the 
cause of peace. 


Boy Scout Timothy Collier, 13, of 
Oak Hill, W. Va., received the God and 
Country Award at the Pleasant View 
church at Fayetteville, W. \'a., the first 
award of this type to be given at that 
church. . . . Marking a century of living 
recently was Ida Engler, a member of 
the Pipe Creek congregation in 

Laura M. Wine, since 1964 a medical 
nurse at Garkida and Lassa in Nigeria, 
died suddenly Jan. 26, at Garkida. She 
was 69. She volunteered as a nurse at 
age 65, as a member of First church, 
Chicago, 111. 

Our congratulations go to couples 
celebrating golden wedding amii- 
versaries: Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Hull, 
Kansas City, Kansas; Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Ebert, Coopersburg, Pa.; Mr. 
and Mrs. Hiram Garman, Elizabeth- 
town, Pa.; and Mr. and Mrs. Glenn 
Whitehead, New Paris, Ind. . . . Other 
couples marking anniversaries include 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter S. Heisey, New- 
manstown, Pa., sixty-two; Mr. and Mrs. 

Ben Ecker, Walkerton, Ind., sixty-three; 
and Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Clark, Kansas 
City, Kansas, sixty-seven. 


The Executive Committee of the 
General Board iumounces the appoint- 
ment of five men to the Parish Ministries 
Commission under the new structure of 
the denomination. They are Ercell V. 
Lynn, Matthew M. Meyer, J. Roy Valen- 
court, Thomas Wilson, and Carl W. 
Zeigler Jr. 

Dr. Lynn will serve on the team of 
planning counselors with respcinsibilities 
in the area of educative expressions in 
the church, curriculum, and the Educa- 
tional Plan. He has been on the Broth- 
erhood staff as editor of Christian 
education publications. 

Currently pastor at the Glendale, 
Calif., church, Matthew M. Meyer will 
come to the General Offices in mid- or 
Lite summer as a member of the team of 
planning counselors, with special re- 
sponsibilities for congregational 

Dr. Valencourt will continue for an- 
other year in his current work as editor 
of adult publications. 

General Board member and pastor of 
Chicago's First church, Thomas Wilson 
will join the team of planning counselors 
concentrating in the area of the con- 
gregation's community witness and so- 
cial action at the parish level. 

As a member of the Human Resource 
Developers team, Carl Zeigler Jr. will 
have specific responsibility for training 
endeavors. He is pastor of the San 
F'rancisco church. 


March 7 

World Day of Prayer 

March 18-21 

Church of the Brethren General 


March 23 

Passion Sunday 

March 30 

Palm Sunday 

April 3 

Maundy Thursday 

April 4 

Good Friday 

April 6 


April 20 

National Christian College Day 

May 1-7 

Mental Health Week 

May 11 

Rural Life Sunday 

May 11 

Mother's Day 

May 11-18 

National Family Week 

May 15 

Ascension Day 


Dayton, Ohio, policemen and clergy' 
this month are prnticipating in dialogue 
to foster greater understanding of cur- , 
rent trends in the community. I. Jame^ 
Eshelman, pastor of the Trotwood 
church, is one of the participants. . . . 
Hickory Grove church member Dan 
Hidy has been licen.sed to preach. He 
lives in the Middle Indiana communit;! 
of Pennville. 

Pastor of the Messiah church at 
Kansas City, Mo., Harvey W. Ressler, 
has resigned to assume a position with ; 
the Jackson County Department of 
Child Welfare. . . . Beaver church pasto 
L. A. Walker, in anticipation of retire- 
ment, has resigned his jxjst in that Iowa 


More than one hundred persons from 
twenty-two congregations and repre- 
sentatives of four other denominations, 
including Christian Scientist, Christian 
Missionary Alliance, United Methodist 
and Roman Catholic, attended a district 
workshop on alcohol problems at the 
Elizabethtowii, Pa., church recently. . 
panel of Brethren, discussing the ques- 
tion How Can the Church Act Re- 
sponsively? included Murray Wagner, 
pastor of the Mechanic Grove church 
Clarence Wenger, Lancaster County 
parole officer; and Dr. Franklin Cassel 
Lititz physician. 

Pastors and other persons who have 
names and addresses of persons who 
have moved to the Springfield, Mo., 
area, are invited by Edward L. Murray.]' 
pastor of the Good Shepherd Church 
of the Brethren there to send such 
information to him. 

Construction of the new Juniata 
College dormitory complex for 212 
students will begin early this spring, at 
an approximate cost of $1,500,000, in- 
cluding furnishings. In a break with 
other residence hall arrangements on the 
Pennsylvania college campus, the new 
buildings will provide the students with 
private living suites. Each building will j 
consist of four floors with two units on 
a floor, each providing for eight stu- 
dents in four bedrooms suiTOunding a 
common living room and bath. Juniata's 

30 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

ministration has established 1,250 
jdents as a desirable size for its 
jidergraduate population, and the new 
)rmitories will make it possible to 
commodate that number on campus. 
The Ora W. Stine Memorial Fund 
IS been inaugurated at Camp Mack in 
diana to honor the man who served 
camp treasurer for nearly forty years. 
antributions, to be used for the camp, 
ay be sent to Camp Mack, Box 158, 
ilford, Ind. 46542. 

Manchester College will host the 
roup Life Laboratory Aug. 3-9. 
nder auspices of the Parish Ministries 
ommission for the Brotherhood, the 
roup Life Lab will provide oppor- 
inities for participants to explore ways 
: improving communication and of 
orking together more effectively. Ex- 
ense of the lab includes $25 for regis- 
ation fee, .$8 for lodging, and the cost 
f meals, to be served in the college 
ifeteria. A May 15 deadline for 
;gistering has been set. Further in- 
jrmation and registration forms may 
e obtained by writing to the Parish 
linistries Commission, Church of the 
brethren General Offices, 1451 Dundee 
Lve., Elgin, 111. 60120, or to district 
xecutive secretaries. 

,-v, ^ .;• 

A four-month Church Attendance and 
lenewal Emphasis is the joint project 
f eleven Eastern Pennsylvania church- 
s. The cooperative effort has been 
lunched to encourage a more dynamic 
iscipleship in today's world. Partici- 
ating churches include Chiques, Con- 
stoga. East Fairview, East Petersburg, 
llizabethtown. Florin, Lancaster, Lititz, 
lountville, Salrmga, and West Green 

The third program in a series for 
lergymen on the impact of science on 
sciety, a two-week conference on 
Science for Clergymen," will be held 
uly 7-18 at Oak Ridge, Tenn., a center 
f the nation's nuclear energy research 
nd development. 

Lectures by Oak Ridge scientists, 
iscussions, and independent study will 
cquaint participants with fundamental 
oncepts and important recent advances 

in the physical and biological sciences. 
Applications for the conference are 
invited from representatives of all faiths 
and denominations. Further information 
on the 1969 program and application 
material may be obtained by writing 
Special Projects Office, Oak Ridge 
Associated Universities, Box 117, Oak 
Ridge, Tenn. 37830. 

Ansell, George. Rockwood, Pa., on July 8, 1968, 

aged 84 
,\lchison, Simon R., Rockwood. Pa., on July 23, 

1968, aged 49 

Bailey. Paul A.. Ashland. Ohio, on Jan. 22. 

1969, aged 84 

Biller, Harold H.. Harrisonhurg. Va,. on .'\ng- 

19. 1968. aged 50 

Hlackwell, Loren T.. Dauon, Ohio, on Dec. 30. 

1968, aged 59 

Blevins, Ihomas, Virflen, 111., on Sept. 10. 1968 
liurkholder. Dallas. El Cajon. Calif., on .Aug. 

20, 1968, aged 75 

Carpenter, Ova. Beavcrton. Mich., on Jan. I, 

1969, aged 71 

Dierker, Pansy L.. Bakersfield. Calif., on Dec. 

12, 1968, aged 67 
Dollison, Rollie, Cando, N.D.. on April 11, 1968. 

aged 47 
Dunnuck, Laurence, Warsaw, Ind.. on Nov. 26, 

19B8, aged 72 
Evans, Lillie T., Broadway, Va., on Oct. 31. 

1968. aged 76 
Cordon. .Annie Sager. Timberville. Va.. on Nov. 

24. 1968, aged 84 
Harshman. William I.. Frederick. Md., on Nov. 

20, 1968. aged 66 

Heaton, Opal, Greenville. Ohio, on Dec. 25, 1968, 

aged 62 
Heckman, Bertha, La Verne, Calif., on Oct. 10, 

1968, aged 91 
Hiles, Catherine, Piqua, Ohio, on Oct. I, 1968. 

aged 96 
Holt, J. W., Calloway, Va., on Jan. 11, 1969. 

aged 95 
Kancxle. Elizabeth. Roaring Spring, Pa., on Dec. 

21, 1968. aged 49 

Lavman. Sarah F.. Harrisonburg. Va.. on Jan. 

16, 1969, aged 85 
Lewis, Alvin L, Eldora, Iowa, on Nov. 4, 1968, 

aged 79 
McVcty, Nettie, Piqua, Ohio, on Sept. 22. 1968, 

aged 61 
Miller, Lena, Martinsburg, Pa., on Dec. 20, 1968, 

aged 74 
Oliver, John E., Greenville, Ohio, on Dec. 3. 

1968. aged 67 
Osborn. Norval, Cando, N.D., on March 29. 1968, 

aged 60 
Searer. John, North Manchester, Ind., on Oct. 

15. 1968, aged 80 
Stevens. Leona, Warsaw, Ind., on Oct. 27. 1968. 

aged 88 
Tom, Lavent, Milford, Ind., on Oct. 11. 1968, 

aged 61 
Via. Martha, Covington, Ohio, on Oct. 21, 1968. 

aged 60 
Wareham, Mary K., Martinsburg, Pa., on ,Sept. 

30, 1968. aged 73 


is not alone. Standing 
with him in other places are millions 
of boys and girls, men and women, 
in similar circumstances — too little 
food, too few clothes, not enough 

Will you stand with them, sharing 
your circumstances, your blessings? 
If they are to know God's love, 
they will have to find it in you. 

This boy can be yours. When we 
give to help others, there comes a 
sense of belonging between us. 

In the One Great Hour of Sharing 
Brethren join with other Christians 
in many denominations to help this 
boy know he belongs. To him 
you become God's love when you 

Will vou? 

My gift for 

This boy 










J3 = 


-C ^ 

o > 


u B 
3 3 


E Is 

o o 

•c i- 


■» r 
u <u 

ro X 


What Can We Learn From the Underground ? 

/here is such a thing as the underground church, but vou 
won't find it if you look for secret passages to hidden 
assembly rooms in which there is some sort of illegal 
activity. You are more likely to nm onto the underground 
church by openly participating in a public movement 
aimed at c|uite specific goals. In such open activitv vou 
are bound to meet some dedicated Christians who are far 
more alive, far more willing to sacrifice their safets' for 
the sake of humanity, far more involved in what they 
think God is already doing than they would be had they 
stayed at home in conventional churches. Finding fellow- 
ship in this way, they often conclude that in their 
common action — for God and fellowman — they discover 
the real church. Call it underground if you will, but 
it is anything but hidden. 

Today many Christians — some of whom remain 
officially active in con\entional churches plus others who 
never attend a church — are frankly doing all they can 
to foster the growth of an underground church. Some of 
them meet iifJ.'Bimall groups to study and discuss the Bible, 
to worship infonnally, or perhaps simjoly to find God's 
purpose for their lives. Others are primarily interested 
in developing a new style of living, one that sets 
them free to be themselves before God, to express 
their commitment to their brothers in positive ways, 
and to celebrate the joy and exultation they find 
in living a Christian, but not necessarily a churchly, life. 
And there are others who come together to break bread, 
to minister to one another, and to be confessors and 
priests to one another without consulting any superiors 
in the church — and to ignore the denominational lines 
that make no sense to them. 

Today's underground church has a histor}'. In the 
time of Jesus secret disciples like Nicodemus sought him 
out by night; and some open disciples would never have 
made the grade as official members of anything. The first 
churches were fellowship meetings in homes or perhaps 
in public buildings. Sometimes the members were 
forced to go underground literally, as did the Roman 
Christians who met in catacombs. Since the fourth 
century, church and state have often been so closely 
allied that movements for reform and renewal within the 
church began underground. The Church of the Brethren 
had a similar beginning, and there are evidences that 
the kind of radical discipleship that some early Brethren 
fostered is much alive today. Thus, even if there is not 

an underground known as such among Brethren, there 
are certainly action movements and fellowships of the 
concerned that prefer to operate unofficially. , 

What can the conventional church learn from the ' 
underground church? Quite a bit. Perhaps enough to ' 
encourage attitudes and commitments that will lead to I 
the renewal — and even the survival — of the church. '> 

1. Observe first that persons who take to the under' 
ground are looking for something they can't find above ' 
ground. We're not talking about the small minority whi 
merely want something different for the sake of novelty. ' i 
We are referring to sincere seekers who would like to 
have a significant part in the activity of God that moves 
toward his kingdom. It may be that we in the conven- 
tional church ha\e the right words but the reality has 
slipped through our fingers. We have the buildings anci 
the budgets, the boards and the bulletins, but in making j: 
these secure we may have forgotten the purposes for I 
which they exist. If we can do nothing else, we should j 
ask ichij some concerned Christians would rather gathe; 
elsewhere than in our lovely buildings. 

2. Note also that the above-ground church, even witlj 
many of its limitations, could offer some of the values 
that are sought elsewhere. But in order to do so we 
must be willing to be more flexible in gearing our 
ministrv to the needs of men and to let members 
experiment with fomis of worship and praise that are 
meaningful to them. We must be concerned and in- . 
volved with the vital issues that confront men, espe- 
cially with those questions that relate to our humanness | 
(Jesus was so concerned) and, above all, to be open to I 
the leading of the dynamic Spirit whose movements I 
cannot be programmed or predicted. 

•3. The conventional church may have to decide soon 
whether the acceptance it has achieved among the 
respectable people of its community is more important 
than its commitment to a Lord and Savior who was not l| 
found to be acceptable and who paid a painful price for I 
putting first the kingdom of love and righteousness he ' 
offered to mankind. Unless the conventional church is 
willing really to accept his cross — which means it 
probably will become less acceptable and far less con- 
ventional — we ought at least to choose some other 

Meanwhile, keep one ear open to the underground. — 


32 MESSENGER 2-27-69 

for your reading enjoyment 



chosen t)¥ 

The Home Has a Heart 

Thyra Ferre Bjorn. $4.95 

We may all be very glad that Thyra Ferre Bjorn's MAMA proposed to her PAPA 
because their marriage has given rise to a series of best-selling books beginning 
with PAPA'S WIFE twelve years ago. In the same tradition, THE HOME HAS A 
HEART is a most delightful and unusual cookbook filled with stories of Swedish 
family life, anecdotes, helpful hints, delicious recipes, and gold nuggets of ad- 
vice for the new bride and the experienced homemaker. It is written in the 
style of an almanac, a chapter for each month of the year. 

Wonders and Surprises 

Phyllis McGinley. $3.95 

There are over a hundred poems in this book, collected by Pulitzer Prize poet 
Phyllis McGinley. The poets represented are among the most distinguished; 
Benet, MacLeish, Kipling, Yeats, Shakespeare, Frost, and many others. There 
are mystery, magic, nightmares, and incantation. There are romantic poems, 
verses about animals, a section of perfect nonsense, and some marvelous curses. 
Phyllis McGinley edited this book for young people, but it is also a book for 
their elders who want to read poetry for enjoyment and whose minds are open 
to both amusement and seriousness. 

The People on Second Street 

Jenny Moore. $5.00 

This is the story of Jenny and Paul Moore who, with their children, lived among 
the poor, the hungry, the rejected, and the exploited in Jersey City, It is the 
story of their eight years at Grace Church (Episcopal) on Second Street. When 
they first saw the rectory, they found a dog dying in the front yard, an invitation 
to "Enter His Gates With Thanksgiving" emblazoned above the gates, and a 
sign below warning "Keep Out." The Moores took down the offending sign and 
proceeded to open their doors — and their hearts — to the people on Second 
Street. The author paints an outstanding picture of life as it is lived in great 
American cities — the laughter and pathos and sorrow — and evidence of how 
care and love can change lives and neighborhoods. 

Martin Luther King, Jr. 

William Robert Miller. $7.95 

Based on twelve years of observation, study, and research, this book embraces a 
complete perspective on the life and death of a modern saint. Concise but care- 
fully detailed and thoroughly documented, it provides not only a full-length 
portrait of the mature Martin Luther King but describes the process of his 
growing up — from childhood encounters with racial discrimination to the 
shaping of his philosophy of life, theological outlook, and goals for the future. 
MARTIN LUTHER KING is a compelling narrative, replete with the sights and 
sounds and feelings of an era, a movement and its men and women of courage 
and hope. 

Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 60120 





Always the Teacher. Edward Kininer believed that he could strengthen the 
faitli of students through the teaching of science. He has lived richh/ as pro- 
fessor, preacher, and faithful companion to his wife of sixty-five i/ears. by 
page 1 

Anne Alljright. 

But It Doesn't Look Like a Church. An overview of some of the newer trends 
in churcli building includes answers to questions most frequently asked, by 
Bemiece Roer Neal. page 4 

The Validity of Mission. Tlie destination of the Qlhristian missionary is not an- 
other church or another nation but the world for tvhich Christ died, by Peter 
Doghramji. page 8 

If You Want Peace, Prepare for Peace. A Brethren pastor urges support 
for the proposal to establish a Department of Peace at cabinet level, bv Charles 
E. Zunkel. page 17 

Ephrata Revisited. The well-knoivn cloisters, associated xvith the early history 
of Brethren in Pennsylvania, may have something to .say to today's church. h\ 
Vemard Eller. page 22 

Other features include poems by Elizabeth H. Emerson (page 2), Joel Eikenbeiry, Betty 
Fox Solberg, Jeanne Dono\an, Jo Thebaud, Ernestine Hoff Enirick, Emily Sargent Council- 
man, and Mildred Morris Gilbert (page 20); "Da>- b\' Day," by Edward and Ruth Lyons 


news of conferences de\oted to unity and evangelism (page 12); a special report 

on "Tlie Civilization of the Dialogue" (page 14); and reviews of a missionary book (page 28) 
and of a current film (page 29). 


Four fifths of the people in our nation enjoy the prosperity of our abundance . In Appa- 
lachia lice many of the other one fifth. Ernest Walker, a mini.^tcr-icorker among mountain 
people, asks if there is "No Room for Them?" . . . Riehard Landrum describes the varied 
activities of one of his former parishioners as he tells about "Harold Statlcr: Ecumenical 
Churchman." . . . Donald Shank offers a commentary on the Lord's Prayer in the form of 
a scries of petitions. 

PHOTO CREDITS: (lo\er, 22. 24 courtesy of the Pcnnsyhania Historical and Atiiseiim Commission; 7, 19 Reli- 
gious News Service: 8 Kerycfma Fcatmcs: 11 artwork by Janic Russell: Ki World Council of Churches; ]5 "Meet- 
ing. '" artwork by \\'ilbur E. Brumbaugh; 16 courtesy of Bethany Brethren Hospital 

Kenneth 1. Morsf. editor: Wilbur E. Brumbaugh, 
managing editor: Ho\\ard E. Rover, director of news 
service; Linda C?ai"i.inski. assistant to the editoi-s. Mes- 
senger is the official publication of the Church of the 
Hrethrcn. Mfssfncir is copvright UKit) by the Church of 
the Brethren General Board. Entered as second-class 
inattcr .-^ug. 20. 1918 under Act of Congress of Oct. 
17, I9I7. Filing date. Oct. 1. 1968. Messenger is a 
metnber of the .Associated Church Press and a sub- 

scriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless otherwise indicated, 
are from the Revised Standard Version. Subscription rates: 
S4.20 per year for individual subscriptions: S3. 60 per 
vear for church group plan: S3-00 per vear for 
every home plan: life subscription S60: husband 
and wife. S75. If vou move clip old address 
from Messenger and send with new address. 
.Allow at least fifteen days for address change. 



VOL. 118 NO. i 










K .fJ 

***' '*'/'; 





try a different approach 


edited by William Barclay; con- 
tributors: John Paterson, Edgar 
Jones, Hugh Anderson, and Gor- 
don Robinson. An authoritative 
study which describes secular 
events that shaped the biblical 
world and traces the emergence of 
the Bible as the Holy Scripture of 
the Christian church. $6.50 

and Imogene Sorley. "Sharpen 
my sword. Lord. I've got some 
everyday-type dragons to slay." — 
down-to-earth prayers which por- 
tray earnest communication with 
God about the tasks of living. 
From the authors of the best 
seller. Too Busy Not to Pray. 

WEATHERHEAD selected by 
Frank Cumbers. Brilliant, quot- 
able excerpts and illustrations 
from the more than thirty books 
by Dr. Weatherhead comprise this 
group of daily readings. A valu- 
able reference work as well as a 
source of inspiration from a mas- 
ter preacher and teacher. $3.50 

vised) Erma Ferrari. Practical 
help for high school and college 
age students who face the all- 
important decision of choosing a 
career ... a well-composed survey 
of modern occupations which is 
written from the jjoint of view of 
today's young Christian. Paper, 
SI. 75 

liam M. Ramsay. Beginning chap- 
ters review the history of Prot- 
estant adult education while later 
sections discuss today's trends and 
give predictions and proposals for 
the 1970's. Appendix includes a 
survey of present denominational 
approaches and discussion ques- 
tions for group study. Paper, 
SI. 95 

Mowry builds specific approaches 
in this lively, crusading work 
which identifies barriers between 
the institutionalized church and 
the emerging generation and sug- 
gests ways to overcome them. 
Chapters deal with the church's 
ministry to young people and 
their reaction. Paper, $2.45 

At your local bookstore 

Abingdon Press 



B^^^M peaileps wpiie 


Recently I w;i,s ;isked, as I have been 
several times in the past, to write the local 
draft board concerning the foundation for 
the stand our members take on peace. The 
following; letter is my answer to our local 
board. I think we ought to stand by our 
young men when they take tliis stand and 
let the draft board know that we under- 
stand why they take it. Let us teach peace 
and pursue it and then pray that our young 
men will practice this great teaching of 
our Lord and Master. 

"To Local Draft Board No. .36: This is to 
certify that I have known Donald from the 
time of his birth. I also know that he was 
taken to church and Sunday school at the 
Old Furnace Church of the Brethren, faith- 
fully, from the time he was old enough to 
travel. I also know that his parents were 
faithful in teaching him the principle of 
peace, as has been the constant teaching of 
the Old Furnace church through the years. 
This should help you to imderstand where 
Donald gets his foundation for this stand. 
He has been taught this principle from 
babyhood by his family and his church. 

"If you will e.\amine the records across 
the years, you will find that we have had 
members taking this stand in World War I, 
World War H, the Korean Conflict, and 
now this Vietnam \\'ar. We believe in 
peace and shall continue to teach it, with 
the hope that all our young men will follow 
and practice the teachings of the Prince 
of Peace. 

"Donald has been giving his widowed 
mother more than half of her support, and 
I know she needs this support very much. 
I would be happy to see him deferred in- 
definitely to continue this." 

Jesse W. Whitacre 
Keyser, W. Va. 


News accounts of the police's shooting 
dangerous men appear in newspapers and 
news broadcasts every week. Despite all 
the modern methods of crime detection 
and law-enforcement, the hunted man still 
faces violent death in the good old-fashioned 
gun battle if he does not surrender him- 
self. Much study and effort have gone into 
methods of reclaiming sick persons who 
commit crimes. Funds have been invested 
in projects to rehabilitate criminals. Yet 
very little seems to have been done to 

rescue one of these same persons who ob- 
tains a gim and begins shooting. Far too 
often he is himted down and shot. Period. 
Isn't it time that we also bring this branch 
of law enforcement up-to-date? 

Consider the "himiane" laws ( and eco- 
nomics ) that protect our animals. Do you 
know what often happens when a lion or 
a tiger escapes from its owners? ( Remem- 
ber, these animals are worth money. ) News 
accounts have often related stories of es- 
caped wild animals' being hunted down 
and .shot — with tranquilizer guns. Is it 
not sensible to consider a himted man, 
guilty or not, to be worth as much as a 
beast? (See Matt. 12:12.) 

In addition to tranquilizer guns there 
are special nerve gases available. These 
can immobilize a person in a short time 
and leave no harmful aftereffects. Accord- 
ing to one news report, some of these gases 
are now produced in aero.sol, push-button 
cans. Surely .something can be adapted 
from these new de\elopments to assist in 
captiuing men. . . . 

Is tlie church making any effort to have 
reforms made in this direction? Who is 
responsible for i^resent methods? police 
officers? gun companies? (Watch for oppo- 
sition from those with profits to lose. ) Why 
not think about this problem? What informa- 
tion or suggestions do readers have to offer? 

John E. Eash 
Markleysburg, Pa. 


Recent news items: 

• Movies are better than ever! 

• Seventy-five percent of the audience 
are teen-agers. 

• More perverted sex will be shown. 

• A current kiddies' .show ended with 
children in tears after the ghoids had eaten 
many people alive, the hero and heroine 
had burned to death, and a little girl had 
killed her mother. 

• Eleven pictures last year featured 

• Sal Mineo, directing his first movie, 
annoimced that one of the scenes will show 
a male prisoner's being raped in a prison 
shower room. 

As our teen-agers feast on this orgy of 
entertainment, the rest of the family gather 
about the television .set. 

And what do we .see? Increasing sex, sa- 
dism, and violence. More frecjuent refer- 
ences to homosexuality. Suggestive music 
and dancing. Comedies as remote from 
real life as possible. Idiotic, canned laughter 
to tell us what is funny. And ( thrill! ) the 
movies our teen-agers saw a few years ago. 

Sometimes in a quiet moment do you 
think, "Where must this path idtimately 
lead? What on earth are we doing to our- 
selves and our children?" 

We are escaping from the grim realities 
of daily survival, the poverty issue, the 
race issue, the war issue, the knowledge 
that our nation is slaughtering innocent 
children, by lulling our minds to sleep with 
the tranquilizer of a fantasy world. 

If an enemy announced that he intended 
to enslave the minds of the American peo- 
ple, would we fight for our freedom and 
sanity? But what if he crept in, unan- 
nounced, and did it, oh, so subtly? 

Farfetched? Think about it. 

The Bible says there is an enemy who 
desires to have our souls. Could it be he 
is winning the battle? 

Betty White 
Oregon, 111. 

BYLINES: Ernest H. Walker, who has been engaged in antipoverty efForts both as a Church of the 
Brethren minister and as a staff member of the Council of the Southern Mountains, currently is 
educational specialist on the CSM community action technical assistance staff. . . . Pastor of the 
Topeka, Kansas, church is Richard L. Landrum. ... A frequent contributor to MESSENGER is Elaine 
Sollenberger, who with her husband Ray, a farmer, lives at Everett, Pennsylvania. . . . News analyst 
Robert A. Fangmeier is with the United Christian Missionary Society. . . . Theresa {Mrs. John) Herr 
and family live in Lima, Peru, where her husband represents John Deere, manufacturer of farm 
implements. . . . English teacher Leona S. (Mrs. Jacob) Dick, of Fresno, California, attends classes in 
transcendental meditation and sensitivity training. ... A 1968 graduate of Bethany Theological 
Seminary, James Poling teaches religion at Penn Charter High School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .... 
Fred W. Smith, Cedaredge, Colorado, farms and owns a small business. He Is writing a book ex- 
ploring several viewpoints on the origin and destiny of man. . . . Pastor of the Enid fellowship in 
Oklahoma, Byron E. Dell serves as executive secretary of the Southern Plains District. 

MESSENGER is owned and published every other week by die Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Board, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, 111. 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 1 

"by Ernest 
H. Walker 

ey come as it begins to grow dark. 
Some walk up the dusty road — mostly 
women and girls. The boys come by 
themselves, either walking or riding in 
old automobiles that are coughing out 
their last miles. Their clothes are plain 
and clean. Older men come as they are, 
parking their pick-ups by the roadside, 
and begin to congregate on the porch 
and around the house. Their wives go 

A few men have white shirts but no 
neckties. Several familes come in cars 
with out-of-state licenses. The late- 
model cars look a little out of place here 
between the small dwellings and the 
almost straight-up mountainsides. One 
wonders whether the paint will be 
scratched when they turn around or 
whether the muiHer will be torn off 
crossing the creek. 

But these things are of lesser im- 
portance, for the body of a child they 
all knew lies there in one of the two 
small rooms of the rough-sawn dwelling. 
They step up to the casket, set in front 
of a red canopy. Floor lamps stand at 
the head and foot. Some place their 
names in a book. The women sit on the 
beds and folding chairs. The men stand 
or go back to the porch. 

They look to one of the local "preach- 
ers" to lead them. He has been told 
only that the death has occurred and 
that the body will be there that evening. 
When he asks a parent, as he is ex- 
pected to, "Would you want us to sing 
a little and say a few words?" the 
answer is, "Just do whatever you want 

rour fifths of the people in our nation 

jnjoy the bounty and prosperity of oiar abundance. 

lust we tell the other one fifth there is 


They sing. Several preachers preach, 
rhen they sing again, and a few neigh- 
)ors spend the night. During the long 
lours the little children are quiet, tired; 
ometimes they go to sleep in the 
)acked rooms . . . patient . . . patient. 
f burial is held o\er another day, they 
ill come again the second evening and 
nany come to gather around the grave 
he next forenoon. 

What is the message? God loves little 
hildren. God loves all the righteous. 
Jut all sinners must take warning and 
epent before it is too late. Death 
omes to all of us; we must accept it. 
Ve must accept God's will. We do not 
mderstand why, but this is God's will, 
o we must accept it. 

What do the\' sing? "Amazing Grace." 
How Often I Wonder." "If I Could 
iear My Mother Pray Again. " 

This takes place often in our hills, 
lere there is beauty; and here there is 
lardness. The mountains are green; 
treams are lively. This is the land of 
logwood, redbud, and fall colors. It is 
Iso the land of hard rock, coal, and the 
lard life. It is a land of life. It is a land 
if death. Infant mortality is nearly 
welve percent higher here than in the 
ountiy as a whole. That means that of 
very 1,000 babies born here three more 
vi]] die before their first birthday, as 
ompared with national figures. 

The people must have an answer. 
Tieir answer is God. 

We remember other times, other 
)laces. And we remember, "A voice was 
leard in Ramah, wailing and loud 
amentation. . . ." We also remember. 
And she gave birth to her first-born 
on and wrapped him in swaddling 
loths and laid him in a manger, because 

there was no place for them in the inn." 

As we remember many other times 
like this, must we also conclude that 
there is no place for the people of the 
mountains? This beautiful country is 
their home, but there is no place for 
them. There is still no room in this 
nation for one fifth of our people. Why? 
"What do you mean by crushing my 
people, by grinding the face of the 



vs the Lord God of hosts. 

Ho\\- happy we are in this most 
bountiful and richest of all nations — 
four fifths of us, that is. The other one 
fifth for whom there is no place, in the 
country or in the city, do tiy to find a 
place; for some the city may seem to 
be a promised land. 

Between 1950 and 1960 more than 
the equi\alent of fifteen percent of the 
1950 population of Southern Appalachia 
left. Any holiday weekend we see them 
on our highways bumper-to-bumper, 
coming back to touch base at home. The 
promised land for too many has been 
dusty streets, low wages, short-term 
work, and less living space. 

We made a commitment to do some- 
thing about this. We passed a law called 
the Economic Opportunity Act. Did 
we commit ourselves to economic oppor- 
tunity for everyone? Have we decided 
to make room for all? Money was ap- 
propriated, but it has not bought the 
room they need to grow, to work, to live. 
Our efforts have met with some success, 
but obviously this has not been the total 
answer. It is too late for many and too 
little for the rest. The American dream 
was not quite this — nor was it the 
concept of the welfare state. 

Around 1940, it has been estimated, 
we achieved the capability to feed, 

clothe, and provide for all the needs of 
our people. So far, this has not hap- 
pened. If we can solve the logistics 
required to fl>' around the moon, explore 
the ocean floor, and produce enough 
power for instantaneous Armageddon, 
can we sohe the logistics of work 
opportunities, living space, and human 
dignity for every citizen? Can we take 
e\ery man for what he is and accept his 
product or service in the marketplace? 

Will we make room? 

Men can endure suffering, privation, 
poverty, persecution. They rise to amaz- 
ing heights of courage and heroism 
when threatened or when stimulated 
with fear. Men will lay down their lives 
for others in crisis, and they will pour 
out their lives in devotion and service. 
Examples are numerous. Yet how can 
man fight loneliness? How can he fight 

The rejected man cannot be sine of 
himself. To reject a man is to make him 
less than a man. One of man's basic 
needs is the need for acceptance. 

A little boy was out for recess on his 
first day at the country one-room school. 
As he stood alone, uncertain, on the 
grass, a gaggle of girls spotted him. 
They would amuse him and themselves 
too. Taking his hand and holding it 
palm up, one of them plucked a hair 
from her head and began stroking it 
back and forth across his palm. "We are 
going to see if you steal sugar," they 
giggled. However, the game was a new 
one for him, and at six years — there 
was some uncertainty. All the other 
boys were out at their play already. 
However, they sensed the crisis and, 
sweeping through the school yard from 
the nearby woods, they grabbed his 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 3 

NO ROOM / continued 

free hand with commanding force and 
said, "Come on." They were up and 
away to the forest of half-grown pine 
trees where he soon learned what would 
probably be called the astronaut game 
today. Big boys climbed the trees, bent 
the tops down to the ground, and then 
the little command pilots would take 
hold. Without so much as a countdown, 
the restraining crew released, and the 
small boys were propelled up and away, 
to land in soft boughs of other trees. 

Thus ended the crisis of acceptance 
on the first day of school for one. Not 
all incidents have such happy endings — 
suppose he had been black — or suppose 
he had been tainted with any one of 
the many unreasonable reasons people 
use to cut down other people. I 
traveled with a colleague of another 
race, in the course of our work. We 
went to the motel I had patronized many 
times. When we were told there was 
no space, I was convinced because I 
trusted the proprietor. But I was not 
able to convince my colleague that color 
did not have something to do with it. 

What do we mean when we say, 
"They are all right if they keep their 
place"? The fact is, we are saying there 
is no place, as far as we are concerned, 
that is not unequal. Or we are saying, 
"Your concern is unimportant; I do not 
want to be bothered." 

Oliver Quayle and Company made a 
survey for The North Carolina Fund. 
They found that over half the white 
people in North Carolina doubt the need 
for having local antipoverty programs at 
all. Only one in three regards it as 
important. The percentages go the other 
way in roughly similar proportions 
among Negroes, the race hardest hit by 

We had an old-clothing program at 
the mission where I served. We pro- 
vided used furniture and appliances as 
well, and we e.xperimented with the 

Heifer Project. We drastically reduced 
the aid program while I was there. 
Why? Not because there was less need, 
but because we began to see what we 
were doing. People were learning to 
depend on hand-me-downs. They 
learned to scrounge and make do; that 
is, they were wearing clothes out of 
style, living in inadequate homes, and 
furnishing them \vith the broken-down 
things other people discarded. 

There are things more important than 
clothing. One of these is the human 
spirit. We developed a self-help pro- 
gram, instead. How do we help poor 
people? Not by giving them our old 
clothing — not actually by any kind of 
give-away program — but by first accord- 
ing recognition and acceptance. Only 
through opportunity to develop self- 
respect and self-sufficiency can a poor 
person realize what he needs. So, the 
needy need us more than our old 
clothes. They need a place in this 
world. How debilitating must it be not 
to be able to pay doctor bills or grocery 
bills or to buy clothes. One might 
decide not to go to the doctor or eat 
properly. How degrading it must be 
to be at the point of delivery of another 
child but to have no place to turn. 

Yes, the Holy Family experienced this, 
too. There was no place, and Jesus 
Christ was born in a stable. Then in 
that period when many families suffer 
so much of poverty, when children are 
small, he also was a refugee. They fled 
to Egypt to save his life. 

So, to the poor, to the refugees of this 
world — to those who cannot find 
room — we must proclaim that our Lord 
Jesus is one of you. He was poor, had 
no proper place to be born, was a 
refugee for two years, and then as an 
adult had no place to lay his head. 

How ironical that we, his people, 
must make an effort to empathize! How 
ironical that we, his people, must in all 

honest\' admit that we more often own 
the inn; that we are more adept at 
turning the other way than turning the 
other cheek. 

Would you believe it? Isaiah says, 
"Who has believed what we have heard! 
And to whom has he been revealed? 
He was a man of sorrows, acquainted 
with grief . . . and they made his grave 
with the wicked." In Matthew 25 Jesui 
tells us that the hungry, the naked, 
the imprisoned, the sick, are his own. 

In Genesis 19 there is an interesting 
story about three men who appeared at 
Abraham's tent. He received them 
graciously, provided water to wash their 
feet, and fed them. These were the men 
who told him of the impending de- 
struction of Sodom, and the very inter- 
esting bargaining to save the city took 
place. Of this incident, Paul said, "We 
sometimes entertain angels unawares." 

Surely the Christian message is clear 
to us today. We live in a society of 
contrasts, with aflfluence and poverty 
side by side. Men do not accept other 
men. Men are not speaking the same 
language, even though they speak the 
same tongue. There is too little faith, 
loo much distrust. We do not do busi- 
ness with all men on any fair basis of 
proven trust. Surely this cannot go on! 
No one doubts that we face even more 
perilous times. 

Does redemption mean only the hope 
of a hereafter? Surely he came to re- 
deem man in this life. I cannot believe 
it is the Lord's will that little ones 
suffer as they do! He combined all the 
Old Testament ethic when he said, 
"You shall love the Lord your God with 
all your heart, and with all your soul, 
and with all your mind . . . and your 
neighbor as yourself." 

May his Spirit give us the guidance 
we need to become the instruments of 
his redemption of people from fear, 
controversy, hunger, and want. _j 

4 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

aces of the One Fifth 




t-ik "* 


"I tell you this: anything you did not do 

for one of these, however humble, you did 

not do for me." Matthew 25:37-40 (NEB) 

n .\n ociMsiiinal SinnLn moiiiiiiii; 1 
li.iw" noticcil a normallx alert worsliiper 
slump in his pc\\ . his e\cliils ihiHipiug, 
as 1 \\alki\l into the pulpit. 1 thoui;hl to 
nusoll, "tlaioUl has had auothcr tough 
woi-k. This uiau works uuilor tho pres- 
svm~ ot ptM'sonal ainunitniout in a do- 
niandiui; WH'ation. He is hichh esteemed 
li\ men and women ot \anous religious 
trailitions and seeular voeatious over the 
slate ot Kansas. 

He is Harold B. Statlov. a C'hureh of 
the Brethron minister, who tor ten and 
one halt \ has ilistingnished himselt 
as the alile e\eeuti\e seeretarx ot the 
Kansas Conuoil oi Churehes. On Febru- 
ar\ 1, UHi9. ht" began a new \entuve in 
rennsyhania as the exeeutive seeretan 
i.'ii the York Count)' Couneil oi Churehes. 
N\ e were sorr\ to siv him go. but we 
wish hiu\ well. Kansas' loss is TemiSNl- 
\ania's gain. 

A work sample from Kansas 

Lets drop in o\i Harold while he was 
in Kansas. The dem.mds o( his job are 
nianx . He grabs the minutes to read, tr>- 
ing to keep up with the ehureh's respon- 
sibilit\ in .i ehauging world, hiimersed 
in paper work in his Topeka office, he 
acts as administrator of the council's 
se\en divisions and bo.ud ot directors, 
as editor ot policy statements and the 
newsletter, and as interpreter to religious 
and secular agencies in the st.ite. .\d- 
uiiuistvative decisions ;md personnel mat- 
ters are a constant routine. 

Inelexant inquiries and disturbed peo- 
ple are also among those to whom he 
must interpret the work of the aiuneil. 
He nia\' answer a letter referred to him 
b\ a state agenc\' Irom a potential motel 
operator wanting to know what kind of 
churches are in the C(.>nimunit\'. Ov he 
ni,i\ listen to a "little old Iad\ " on the 
telephone who angriU attacks the 
churches for not dcnng anything about 
getting more pva\ ing in what she calls 




"our godless public scluxils. 

Harold travels lO.OOtI miles b\ auto- 
mobile and man\ more miles by plane to 
function at more th.m UVo meetings an- 
nually. Beyond the frequei\t meetings 
of the divisions and committees of tlie 
state council, he makes a personal ap- 
pear.mce at annual judicatory meetings 
of thirteen member denominations. He 
.ittends mecti\igs ot the .\ssoci,ition ot 
Council Secretaries ,md the General 
.Vssemblv of the Council of 
Churches. He has carried major respon- 
sibilities with the National Council as a 
member of the General Commission of 
Christi.m blducation, .i member of the 

lormer tommission ot Church in I'owu 
.md Countrv i now Cimrch .iiul Com- 
innuitv Section, Pcii.u tment of C'hurch, .md .is ch.iirman of Regional 
\\ oikshops on Te.uhing .ibont Ixeligion 
in I'ubiic Schools. He serves as a mem- 
ber of the K.msas .Vdvisorv (\nmcil on 
Civil Bights ami ot the Advisorv Coun- 
cil tor the Oiv ision ol Service lor the 

till. ves. H.nokl .i line l.unilv to 
oicnpv the rest ol his time. His wife, 
the former Knth l.ndwick. first caught 
his eve as slic Irom .i w.iter tonn- 
t.iin ,it M.mchcster C'oUege. Thev were 
married in 19.^0 at the Beaver Run meet- 
inghouse in \\ est N irgini.i. Thev h.iv e 
two livelv d.uighters. Sn/.\nne and .\niy, 
,uul one energetic son. Mike. 

.\n especi.illv ni>tev\orthv sample ol 
Harolds wurk v\as his involvement with 
the presentation of tlie paper, "The 
Clnivch ,md Taxation." Two govern- 
mental aimniitteos beg.m work in the 
•nea ot tax reform for the Kansas legis- 
l.itvnc. Cine of the concerns was con- 
sideration of the church's tax-free status, 
raising unestions about possible undue 
privilege through t.ix exemption. Of 
course, the (.Imrch and state issue is 
highly germane to the church and taxa- 
tion. Tlie Kansas Council of CMiiuches 
had to act to give the church some voice 
in the legislative process and to help 
the Icgisl.iture bv making guidelines 
available hcim the chinch s perspective. 

The studv was guided by Harold, who 
worked v\ith the Church and Taxation 
Task Fore as thev struggled with the 
issues. .\ five-page policy statement was 
presented to the board of directors. The 
board amended the paper through hours 
of discussion. The final product involved 
innumerable hours ol Harold's time in 
meetings and six rewritings. 

The policy statement was submitted in 
time to have bearing on the legislative 
process. The task force chairman and the 

8 ;WESSENC-ER 3-13s6« 

I'o he (I ij^coi^raplnc cxprcssioit oj I lie hodi/ oj ('.liiisl. 
(iiul lo m(mil('.sl the oj llic ( Iiiik h lliis is 

llic ftinclion oj <nc<i (omicils 

(.'xccutivc picsfiilcd IIk' coiirifirs icpoii 
to ll]i- I i)iiiiiiilli("> (Icvclnpiiij^ iccoiM 
iiii'iKliiliinr, liii iIji' ^ovciiiiii mikI IIic 
Ic^;r.l:ilnir. 'Ilii- < Governor ol Kansas, llir 
Unrio] :ililc Holir-il IJDckiri)^, was in al 
Icridaii'i- al one oi llii' licajiiiHS. 'IIk: 
policy slaliniiiil on "Ilic (ilinicli ajjil 
Taxation ha', liciji a vcliiilf loj iial 
scivicf: lo Kansas iIiimiIw, ;in<l llic 
Kansas Icnislalnic 

The past shapes the present 

Now (or a look al Harold's hack- 
ground. U(; was horn AjJiil 28, 1027, 
at Huiitin(,;dor], I't luisylvania, lo I'oslci 
and Ciracc Statlcr. I'o, Id was llio yrjnn^ 
paslor of .Slono f Jlnin li ol iIjc Hi'-llircn. 

Tlif; rc(i;nlar liaffic ol pcopli- and iilras 
((jniint! llii()n(;lj IIjc parsonaf^c oi liii- 
col!cH(,- ujadc in]))r(-ssions in Map 
old's lornialivc years. Brollicr liorjd lead- 
ers, i)aslors, professors, and sliidenis 
often visited tin; lioine. Kennetli Morse, 
editor of Mi;ssj;.\<;i:n, was then a sindeni 
al Jn;iiala College wlio look litljc llapold 
lor walks. i)r. C ( ,. i'JIis nsed to brin;.; 
a crisp one-dollar hill and a roll of one 
hnndred fjr-nrn'', to I he preacher's son for 
(Jfiristfnas. Warren H. Hr>winan, lat(;r 
president of Hrid^ewater Collej^e, was a 
close nc'ij^hhor. 

Arfiont; Harold's (hildh'XKl hero'vi was 
D. VV. Kurtz, who <Htii<: lo lead jneetinj^s 
at Stone rhnrch one. yrar. Harold rc-- 
rrieinhers fiow he nsed to sneak lo the top 
of the stairs, after he was put lo hc-d, lo 
eavesdrop on adult lalk. Or. Kurtz and 
flarold's parerjts would discuss thr;oloJ4y 
late into tfie nigf/t, a tasty late-iiij^ht 
.snack for a hoy's hunj^ry ears! 

In 10-37 llie .Slaller family moved lo 
Mount Morris, Illinois, wfiere ffarold 
lived hi.s teen years in the par.sonaj^r; of 
a ffjrmer cf>llege cfiurcfi. He was fasc-i- 
nated hy the history of M(/unl .Morris, its 
college, the home of the early (ktapel 
Mn-iseniier, the college home of Wilhur 
.Stover, pioneer missionary to India for 

llie liielhien, anil other eelelijaled lireth 
iin pjoni-er., Ilaiold renienihej ■, M. H. 
Zij'Jei ;nid In', <I.hI .iij'ninj', pojilji ', on 
I'ilci lion I Jay in llii- lO'in . ,,iili ',1 b<:- 
Iwrin lioi)',( \i-ll and l.andon. He le 
nii'iiili' r. llie p|e;r,;int vi'.il', ol the HaroM 
.Stovei Knlp laniily when they weir- honn 
on inis'iioiiai y le:ivi-, .Slatli-is and Knip', 
were elo'.e liiend'. lioni eolle)»i' days. 
Il.'iiold W.I', named ;i|li'i Ihimld ;,lovi i 

Al Mount Moiii', Haiold tool hi', lirst. 
joh eniplyin;', loi .i deiilj'.l. I.ali-i 
he worled ha a f-aiiilih", ^md an A •*/ I' 
■,loie. lie iiiinpelcd III Ii.kI- iiid lia'.frl 
li.ill paili'Ipaled ill diainalii'. ^nid 
liN'W rai llie eoiiiel In hand, lie had a 
close liiend who w.i', the '.on ol a l.ii 
llieian )ja',loi. Hi', adiniiation loi hi', la 
ther grew as he hegaii lo eonijiiehiaid hr. 
lather's haekground and jjeisjjeetive. 
I'O'.ter Slallei allended I'lineelon 'Iheo 
logical Seminary, hnill workinj^ Iriend 
■.hip', with per';on'; ol olher denoniina 
lion-., and lielned e',l:i|)h',h a eoiin' ll ol 
ehnrrhes in .Monnl .Vloiris. .So a deejj 
appreiialion lor the lirelhren anrl a 
hroadenin;^ idenlily wilh the larger 
church were holli at work in the lillle 
hoy and lerai-ager. 

Haiold .illended .Manrhc.tei college 
where more evenllnl experiences shaped 
his lili:. H • sang in the (nale (juartel. He 
learned to love sociology and history. 
His junior year he- was employed a', 
a',sist;int to the jja'.lor ol Walnut Street 
' hnrch, tJnd'i the lie|jj|ii| jniidance ol 
H, I'', l-iichards he worked wilh youth, 
assisted in morning worship, preaclurd 
occasionally at Sunday night '.erviees, 
and c;i|led on the congregalio;i. 

He looked toward the mim'slry, going 
in 1040 lo liethany Hihiicaj Se/ninary in 
<^;fiicago. He workerl hard lo earn his 
hread as well as to earn liis degrr^;. Ife 
was f;mployed as a Hoeri'Mtry at tfie ff;r- 
/ner Herzl Junior f><llege for two years 
and '.'/orked on the '.eminary mJiinte- 

iianci- crew lor one year, Hr- rr'.r-rl to 
vi';il with tin: late Willianr I'rahin in thr; 
rlran'. olliee ahoirl hi'; dijiil/l', .ind '.triig- 
i'lc \ )i lleahm trdrl him, Harold, 
'.II nr. to me that ihe ',vay loi yon to 
'Mai lhi')ii)',li ',oni ii/nii'in'. ;il/Oill the 
'hir.lian lailli r, lo '.in;' it out Harold 
tool I he ail'/ii r Mr. lo'.i loi mil'. a .vas 
Iheianiiilie, liil|iin;' him lo ;'i\ :i lilt 
■•III II III lijI |i,'.v Ol lo v.'or I' llironj'h 
ronllli linf, idea',. 

In lO'))-". the young '.ernrriaiy jiiadirale 
and hi', '.'.ili- nio'/id to Indianapoli'., Irr 
diaria wIiim- Harold '//a', iii'.lalled a', 
pa-. lor ol .1 '.mall irly ihiiiih Ih iii;i||', 
hi', hiillirllri". on tin lii '.t Sunday! Alli-r 
'liiriih a lairri Inoilid on lln- par ■.on.ii'e 
d'joi ■.\aiilrrig nioni ■/, Haiold tall-ed ^'.ith 
him Irying lo di lii iiiine || he '.honld lind 
.1 I oii(/le ol dollar, loi Ihl'. needy '.oiil 
III- J'a'.e hirn l',',o dollar',, only lo leain 
.1 hard li",-,(,ii Hi di',' o'/ered that this 
giry hit all the m-vj jra'.toi'. in lo'.vn! He 
had seen Harold's pietme in the jiaper as 
a new, yonng pa'.tor and '.oiiglil hirn 
out a', .1 "soil touch," 

Ihe Indi.-rnapoli', pari'.h pio'/ided j'/zod 
expeiience, The jja-.tor '//orked with the 
I orrgreg;ition, e;riighl irr a neighhorhood 
ol raei:i| lr:m',ition, to make tli-<i:iiiii; 
ahout it', Inlure. kir-.t chnreh de< kneij 
il'.ell an "ojjeri rnemheri.hip " congrega- 
lion in lO.'j'l. I.aler the ci^irgregalion re- 
lo'iited in snhnrhia as "Northview." 
<^.trre ol the nni'jue joys in the relocation 
for H:irold w:is hi', iriten'>e iirvolvernint 
a', pa-,lor '.villi hi', J;e(,j/|e in the a'tnal 
coii'itruction of the new huilding, 

Harold made Iriends a', he hecame 
mill h irr/ol'/ed '//ilh the Iridi.'inaprjis 
f Jrurch I'ederatiori. When he resigned 
in I0'j7 to se.ek arroihe; f.hiirch of the 
lirelhren parish, eircimrstarr' es provided 
n'-w opjjort unities. He '.vas offered a 
position on Ihe staff of the Indiana Cou;i- 
' if of <■ churches, Willi the encouragement 
of fiis council friends lie took the, joh. 
Then things happened fast! 

-M-i'// A/ieSSENGER 9 

STATLER / continued 

Next year Harry K. Zeller Jr., then 
pastor of the McPherson Church of the 
Brethren, submitted Harold's name to fill 
the position of Executi\'e Secretary of 
the Kansas Council of Churches. From 
Indiana he came to Kansas to do a mar- 
velous job of building a vital, state coun- 
cil structure in ten and one half years. 
To this juncture he has worked with 
the council to revamp completely the ad- 
ministrative structure to be more flexible 
in responding to the ecumenical impera- 
tives and issues of mission in a changing 
society. A new constitution was adopted 
by the last General Assembly, which 
eliminated the General Assembly and in- 
troduced a more workable structure — 
a crowning climax for Harold's last year 
in Kansas! 

An ecumenical perspective 

Harold ponders his work for perspec- 
tive. A conscientious person has to 
struggle with the meaning of work to find 
a meaningful role. In this regard 
Harold says, "A council is not a cluster 
of individuals with like ideas and shared 
concerns but is best described as the 
interrelationship made officially possible 
by whatever level of church body is 
designated to relate to another church 
body of the same level. This is not a 
question of interested people but the 
church's deciding how to relate in an 
official and meaningful structure. A 
council is a geographic expression of the 
Body of Christ manifest in fuller whole- 
ness, seeking more fully to discover and 
manifest the oneness of the church. . . ." 

Discover and manifest — these are 
important words. Discovering and mani- 
festing oneness center around four basic 
concepts in Harold's thinking. 

First, who is the church, and how does 
church life work? The work of councils 
takes place within the larger context of 
the ecumenical movement. Harold's per- 
spective focuses on the words of Visser 

t' Hooft: "The ecumenical mo\ement is 
an attempt to rediscover the integrity of 
the church. " Responsiveness and Hexi- 
bilitN are ver\- necessary if a council is 
to help the church rediscover integrity 
and manifest oneness. A council must be 
flexible to respond to changing denomina- 
tional developments. 

Harold says, "I .sense the changing 
function of councils . . . within the larger 
context of the ecumenical movement. In 
twenty-five years, state councils, as we 
know them, will change their structure 
and function. Much depends on metro- 
politan developments, reorganization, 
and the Consultation on Church Union." 
For the present Harold sees the conciliar 
function as ( 1 ) being a bridge between 
Protestant groups. Evangelicals, Roman 
Catholics, and other church bodies; (2) 
being a center of resources and action; 
and ( 3 ) de\eloping an issue-oriented 
program to help the church be in mission 
in the world. 

Second, a council must work for a 
structure that pro\ides responsible and 
prophetic statements of policy about it- 
self and important issues. This requires 
efficient and flexible organization, sensi- 
tive to denominations and to world needs 
and attitudes. 

Thirdly, a council must make an im- 
pact on the life of the churches about the 
citizenship responsibilities of the church 
and of individual Christians. Harold 
feels strongly that this impact should 
"create situations and provide study, so 
churches can come out of shells and face 
real issues today." This requires objec- 
tive, responsible dialogue. 

Fourth, one must realize that the situa- 
tions and roles of each council are likely 
different, making each council unique. 
Thus, a city council is different from a 
state council, or one state council may 
be difi-erent from another state council. 
However, all councils must deal with 
ministries to persons and institutions, cur- 

rent social issues, and services that help 
member churches. For example Harold 
feels that the Kansas Council should not 
do the work of ministry in the state parks, 
but should provide educational expo- 
sure, guidelines in developing program, 
and consultation services that will enable 
people in the churches to assume re- 
siwnsibility for ministries in state parks. 

The Brethren and the 
frontier of the church 

Harold bclic\es the ecumenical move- 
ment to be the real frontier of the church 
today. Councils must find ways to be 
more .spontaneous in helping the Body 
of Christ to discover and manifest one- 
ness in fellowship and mission. Ecu- 
menical involvements are usually exciting 
encounters with God's truly concerned 

It behoo\es the Church of the Breth- 
ren to find ways for ecumenical dialogue. 
Harold was disappointed that the Annual 
Conference voted against full participa- 
tion in the Consultation on Church 
Union. He believes the Brethren have a 
tremendous witness to make and much to 
learn from the larger church in the 
process of discovering and manifesting 
the oneness of the church. Brethren have 
made great impact in the ecumenical 
movement, way out of proportion to the 
smallness of our denomination, especially 
in the areas of creativity, peace, recon- 
ciliation, and service. We have made 
theological contributions to the work of 
Faith and Order from the view of the 
free church. Harold sees this as evi- 
dence of the vitality of our tradition. 

He loves his church, but he fears for 
the vitality of the Church of the Brethren 
if we cannot enter more fully into dia- 
logue. For through ecumenical dialogue 
the church can, in the words of Visser t' 
Hooft, "... rediscover the integrity of 
the chuich," for the Brethren and all of 
Cod's people. □ 

10 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

day by day 

From that moment four years ago 
when we got our first glimpse of Mickey 
Mouse in Disneyland, our guide, Nancy, 
did her best to see that we enjoyed 
our entire tour. Only a Scrooge could 
have spurned her enthusiasm. She im- 
mediately put the spell of the Magic 
Kingdom on us. Like the children who 
followed the Pied Piper, we were behind 
her wherever she chose to lead and 
loved every minute of it. For those 
hours she was om- friend. 

Last summer our family visited colo- 
nial Williamsburg, Virginia. Here, too, 
we were soon caught up in the spiiit 
[ of the place — with one exception. In 
i| the Magazine House our guide could 
have gone to lunch and left a tape 
recording. His mechanical, bored, some- 
times sarcastic delivery soon told us that 
anything less than payday probably 
wouldn't move him oflF his stool. 

What a difference an attitude can 
make! Nancy obviously was dedicated 
to her work. Her whole demeanor — the 
smile, the lilt in her step, the excitement 
in her voice — soon had us straining to 
catch her every word. We couldn't help 
ourselves; we had to enjoy the tour. 

In our homes we have the constant 
task of keeping life interesting — even 
exciting. Somehow, in the scmu-y of the 
hour before the family leaves for school 
or work, we should try deliberately to 
establish a good mood. It can set the 
tone for the remainder of the day. 

Our county agent encourages the 
farmers' wives to send then- husbands 
off to the fields in good humor. Statis- 
tics prove that more accidents happen 
after quarrels and disappointments. 
Children notice the difference, too. Just 
the other day, as our young son went 
out the door to meet the bus with some 
time to spare, he said, "It's nice that we 
don't have to leave in a panic this 

The psalmist said it well: "I will lift 

up mine eyes. . . ." An attitude with 
that slant has the edge over all the 

Suggested activities 

1. Plant a few sunflower seeds. Watch 
how the plants daily lift their heads to 
the sun and follow its path across the 
sky. As the sunflower "worsliips its 
god," it offers something symbolic for 
the Christian. 

2. Keep a growing list, as the family 
sees them, of nature's subjects "looking 
up." Crocus heads, pussy willows, tree 
buds, blossoms, frogs are some for which 
to watch. 

.3. Read Psalm 121 as a choral read- 
ing. Repeat verses one and two at the 

4. Mothers, assign yourselves the task 
of giving your family a cheery send-oft 
each day. A child's day begins when 
you call him to get up. The words, 
"Have a good day, my handsome hus- 
band," hit the ear much better than 
"Try to be home at dinnertime for a 
change" or "Surely you're not wearing 
that tie again!" 

5. Good attitudes and pleasant words 
won't make everything lovely. The view 
is sometimes ugly. List a few "uglies " — 

smog, a lonely face in the window four 
stories up, napalm, the ceiling above 
the bedridden, the red eyes of a drunken 
father. Is there one thing your family 
can do to change an ugly spot? 

6. Tr)' to view some of the "upper 
world" from a toddler's vantage point — 
chair legs. Mother's knees, undersides of 
tables, pipes mider the sink, piano-key 
edges. Make a practice often of getting 
the little ones up "where the action is." 
Their opinions of the world will im- 

7. Sing or read hymns. The Brethren 
Hymnal contains several that express the 
thought of Psalm 121. Small children 
like the promises of "How Strong and 
Sweet My Father's Care" (No. 81). 
They wall readily sing and understand 
"Father, Lead Me Day by Day" (No. 
282). Supplement Activity Five with 
"The City, Lord, Where Thy Dear Life" 
(No. 36.5). Sing it to a familiar tune — 
any hymns with the numbers 8686 un- 
der the title will fit. The poets of "Lead, 
Kindly Light" (No. 423) and "Unto the 
Hills Around" (No. 85) — especially the 
latter — beautifully rephrase the psalm. 
Exchange the tunes for these two. Do 
\ ou like the new sound? — Ray and 
Elaine Sollenberger 


March 16-29 


ffialm 121. "I witi lift up mine eyes.' 
jPs. 119:15-19. Open your 









Friday j 


Eph. 1:15-23. We know through the eyes of our understanding. 

Ps. 5:3. "In the morning I will direct my prayer unto Thee and wit! look up.' 
Prov. 20:12, 13. The Lord makes the seeing eye and the hearing ear. 
AAatt. 13:16. "Blessed are your eyes, for they see. . . ." 
Is. 40:25, 26. Lift up your eyes to see the Creator. 

hil. 4:8, 9. "What you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, do.' 
fMatt. 20:33, 34. Jesus wants us to see so that we will follow him. 
John 3:16. Is this not sufficient hope for the Christian? 
Prov. 3:7. We need to look to God for wisdom. 
Rom. 8:35-39. Be thankful that we can be "more than conquerors." 
il. 1:9-11. Approve things that are excellent. 
1 Cor. 15:58. "Your labor is not in vain." 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 11 

Hunger in the USA 

Intensive efforts to eliminate hunger 
in the United States are being launched 
by the National Council of Churches' 
Committee on Hunger, which began 
functioning six weeks ago. Among the 
committee members is Ralph E. Smeltzer, 
social justice consultant of the Church 
of the Brethren. 

The committee's debut came at a time 
when a report to a Senate committee 
revealed that diseases related to malnu- 
trition are widespread among the na- 
tion's poor. 

Alarming data: For a country noted 
for its food surpluses, medical research- 
ers were amazed at the prevalence in 
the United States of malnutritional dis- 
eases once believed virtually eliminated: 
rickets, marasmus, endemic goiter, even 
kwashiorkor, a protein deficiency disease 
now rampant in Biafra. 

Reporting on only a sampling of diet- 
related problems. Dr. Arnold E. Schaefer 
of the Public Health Service told the 
Senate Select Committee on Nutrition 
and Human Needs that the nutritional 
level of the people surveyed was as low 
here as it is in some parts of Central 
America. He said that 16 to 17 percent 

Many a malnourished child may be stunt- 
ed both physically and mentally for life 

of the people examined were in need 
of medical attention because of diet 
deficiencies and that many children who 
have suffered from malnutrition in their 
early years may be physically and men- 
tally stunted throughout their lives. 

Researchers noted that one state be- 
lieved to have particularly acute hunger 
problems, Mississippi, was omitted in 
their sur\ey because of opposition by 
an influential congressman. 

Priorities: Such findings substantiate 
the concern of the NCC's Committee on 
Hunger for aggressive action on the 
domestic scene. In commencing its 
work, the committee outlined the follow- 
ing areas as matters of prime concern; 

Lep,ishiion. New legislation for the 
relief of domestic hunger on the nation- 
al, state, and local levels will be urged, 
with the suggestion of easing present 
barriers to food distribution among the 
poor. Fuller by state and local ad- 
ministrators of existing federal programs 
for combating hunger will be sought. 

Education. Denominations and coun- 
cils of churches will be asked to initiate 
education-through-action programs. In- 
struction on the problems of hunger and 
malnutrition will also be off^ered. 

Projects. Demonstration projects de- 
signed to support and strengthen self- 
development among jxior people are to 
be set up. Churchmen will be ui-ged 
to relate to welfare and rights groups 
whose aim is to secure food for the 

Relief. For disaster and emergency 
situations on an immediate, short-term 
basis, food and money will be collected. 
Members of the Church of the Brethren 
and of other denominations in several 
states have engaged in a number of such 
drives over recent years to assist residents 
of the Mississippi Delta. However, for 
the NCC to become integrally involved 
in the distribution of food to the hungry 
within the United States represents a 
major shift in policy. 

Chairing the Committee on Hunger 

is Ian McCrae of the Christian Church, 
Indianapolis. The executive director is 
the NCC's social welfare head, John 

Factual base: The committee's work 
will be based on an exhaustive study of 
hunger in America undertaken by the 
NCC's Department of Research. The 
committee will draw also on such gov- 
ernmental findings on diet and health as 
already reported in part. 

While hunger claims in the country 
have often been looked upon with cyni- 
cism by governmental leaders, the for- 
mation of the Senate Select Committee 
on Nutrition and Human Needs to study 
aspects of the problem is hailed as a 
possible breakthrough. 

Former Agriculture Secretary Orville 
Freeman, who a year ago as part of the 
political establishment appeared defen- 
sive as to the extent of hunger that 
existed in the nation, more recently 
placed the cost of an adequate food pro- 
gram for the nation at double the present 
one billion dollars a year. 

Substantial as that is, it is well be- 
neath the cost of conducting the Viet- 
nam war for a single month. 

Genocide denied 

There is no evide.nce of genocide 
against the Ibos in Nigeria, the United 
Nations reported in Januai-y, citing find- 
ings by Nils Cussing of Sweden. Mr. 
Cussing is U Thant's representative in 
Nigeria surveying the humanitarian as- 
pects of the civil war. 

There has been, however, "expensive 
devastation" throughout the war, the re- 
port said. And it added that there is 
still no significant trend toward normalcy 
in federally-occupied areas formerly held 
by the Ibos. Most larger Biafran cities 
now under federal control remain gen- 
erally empty. j 

Eye-witness check: Mr. Cussing, 
whose "restrospective" report was the 
fourth since September, is continuing his 

12 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

In occupied secessionist territory, Nigerian soldiers 
aid in food relief to Ibos (above). But millions of 
other refugees (as at right) have fled federal troops 

eye-witness mission in order to check on 
Nigeria's claim that "there is no inten- 
tional or planned s\stematic and wanton 
destruction of cisilian li\es or their 
property in the war zone." 

Biafran leaders, among them widely 
knovNTi churchman Francis Ibiam, a 
former president of the World Council 
of Churches, long have claimed Nigeria's 
federal go\'emment was intent upon wag- 
ing genocide against the people of the 
secessionist area. 

In flux: UN observer Cussing wrote 
that while no major town has changed 
hands since last September, there was 
fighting over extensive rural areas and 
connecting roads. The continuing flu.x 
in the war situation has prevented any 
large resettlement of displaced persons 
and their return to life in the villages. 

This situation, he said, has been ag- 
gravated by ambushes behind the front 
lines and incidents such as the murder 
of a local chief accused by the Ibos of 
having collaborated with the federal 
authorities and relief agencies. 

Mr. Gussing reported that for these 
and other reasons, the fear of reprisals 
"remains a reahty." This fact may have 
prompted oificials in Lagos to discon- 
tinue dropping safe conduct passes over 
the occupied Biafra areas where most 
villagers remain hidden in the bush, be- 
yond the reach of relief supplies. 

Minimal planting: He also said there 

are only limited signs of cultivation in 
the war zone despite the approaching 
planting season. On the other hand, he 
was "impressed " by federal efforts to 
ensure the presen-ation and protection 
of real property belonging to the people 
of Biafra. 

Referring to conditions in camps 
around Benin, Asaba, Onitaha, Enugu, 
Port Harcourt, and Calabar, Cussing 
said they were "relatively good,"' and 
so was the supply of food. Even so, he 
continued, food deliveries were "barely 
adequate for minimum needs and it 
should be recognized that if many of 
those still in hiding were to return to 
their settlements, or a major shift in the 
military situation occuiTed, the strain on 
the relief supply and distribution net 
would be beyond its present compe- 

He estimated that more than 800,000 
persons were receiving relief in feder- 
ally-held territories, and about 50,000 
others were benefiting from medical 
treatment. He gave no figures for rebel- 
held areas. 

Logistics formidable: Though he saw 
"marked improvement " in nutritional and 
health conditions in many areas where 
starvation had been imminent or actual, 
Mr. Cussing noted that logistical prob- 
lems remained "formidable." 

"Provided suitable land routes could 
be arranged, there is little doubt that 

supplies from within Nigeria in addition 
to those from abroad would be sufficient 
to meet the needs of the iO-nourished 
and sick in all parts of the country af- 
fected by the war," he told U Thant. 
But there was no hint in his report that 
the government in Lagos was ready to 
consider such a move. 

Viet reconstruction 

To COORDINATE EFFORTS by the churchcs 
in meeting needs arising from the Viet- 
nam war, a global, ■50-member inter- 
religious commission is taking form. 

The coiTimission will draw its repre- 
sentatives from the Christian community 
in Vietnam, the East Asia Christian 
Council, Christian ser\ice agencies as- 
sisting in Vietnam, and the World Coun- 
cil of Churches. Consultants will be 
added from the Roman Catholic Church 
and from non-Christian religions. 

The commission will seek to evoKe an 
overall strategy for development in Viet- 
nam by religious agencies. 

In the meantime, a new Church of 
the Brethren volunteer, Dennis Metzger 
of Claypool, Ind., commenced service 
last month in Vietnam as an agricultural- 
ist under Vietnam Christian Service. It 
is anticipated that additional workers, 
and funds totaling $23,200, will be chan- 
neled by the Church of the Brethren to 
Vietnam Christian Service this vear. 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 13 


Happenings on the local scene 


Students from ghetto areas, man\ of 
whom are dropouts and tend to be dis- 
ruptive, come to the San Francisco 
Church of the Brethren for counseling 
under the school district's guidance 

Pastor Carl W. Zeigler, in commenting 
on the rental of the church's facilities 
for the counseling and corrective educa- 
tion program, noted that it has been 
"frequently necessary to be 'reconciler' 
as the predominantly black students en- 
ter a white neighborhood, often abusive 
and unruh toward both property and 

"However," he continued, "the high 
percentage who return to school and 
complete their education justifies the 

"Unless renewal begins with those 
in the local church, the light is not 
hkely to shine far into the community 
or world." 

It was this perspective which prompted 
10 congregations of the immediate Lan- 
caster, Pa., area to cooperate in an em- 
phasis on attendance and church renew- 
al. Projected through Easter and beyond 
to Pentecost Sunday, May 25, the pro- 
gram stres,ses faithfulness and loyalty to 
Christ and the church in light of the 
members" baptismal vows. 

Participating parishes include East 
Fairview, East Petersburg, Elizabeth- 
towai, Florin, Lancaster, Lititz, Mount- 
ville, QuaiTVville, Salunga, and West 

A Capitol Hill Group Ministry has 

been established in Washington, D.C., 
to serve the community known as Cap- 
itol East. Fifteen ministers from ten 
congregations and ten leaders from re- 
ligious and secular agencies are related 
to the program, which is concerned 
with housing, employment, children and 
youth, adults, ecumenicity, education. 

public hearings, and community organ- 

The Washington City Church of the 
Brethren has been integrally invoked in 
the ministry. Pastor Duane Ramsey is 
secretary of the board of directors and 
associate pastor Donald E. Leiter is the 
administrative officer. The staff includes 
a full-time minister to the neighborhood 
and two part-time workers, including 
Mr. Leiter, who gives 80 percent of his 
time in group ministry service. The work 
is being followed closely by groups con- 
cerned with urban mission strategy. 

A Children's Center, for two- to four- 
year-olds, was opened in January at the 
South Bay Church of the Brethren, un- 
der auspices of the Redondo Beach, 
Calif., City Schools. Funded by the 
state department of education for up 
to 120 children, the center is open 11 
hours a day. 12 months a year. 

To be eligible to attend, a child must 
be in a home in which both parents, or 
the one and only parent, work outside 
the home, at an income that does not 
exceed a prescribed level. 

A professional staff offers develop- 
mental educational experiences to the 
youngsters, more than mere physical 

The ladies who sew each third Thurs- 
da\' at the West Charleston, Ohio, 
Church of the Brethren sometimes asked 
themselves, "Is our effort useful, or could 
we use our time in more productive 
service? " 

Reassurance as to the value of their 
work came in a note from a French mis- 
sionary. Mile. Julia Hoel, of the Songa 
Mission in the Congo. She wrote: 

"How L have longed to know whose 
blessed fingers have stitched and worked 
on these quilts and blankets which were 
sent to us by the Protestant Church 
Council. Now at last I opened one 

which had your address written on one 
of the patches. 

"I wanted very much to let whoever 
had put such loving care into them 
and expense to get them ready and ship 
them to us know that no greater blessing 
has come to our hospital in such a time 
of need. 

"We have just had our cold season 
and the poor people would have suf- 
fered without them. Since the wars and 
hostilities of the past few years, most 
of the hospitals in this province have 
been left empty without doctors; there- 
fore, the people came pouring into us 
from all sides and from hundreds of 
miles away. We ran out of blankets 
just before \ours came and we felt that 
the Lord watched over the shipment to 
get it here just in time. . . ." 

Needless to say, the West Charleston 
sisters sew on, maybe even a little faster 
than before. 

Outreach to the community at the 

Decatur, 111., Church of the Brethren 
has taken the form of a Neighborhood 
Center Study Hour Program. The effort 
is carried out in cooperation with the 
First Lhiited Methodist Church and is 
staffed by volunteers from the two 

The coordinator is Florence Palmer, 
a Methodist retired from 38 years of 
missionary seiA'ice, during which time 
she worked side by side with many 
Brethren in Cujarat State, India. 

Decatur school officials are enthusi- 
astic about the supervised study center. 

Deaf handicapped children received 
professional help in a program begun 
this past fall at the Franklin Grove 
Church of the Brethren in Illinois. Six 
preschool children with hearing prob- 
lems met with the regular nursery class 
conducted weekdays at the church. For 
10 Tuesdays a specialist in the deafness 

14 MESSENGER 3-13-69 


handicap came from Rockford to work 
with the children individually and with 
their parents. The $50 a day needed 
to employ the specialist was raised 
through an association formed by the 
parents of the deaf children. 

This winter, as the therapy was under- 
taken by a specialist from Northern Il- 
linois University at Dekalb, the children 
with hearing difficulties were moved to 
a more central locale, while the other 
nui'sery class members remained. It is 
with gratification that Franklin Grove 
members reflect upon the special educa- 
tion program which the\' had a hand 
in launching. 

"The children with normal hearing 
benefited at least as much as the handi- 
capped children," commented the pastor, 
Alan Kieffaber, recalling upon his own 
three-year-old's reaction to the play- 
mates who could not hear. "Besides 
learning the importance of imitation, 
sight, and feel in speech, my daughter 
learned something about acceptance, 
which I think is especially good." 

Two central biblical themes, peace 
with God and peace on earth, have been 
incorporated into a symbol used by the 
Bethany Church of the Brethren, New 

,c'£'^'/'^ e 


Bethany church . . . the essence of belief 

Paris, Ind. As a graphic depiction of 
the congregation's purpose, the design, 
as explained by Pastor James McKinnell, 
is based on the following premise: 

"The two phrases from Rom. 5;1 and 
Luke 2; 14 describe the goals of God's 
kingdom. The cross of Jesus is the in- 
strument by which peace is realized, and 
it is gi\en a central and dominant posi- 
tion. The peace is expressed by the 
Word of God and experienced by those 
who receive 'the grace of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the love of God, and the 
communion of the Holy Spirit' (2 Cor. 

"This medallion is an expression of 
what I believe and try to communicate 
as a minister of the Word of God." 

The peace heritage of the Midland 
Church of the Brethren in Virginia took 
its members to the streets for a unique 
Yuletide observance. 

There they passed out leaflets protest- 
ing the sale of war toys and gift weapons 
and posing the question: How do you 
prepare to celebrate the coming of the 
Prince of Peace? 

The mimeographed leaflet with its 
hand-crayoned wieath on the cover also 
included texts from scripture and a com- 
mentary which read, "Why are we afraid 
of people? Is it not because we lack 
love, love which became flesh at 

A limerick also appeared in the leaf- 
let, to be sung to the tune of "Jingle 
Bells." It read: "Oh, what fun it is to 
kill an enemy each day. " 

Among stores selling toy guns and 
military games, and hence points where 
the leaflets were distributed, were Drug 
Fair, Western Auto, and Ben Franklin 
in Warren ton, Va. 

"People were interested and seemed 
to be reading the message," Midland 
pastor Clyde Carter said. 

A renovation of the 1770 meeting- 
house at Germantown, Pa., was aided 
by a workcamp of youth from the 
Chiques congregation in Pennsylvania, 
led by J. Becker Cinder. The group 

spent a week in removing wall paper 
and cleaning, patching, sanding, and 
painting the walls, as well as in learning 
of the work of the present Gennantown 
Ministry. Since the project, the meeting- 
house has been restored to what the 
Historical Committee believes was its 
more original arrangement and decor. 

Local coffeehouses sponsored either 
on a congregational or an ecumenical 
basis, and involving Brethren support, 
include P.L.'s Place, Boulder Hill 
church, Aurora, 111.; Colloquy. Highland 
Avenue chuich, Elgin, 111.; The Vege- 
table Garden, Everett church, Everett, 
Pa., and The Unicorn, Oakland church, 
Oakland, Calif. For the older set, those 
60 and over, the Park Sijuarcs have been 
formed as a fellowship group by two 
churches in Westminster, Md., the 
Church of the Brethren and St. Paul's 
United Church of Christ. 

A tough winter where you live? In 
Portland, Ore., where drifted snow 
blocked mail deliveries for a week and 
brought a state of emergency declaration 
from the governor, district executive 
Bruce Flora and Peace church pastor 
M. Andrew Muiray joined in delivering 
boxes of groceries to families unable to 
dig out. One agency they worked with 
was called, appropriately, Snow-Cap. . . . 
And speaking of winter, a mid-January 
sermon delivered by Pastor James 
McKinnell of the Bethany church in 
Northern Indiana was entitled, "The 
Next Time It Snows." The text: Isaiah 

A funereal-type announcement, sup- 
planting space usually devoted to a med- 
itation or a poem, appeared on the mid- 
January cover of "The Letter," the 
church paper of the Springfield Church 
of the Brethren, Akron, Ohio. The item, 
a message from Pastor Paul L. Groff 
who came to the Akron charge from a 
parish in the Baltimore area, acknowl- 
edged the expressions of sympathy ex- 
tended to him following "the tragedy 
of the Super Bowl." 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 15 

The country 
home of one of 
the teams work- 
ing in community 
development in 

Potato planting 
by Jim Fitz, In- 
dian peasants on 
Bolivia's high 
arid plains 

Chapel service at 
the American In- 
stitute in Cocha- 
hamba. where 
Joanna Neff was 
a volunteer 


Off on a Spanish isle 

WnfjN A Protestant youth moves into 
a Catholic parish to assist the priest — 
and in Spain, at that — the ecumenical 
door has swung open wide. 

It all began in 1967 when Mark 
Logan, a Brethren Service volunteer 
from Bridgewater, Va., was assigned in 
_ Europe to help a 

^^^^^ Catholic organiza- 

■^^1^^ tion known as Build- 

'L^^.^^SJY' ing Companions car- 

\ ^. . ry out its work camp 

programs. Set up to 
do church construc- 
tion, the internation- 
al group was head- 
quartered in Bel- 
gium and engaged 
in projects as far away as Venezuela and 
the Congo. It was during the year Mark 
spent with the French unit of Building 
Companions that his ties to a Roman 
Catholic parish in Spain began. 

Resort area: From June through Au- 
gust of 1967 Logan participated in a 
work camp to help erect a church for 

Mark Logan 

16 MESSENGER 3-1 3-69 

jjj parish 




Gary Dull, BVSer currenthj j..* 
assigned to the Menorcan parish 

Mark Logan, Catholic work campers helped erect the church 

s » 


the relatively new parish. The setting 
was Ciudadela, a Spanish town of 18,000 
on the island of Menorca. The island is 
a leading tourist spa 100 miles off shore 
from Barcelona. 

Mark, having some electrical training 
behind him and having gained some 
familiarity with building methods as 
used in France, proved to be a major 
help in the technical aspects of con- 
struction. He also geared into the parish 
life and related well to the young priest 
of the congregation who not only had 
invited the work campers in but who 
sought for his own people a greater 
involvement in the community life. 

Several months after the work camp 
ended, Mark completed his assignment 
in France and, at the invitation of the 
priest in Ciudadela, returned to the com- 
munity for a year to help finish the 
building and to work in the parish. 

Outlook: This particular parish openly 
pursued relations with a Protestant 
church on the other end of Menorca, 
twice a year observing an Ecumenical 
Sunday. To be sure, not all members 
approved, which may be expected in a 

countr\' where marriage is not recog- 
nized by the government unless it takes 
place in a Catholic church. 

Although Mark participated in parts 
of the mass, as a Protestant he was not 
permitted to take communion. "Since 
the communion was weekly, at first I 
didn't mind," the BVSer recounted. But 
on special occasions, it was at this point 
he regretted most the separation from 
a people to whom he felt close in so 
many other ways. 

With the influ.x of tourists to the Med- 
iterranean island, the services at the 
Catholic church usually were well at- 
tended. Since in the summer the wor- 
shipers at the evening masses often 
overflowed the sanctuary, open-air serv- 
ices were begun outside, for which Mark 
set up the sound and lighting systems. 
He also related to the youth program, 
which was not unlike that of many 
churches in America in that it included 
activities for both the younger and older 
groups on Sunday and recreational facil- 
ities open at the church on weekdays. 

Co-workers: Besides the keen social 
consciousness evidenced by the priest 

in the Menorcan town, Mark appre- 
ciated the presence in the parish of oth- 
er young men much like himself, only 
priests in training. The young men took 
leave from the seminary for a year to 
work in a factory on weekdays and in 
the parish on weekends, in order better 
to understand parish life. In part the 
experience tested their fitness for the 
priesthood. When priests begin their 
special training as early as age seven, 
and for the most part live in isolation 
from the common man, such a venture 
as this in the training for priests seemed 
most essential to the American observer. 
While the Brethren youth did not dis- 
cern "outright resentment" toward Pope 
Paul \T over such issues as birth control, 
he did feel the Spanish people increas- 
ingly were seeing the pontiff "as a man 
and perhaps a representative of God, 
but not divine." Logan said Catholic 
worshipers are deeply perplexed when 
the pope takes one stand and the local 
priest takes another. Such disagreement 
rarely happens publicly in Spain, he 
said, but it does occur in private family 
counseling. He added that the Spanish 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 17 

+ flews 

birth rate is especially an acute problem 
where, as in an adjoining town, residents 
boast because their families average 10 
children each. 

Assessment: On the whole, Logan re- 
flected that his year's experience with 
the congregation was probably little dif- 
ferent than a Catholic youth would find 
in serving a Protestant parish. He com- 
mends the growing Protestant-Catholic 
rapprochement on many levels and is 
continuing such an interchange person- 
ally, in his friendship with a young lady 
in France, a Catholic. Once he com- 
pletes his degree in electrical engineer- 
ing he would like to work again for the 
church, perhaps in Latin America. 

The doors Mark Logan opened in 
Spain remain open as two subsequent 
volunteers, first Charles Cable of Syra- 
cuse, Ind., on an interim basis, and now 
Gary Dull of Long Beach, Calif., have 
followed him in the Ciudadela parish 
assignment. International and interfaith 
as the project is, ecumenicit>' for the 
three volunteers has also become in- 
tensely local. 

Bolivia up and down 

Just as xM.-vrk Logan blazed the trail for 
B\'Sers in Spain, so did Joanna Neff and 
Jim Fitz in Bolivia. They were assigned 
there in January 1967 under the Bolivian 
Methodist Church to work in community 

As it turned out, because a Bolivian 
counterpart was not then available to 
team up with Joanna Neff, her sub- 
stitute assignment 
as a dorm mother 
and English instruc- 
tor took her to two 
quite contrasting 
church institutions. 
She worked first in 
a small country town 
by a lake in Alti- 
plano, the high 
plains at 12,.500 feet. 
There she worked with Indian girls from 
mostly poor, rural families, the girls 
ranging from grades 3 through 12 and 

Joanna Nefl 

from ages 9 into the 20s. 

For her second year Joanna was trans- 
ferred to the city of Cochabamba, a lower 
section of the countr>' 8,500 feet high, 
where at the Methodist-sponsored Amer- 
ican Institute her charges were children 
of the upj>er crust, preparing for college 
either in Bolivia or the United States. 
Their families were mostly of Spanish 
or German descent. 

High moments: "In either situation, 
the most rewarding moments came just 
in being accepted b\' the people, in be- 
ing able to communicate with them," the 
Manheim, Pa., volunteer said. "Wheth- 
er with the country folk at the school 
on the Altiplano or with the more re- 
fined youth at the American Institute 
in Cochabamba, the greatest thing for 
me was to be accepted, to be accepting, 
and to share whatever I felt. 

"What made me feel that I had ac- 
complished something was when we 
could actually share as friends and not 
as an American and as Bolivians." 

A graduate of Elizabethtown College, 
Miss Neff reflected upon the whole BVS 
experience as "indescribable." With two 
years of high school Spanish, she had 
entered the program with some thought 
of an overseas project but not knowing 
until well into unit training of the pos- 
sibilities unfolding between the Church 
of the Brethren and the Methodists of 
Bolivia. It was a development which 
was profoundly to shape her life. 

Return: This month Joanna plans to 
return to Bolivia where she will be mar- 
ried to Nicolas Huacani, a former teach- 
er she met during her first year there. 
He now is studying at the university. 

No small part of Joanna's fascination 
with Latin America is for the people, 
their character, and customs. She is not 
at all sure how to appraise the work 
she has done as housemother and En- 
glish instructor; what she does treasure 
are the personal friendships with the 
girls, the co-workers, the mission per- 

Impressed as she is by the church's 
work in Latin America and the degree 
to which it is countering the superstition 

that prevails, Miss Neff wonders if mis- 
sion efforts are not o\erly oriented 
toward education and medicine — "thingsi 
>ou can see" — rather than to evange-j 
lism. j 

To illustrate, she said she was espe-j 
cially impressed by a maid in her 50s. 
The woman had been a Christian for 
several \ears and had learned to read. 
"Some might say Vickie is what she is 
today because she learned to read. But 
if you were to ask Vickie, she would 
respond, 'I ha\e found my Jesus, my 
Christ.' " 

Joanna added, "I think it is important 
for any mission to remember the pri- 
macy of teaching men of Christ and of 
sharing the joy we have found in him." 

Colonization: For Jim Fitz, also a 
PennssKanian and alumnus of Eliza- 
bethtown College, the initial assignment 
early in 1967 was in the Altiplano, about 
15 miles from the first school where 
Jo;mna Neff was assigned. But the 
prime de\eIopment work for which he 
went to Bolivia came in November of 
that year, in the rural Chapare district 
of the tropical lowlands. The district is 
an official colonization area for people 
lea\ing the Altiplano in search of a bet- 
tei life. With proper agricultural devel- 
opment it is believed that Chapare could 
have its present population of 20,000 
increased 10 times over and still support 
the populace. 

With a team half North American 
(two Mennonites, 
one Baptist, and one 
Brethren) and half 
Bolivian, the work- 
ers were paired off 
and sent out to the 
communities of the 
Chapare to serve 
under a local 
church. The initial 
tasks centered on 
getting to know the residents and on 
building a relationship with one's Boliv- 
ian partner. The latter, Jim Fitz 
discovered, was exceedingly difficult. 

Salesman: Much as he had done in 
his work in the Altiplano, the BVSer 


James Fitz 

18 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

'ent to the market and town meetings 

|i sell seeds and literature on gardening. 

she response, he found, was tremen- 

3US. Soon he added soybean seed and 

icipes to the materials for sale. 

As he himself became more familiar 

■ith the merits of the soybean — it is 

'rown easily in a variety of chmates; it 

;rtilizes the soil with nitrogen; a high 

rotein content makes it a superb sub- 

ntute for milk, eggs, and meat; and 

ountless food dishes can be made from 

: — Jim saw it as offering a solution 

J the malnutrition which leaves the 

leople weak, tired, and inefficient. 

[Soybeans can change this," he declared. 

'Literally, the Chapare can be turned 

ight side up nutritionally in a few 

I'ears. The job is to get the people to 

)lant and use them." 

In his estimation, the people will be 
esponsive. "I'm convinced the cam- 
jesino wants to change and is looking 
['or something better. As soon as we 
;ome down to his level and start com- 
municating through concrete, worthwhile 
innovations, he wiU be more than willing 
to accept them." The development 
teams, nurses, and Peace Corps workers 
have also become committed to making 
the soybean king in the area. 

Other ventures: In another effort Jim 
Fitz worked with a model poultry proj- 
ect, starting with 60 purebred leghorns. 
In the process he helped introduce two 
practices in poultry care almost unknown 
to the campesinos: a balanced feed ra- 
tion, using products of the area, and a 
chicken house. Native poultry always 
were allowed to run and eat what they 
could find. 

Still another program undertaken by 
the church's development team is the 
teaching of reading and writing, utilizing 
materials prepared for the campesinos 
for the first time. "It is something to 
see a 40-year-old learning to read," Fitz 
said. "They study with a persistence and 
gusto we seldom see." 

The volunteers also worked with other 
agencies, the Peace Corps and govern- 
mental experiment stations and develop- 
ment programs among them. A special 

project of the Peace Corps in Bolivia has 
been the developing of family fish ponds 
and the introduction of a fast breeding 
fish from Africa. The fish, along with 
the soybean, help close the protein gap. 

Curtailment: The BVSer also com- 
mended the work of the Alliance of 
Progress in building a new road con- 
necting the Chapare area with the coun- 
try's major population centers. However, 
the cutting of U.S. funds for overseas 
aid has seriously curtailed some much 
needed programs, he added. 

The method of working in community' 
development is to discover the felt needs 
and begin from there, the York, Pa., 
youth explained. "Because of this, the 
work here is quite different from most 
Brethren Service projects in that the 
only discipline is self-discipline. Every- 
thing is up to us. And in such an ap- 
proach things can become vague, fuzzy, 
and frustrating." 

But to Jim Fitz there is immense 
challenge as well as risks in the com- 
munity development approach. At the 
termination of his assignment early this 
year he was weighing offers to continue 
on in various aspects of development 

Toward the end of 1968 the work had 
evolved in the Chapare district to the 
point where a BVS couple, the Richard 
Welches, were sent to coordinate the 
community development teams. They 
work under Comision Boliviana de Ac- 
cion Social Evangelica, the country's 
Protestant service agency. 

"When I do get home," Jim Fitz wrote 
from the Chapare late last year, "I hope 
to work at educating our adult middle 
class into becoming aware of the prob- 
lems confronting us as world citizens, 
especially in relation to poverty, racism, 
and war." 

In a sense that too is community de- 
velopment, also of urgent need. — h.e.r. 

Toward radicalism 

disenchanted with the "consensus" stance 
of their denominations, a mood of "peace 

radicalism" is coming to the fore not 
only in the mainline Protestant denomi- 
nations and the Roman Catholic Church 
but in the historic "peace ' churches as 

The impatience of the peace activists 
was revealed by representatives of 16 
denominational peace fellowships who 
were called together for a one-day meet- 
ing in New York recently by A. Stauffer 
Curry, director of interfaith activities for 
the Fellowship of Reconciliation, with 
which most of the fellowships are affil- 
iated. Alfred Hassler, executive director 
of the F.O.R., called on the fellowships 
to adopt a radical new program of action 
to deal with escalation in the manufac- 
ture and storing of nuclear weapons, 
with world poverty and with the popu- 
lation explosion. Said he: "Peace groups 
are in much the same position as the 
generals — prepared to fight the last war. 
If we deal with things as we have in 
the past we are finished." 

In question: Some time ago a number 
of Quakers came to the conclusion that 
the widely respected American Friends 
Ser\'ice Committee was moving too slow- 
ly. So they set up a Quaker Action 
Croup and initiated several projects, of 
which perhaps the best known is spon- 
sorship of the voyages of the yacht 
Phoenix, bearing medical supplies to the 
North Vietnamese. At the meeting in 
New York a Quaker leader reported that 
even the traditional nonviolent posture of 
the Friends is being challenged by some 
who feel that it has been outmoded by 
events in the underdeveloped areas of 
the world. It may be an "act of extreme 
presumption," he said, for Quakers to 
urge nonviolence on a people who can- 
not make it succeed. Just now an 
A.F.S.C. task force is studying the cjues- 
tion of violence versus nonviolence in 
relation to revolutionary movements in 
Africa and Latin America. 

A similar development is taking place 
within another "peace" denomination — 
the Church of the Brethren. The Breth- 
ren Action Movement (BAM) was 
formed, its representatives said, because 
"respectability" rather than obedience to 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 19 


God had become the criterion for de- 
cision making in the denomination. Or- 
ganizing for radical action, they hope 
to establish "little" BAMs throughout the 
country and to promote projects of the 
sort usually avoided by a "consensus" 
church — draft resistance, accumulation 
of financial support for war resisters, 
exposure of plans for "concentration 
camps" such as are said to be on deck. 

Inside effort: The spokesman for the 
Mennonites said that while it is conceiv- 
able that at some time in the future the 
BAM technique may be adopted by pro- 
gressives within his denomination, for 
the present Mennonites plan to work 
within the established church. 

Most of the fellowships identified with 
other than the "peace" churches likewise 
plan to stick with the establishment and 
work from within to de\elop more dy- 
namic peace programs. 

Despite considerable growth during 
the \'ietnam conflict, these fellowships 
still represent a ver\- small minoritv' with- 
in the parent denominations. Among 
those organized during World War II to 
provide moral and financial support for 
conscientious objectors who were mem- 
bers of the denomination iinohed are 
the Baptist (no membership figure giv- 
en); the Jewish, with 500 members; the 
Lutheran, with 300; the United Church 
of Christ, with 900 names on its news- 
letter subscription list; and the United 
Presb>'terian, with 500 members. The 
30-year-old Episcopal Peace Fellowship 
has 1,300 members and 1,000 additional 
supporters; in 1965 its budget totaled 
$60,000. The 35-year-old Disciples 
Peace Fellowship, with 500 members, 
has hired Bill Herod, a veteran of Viet- 
nam Christian Service, to serve as its 
first full-time director; he will serve for 
the first nine months of 1969. 

Largest body: Newest and largest of 
the groups affiliated with the F.O.R. is 
the Catholic Peace Fellowship; organ- 
ized in 1964, it has 4,500 members and 
affiliate members. Its emphasis is on 
radical action; its director, James Forest, 
has just been relea.sed from jail on bail 
in Milwaukee, where he was arrested for 

allegedly throwing "napalm" on draft 

In addition to these groups, small 
groups with varying degrees of vitalitv' 
ha\e been organized among Christian 
Scientists, Moravians, Orthodo.x Cath- 
olics, Unitarians, and members of the 
Ethical Cultural Society. 

At the end of the day's discussion in 
New York there seemed to be a number 
of areas of agreement: (1) If peace 
fellowships are to be effecti\e, they need 
executive staffs; (2) there is need for 
radical action projects; (3) support for 
repeal of the draft and for ratification 
of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty is 
called for; (4) the biggest job facing 
the denominational peace fellowships 
ma\- be to work for a more progressive 
policy within the denominations with 
which they are affiliated. — Robert A. 

A birthright Quaker 

"The times are on the side of peace," 
President Richard M. Xi.xon declared in 
his inaugural address. And he called on 
the American people to work together in 
building "a cathedral of the spirit" which 
would lead to peace abroad and a heal- 
ing of the wounds within the land. 

Further, the 37th President said the 
greatest honor which can befall any man 
or nation is to be called "peacemaker." 
It was his personal conviction that Amer- 
ica "is ready to answer this call." 

In espousing high goals of interna- 
tional peace and national reconciliation 
and in references to the need to be quiet, 
the need to listen, Mr. Nixon provided 
strong trac^s of his Quaker background. 
For some, they were reassuring traces, 
for questions were surfacing from vari- 
ous sources as to the extent of Mr. Nix- 
on's Quaker commitment today. 

No contact: One source was political 
columnist Drew Pearson, himself a 
Quaker, who just before the inaugura- 
tion revealed that several Quaker groups 
interested in talking with Mr. Nixon had 

* Copyright 1968. Christian Century Foundation. 
Reprinted by permission from the Dec. 18. 1968. 
issue of The Christian Century. 

been unsuccessful in their attempts ti 
reach him before he took office. Thi 
columnist said the Friends Committ 
on National Legislation was one grou] 
turned down by Mr. Ni.xons appoint- 
ments secretar\'. 

At the November meeting of peao 
church representatives at New Windsor, 
Md., it was made knov\ai that national 
Friends' leaders were hoping for such' 
an encounter with the then President-i 
elect. In a sense the visit would havei 
been a "pastoral call," but in Quakeri 
fashion conducted by a committee. 

Further speculation that Mr. Nixon's 
ties to Quakerism are nominal stemmed 
from reports that only once during his 
eight years as vice-president had he at- 
(ended a Quaker meeting. 

Too pacifist? There was some sugges- 
tion that the new President's lack of 
identification with the Friends Meeting- 
house in Washington, on Florida Ave- 
nue, stemmed from the congregation's 
liberal stance and aggressive peace ac- 
tion. The congregation has sponsored a 
shipment of medical supplies to North 
and South X'ietnam and several of its 
members are in prison for declining to 
participate in the Selective Service Sys- 

Close friends of the Nixons explain the 
President's shunning of religious formal- 
ities, church going, and pious expressions 
as an effort to avert making a display of 
faith. If this is the case, Mr. Nixon 
stands within Quaker tradition. 

Undemonstrative: "In some regards 
Dick Nixon is one of the best Quakers in 
the country because he is an undemon- 
strative Quaker," Paul Smith, president 
of Whittier College and a former teacher 
of the President, was quoted as saying 
by New York Times religion editor Ed- 
ward B. Fiske. 

In spite of the President's heavy peace 
commitment expressed in the inaugural 
address, it is Mr. Fiske's assessment that 
the new President brings to the White 
House "a Quaker religious heritage that 
is closer to American Protestantism than 
it is to the genteel piety and pacifism 
of William Penn. " 

20 MESSENGER 3-13-69 


Guided by their own Protestant lay minister and 
encouraged by gifts from Church World Service, 
Peruvian families are building a new community at 

Pedregal Alto: A 

ligh above the small town of Chosica 
on the side of a barren, rocky mountain 
bordering the river is growing a new 
community. Known as Pedregal Alto, 
which means "a high place full of stones," 
the area is aptly named. The famihes of 
Pedregal Alto take literally the biblical 
admonition to "build yom" house upon 
the rock." Boulders must be moved away 
so that the walls of adobe brick or the 
less pennanent structures of reed mats 
can find a level footing. 

To reach the home of Felipe Arias 

High Place Full of Stones 

by Theresa Herr 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 21 

PEDREGAL ALTO / continued 


Barahona, a self-styled community leader 
with a deep sense of commitment to his 
neighbors, one pushes his car to the 
utmost limits, parks in a precarious space 
cleared of rocks, and sets out on foot over 
gravel, sand, and stones higher up the 
mountain. What the people of Pedregal 
Alto lack in the way of green grass and 
lovely homes is almost compensated for 
in the striking view of the irrigated val- 
ley housing the town that spreads out 
beneath them. But one shudders to think 
what a landslide would do to the com- 
munity and to the town below. Fortu- 
nately for the inhabitants, the earth- 
quakes that so often shake Lima, the 
capital city some twenty miles to the 
west, do not occur in this higher altitude, 
and the people can feel reasonably sure 
that their homes will stand. 

Pedregal Alto is a barriada, or small 
suburb, of Chosica. This particular bar- 
riada manifests some striking differences 
to its counterparts in nearby Lima. One 
difference we noted immediately was the 
presence of the wann sun, which fails to 

penetrate the Lima fog for six or seven 
months of each year. Another distin- 
guishing feature was the presence of 
small trees that had been planted with 
great care along both sides of the nar- 
row "street" or walkway between the 
houses. Each small plant was nestled 
down deep in a large circle outlined with 
small stones — a system for irrigating the 
fledgling trees. 

Gathered in the patio, or courtyard, of 
Sefior Barahona's modest home were 
som? twelve or thirteen women and an 
equal number of small children who 
clung shyly to their mothers' skirts and 
peered warily at the strangers from the 
city who had invaded their privacy in 
this warm, springlike morning. At the 
entrance to the patio, a sign proclaimed 
that these women who had participated 
in the adult literacy program taught by 
Senor Barahona and his two assistants, 
and those persons who had helped plant 
the trees and clean the streets, should 
come at ten o'clock in the morning to 
receive food and clothing to be dis- 

tributed by representatives of Ghurch | 
World Service, or the Commission of i 
Social Help as it is known in Peru. I 

Senor Barahona, his wife, and his | 
children had worked long hours the day 
before, diligently weighing the flour, 
powdered milk, and wheat product known 
as tiigor. Now the various packages 
were neatly arranged in rows, separatctl 
according to contents, in the largest room 
in his house. Stacked along the wall on 
chairs were piles of clothing which had 
been parceled out according to the needs 
of each family, each bundle tied together 
with a belt. 

By the time we had admired Sefior 
Barahona's two small vegetable gardens 
and commented upon the efficiency with 
which he handled the distribution, more 
than thirty women had assembled in the 
courtyard and were conversing among 
themselves as they patiently waited for 
the rewards for their efforts. 

Sefior Alfredo Aramayo, representing 
Church World Service, spoke briefly to 
the women, commending them on their 

22 MESSENGER 3-13-69 


efforts to beautify their small community 
and encouraging them in their desire to 
learn to read and write. When it was 
my turn to speak, I sketched for them the 
journey of the clothing they were about 
to receive from the time it was taken 
from a home in the United States to the 
local church, then on to Modesto, Cali- 
fornia, where it had been processed, and 
finally shipped by boat to Lima, Peru. 

Forming a line, the mothers and chil- 
dren stepped forward to receive their 
food and clothing, each one painstakingly 
signing her name on the record sheet. 
For some, this was a most difficult task, 
for they had had but a few weeks of 
classes and were only learning to write. 
But it was proudly done and the usual 
South American flourish was added, thus 
marking each signature as individual and 
slightly different from the one before. 

Felipe Arias Barahona beamed with 
satisfaction as the members of his class 
and his community improvement workers 
passed by him claiming their sacks of 
flour, powdered milk, and trigor. A 

stevedore at the docks in Callao by trade, 
Senor Barahona has an ingrained sense of 
community pride and an unusual con- 
cern for his neighbors' good. Since he 
may have only two or three days work 
each month at the docks, he is in the 
community daily and can see the needs 
perhaps more clearly than the other men 
who are gone every day. He sensed the 
frustrations of his neighbors who could 
neither read nor write and decided to 
share his knowledge with them. A self- 
appointed Protestant lay minister, his 
small church is a loosely built structure 
of reed mats and poles, nestled among 
the rocks in an open space in the com- 
munity. Here he meets his classes each 
afternoon and, with the help of two 
women in the area, teaches them the 
basic fundamentals of reading and writ- 
Unsupported by any organized church 
or mission, Barahona somehow manages 
to support his family and to give of him- 
self to Pedregal Alto. Realizing that peo- 
ple who work together for the common 

good of their community aie bound to 
have a greater appreciation for their 
neighborhood and their neighbors, Sefior 
Barahona suggested that each week a 
certain number of hours be spent in 
cleaning the streets of rocks and garbage, 
thereby making their surroundings a 
healthier and more attractive place in 
which to raise their families. The mem- 
bers of liis literacy classes, as well as 
others in the community, responded to 
his call and to his leadership and together 
they are pro\iiig to the inhabitants of 
their harriada and to the town of Chosica 
that much can be accomplished by peo- 
ple who are determined to improve their 
lot in life. 

As an encouragement to this communi- 
ty spirit and as an example to all men 
everywhere. Church World Service has 
responded to the need with supplies of 
food and used clothing, both essential 
items to the life of the people in Pedregal 
Alto, a quiet, mountain hamlet bypassed 
by the technological advances of twen- 
tieth-century Peru and the world. l2\ 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 23 

Editor's Note: Messenger is eager to 
encourage its readers to speak up and 
speak out on topics about which they 
have serious concern. We welcome their 
comments, whether they come in the 
form of brief letters we can publish in 
our Readers Write page, in longer state- 
ments such as those appearing here and 
otherwise under our "Speak Up" head- 
ing, or as still longer articles that develop 
a particular point of view. Such state- 
ments may or may not reflect the views 
of a majority of readers. They may or 
may not agree with official siands taken 
by the Church of the Brethren. But icc 
respect each writer's right to be heard, 
and we try also to be sensitive to the 
reader's right to disagree. 

All Life 
Is Holy 

by Leona S. Dick 

For too long tlie cluircli lias Imng on to a 
lefto\er theology, left over from the Mid- 
dle Ages. Everyone else has changed, 
but the ancient myths and superstitions 
remain, and they are "too hot to handle" 
because, if dealt with honestly, too many 
ministers and priests would be forced 
out of their pulpits by their constitu- 
encies. So because these "holy men" 
haven't been able to fulfill their function, 
so-called secular media arc taking over 
the task. Two very popular comedy 
hours on television have taken on this 
job of changing the people without bene- 
fit of clergy, unless you call Henry Gib- 
son a clergyman. 

There are three goals for which these 
programs seem to be striving. Tlieir first 
goal is to be iconoclastic. Tliey want to 
break down all taboos by making jokes 
about the things which were once held 
sacred or taboo. There are no more 
sacred cows on The Smothers Brothers 
Comedy Hour or Rowan and Martin's 
Laugh-In. Among these topics are sex, 
homosexuality, religion, race, drugs, al- 
cohol, high echelon public officials, as 
well as high go\ernmental bodies. AJl of 
these subjects are treated with the light 
touch. Nothing is condemned; only 
strong satire is evident. 

The second aim is to get people laugh- 
ing about that which was once "too 
sacred to be tampered \vith" or "too bad 
to be mentioned aloud. " Once people 
can look at these "too sacred" or "too 
bad" areas of life and see them from a 
comic point of view, the ice is broken. 
Somehow a barrier comes do\\n and 

these aspects can be \iewed in the light 
of reason; they can be thought about 
and discussed. They are no longer locked 
up with a "please do not discuss" sign on 
them. Once we can laugh at our foibles 
and discuss them, we are amenable to 

Change is the third aim of such pro- 
grams. As we start thinking and discuss- 
ing, the chances are we will change our 
viewpoints away from the one that was 
satirized to a more wholesome approach. 

These same ideas are being promoted 
in the theater as well as on TV. The 
shock-art of our day exists essentially for 
the same reason. Once we get over some 
of our puritanical hangups, we will be 
free to live as human beings. Let me 
explain: The theater, T\', nudist colonies, 
and the movies are all trying to break 
down the taboo that surrounds the un- 
clothed body. The bod>' is one of the 
most beautiful of art subjects known to 
man. The functions of each part of the 
body are essentially wholesome and nor- 
mal and common to all of us. Yet we 
have developed a stigma around certain 
areas of the body having to do with the 
sexual and the elimination functions; we 
have covered these parts up, saying, in 
effect, that they are evil and not to be 
looked upon! The recent approach ot 
some of the mod art is to get the public 
to see that the body itself is not evil but 
essentially good. The only evil that might 
exist in viewing a nude body would be 
in the mind of the viewer. The puritani- 
cal concept that all sex is evil — even 
married sex — results from the biblical 
idea, "In sin did my mother conceive 
me." Few persons anymore believe mar- 
ried .sex to be sin. It is viewed as a 
wholesome, normal, enriching part of 
married life. But the old taboo connected 
with it — nudity — has not disappeared. 

Some say sex is sacred and as such it 

24 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

s no place in the arts. For such rea- 
ning, one must reply that God, creation, 
ayers, and the Bible are also held sa- 
ed and these have been subjects of the 
ts, both fine and plastic, for hundreds 
years. Think of the Sistine Chapel, of 
ichelangelo's David, of the great ora- 
rios, of the museums running over with 
■ligious art through the centuries. Those 
acred" areas of life were some of the 
•St subjects of the great art of the Ren- 

The shock-art of today is making a 
old statement: It is only when society 
ets over its sex hangups that men, 
'omen, and youth will be able to accept 
leir sexuality as part of their God-given 
'e — a normal part — and thus end the 
ex mania or the obsession with sex that 
lermeates our society in a very unhealthy 
I'ay. This acceptance of self, of one's 
;exuality, gives one a freedom, a release 

life that is not now felt among the 
traight generation. 

The hippies tried to get the straight 
;eneration to pull off its masks and face 
ife truthfully and authentically. The 
var resisters have used other methods to 
lelp Joe Average-Public to see that what 
s the penultimate of religion is man's 
-elationship to all other human beings — 

1 relationship in which he feels accepted 
Dy me, and I, in turn, feel accepted by 
tiim, not because of what I have or 
ion't have or because of what I wear or 
ion't wear or because of what I believe 
3r don't believe but simply because I 
im a human being. 

Sin does not exist in seeing a nude 
body or viewing an artist's concept of 
lovemaking; it does not exist in the act 
af sexual intercourse. However, when 
one uses sexual intercourse in a selfish 
manner at the expense of the other per- 
son, whether in marriage or out of mar- 
riage, it is crushing another personality. 

Any method of crushing another person 
is obscene. 

Such European countries as Sweden 
are listing as obscene the films which 
show men killing other men with guns 
and bombs and with a raining fire of 
napalm which eats a slow death into the 
mother, child, or aged person. This is 
obscenity of the first degree. The films 
showing normal sex relations and nude 
bodies are not considered obscene in 
these countries. How different from our 
own evaluation of obscene! 

So if the war resisters, the four-letter 
words of the university students. The 
Smothers' Brothers Comedy Hour, the 
theater-of-blasphemy, the movies, and 
the art displays get you up-tight, relax. 
That is exactly their aim! Once our un- 
important hangups are resolved, we'll be 
free enough to look at life as it really is; 
we'll be able to see that the only thing 
really important in this hfe is to ti'eat hu- 
man beings as human beings, created — 
in the nude — by the Eternal Spirit, God! 

These media have taken over the work 
of the church: the job of changing men's 
minds from the hostile, condemnatory, 
and rejecting attitudes of the status quo 
to the accepting, loving ChristHke atti- 
tude that Jesus taught us to have toward 
all of life and toward every human being 
in the world. They have begun; they are 
doing a terrific job of helping rid our 
society of the dichotomy of secular and 
sacred. They are saying in a light yet 
profound way: All life is holy! O 

The Conservative 
Is Not the 

by James Poling 

Liberal education teaches us that the 
cause of most problems in the world is 
ignorance. This igjiorance is found 
among conservatives who oppose pro- 
gressive change in society. Therefore 
the task of graduates into this ideology 
is to educate people to make use of 
social programs and not resist change. 

My thesis is that liberalism serves the 
function of distracting many of us, by 
the theory of the ignorant conservative, 
from the domination and exploitation 
of the system itself. 

According to the liberal ideology, 
there are two general approaches to 
problems. One can be defensive about 
the status quo and try to protect the 
structures and customs as they exist 
presently. A conservative might be de- 
fined as one who will tolerate any 
amount of injustice in order to preserve 
the familiar. People over thirty are 
considered conservative because they are 
afraid of change and are insecure about 
the future. 

Within this context, the alternative 
to is liberalism. A liberal 
is one who looks with optimism to the 
future because it provides opportunity 
for changing society and solving some 
of the problems which cause suffering. 
He favors "progressive programs" which 
apply man's reason to problems rather 
than resisting such programs because of 
emotional insecurity. 

Given these two alternatives, I felt 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 25 



I had no choice but to become a liberal. 
In accepting the liberal position, I 
learned that the conservative is the 
enemy. That is, the main obstacle to 
the success of progressive programs is 
the resistance of conservatives. Because 
of their ignorance and insecurity, they 
do not supix)rt the liberal programs 
which could sohe the problems of star- 
vation, racial discrimination, and war. 
My job, as a young liberal, was to find 
ways to convert these ignorant people 
into intelligent, rational beings who 
could understand that the future of the 
world rested with the liberal, progressi\e 
programs which come out of the major 
religious, political, and economic institu- 
tions of our society. But if these con- 
servatives could not be persuaded to 
change their minds, then my job was to 
develop programs without their support 
and thereby destroy their power over 
others. The problems are so crucial that 
I cannot wait until the conservatives 
are convinced — by that time the world 
might be destroyed. Rather, I must 
barge ahead with the solutions I know 
are right and refuse to be affected by 
their opposition. While I should be nice 
to all people, I must not let their ig- 
norance affect my programs. 

My conversion away from liberalism 
began with my opposition to the Viet- 
nam War. Through that war in South- 
east Asia, I was reminded that the 
existence of the war machine in the 
U.S. poses one of the greatest threats to 
the world today. As I began to examine 
the situation and to try to determine 
how this monster was allowed to survive 
here, I discovered that the military 
establishment was supported by all the 
major institutions of our society. Con- 
gress voted the tremendous appropria- 
tions to the Pentagon; big business 
provided the materials; the universities 
supplied the "brains"; and the religious 
establishment gave its divine blessing. 

If this kind of network supported the 
N'ietnam War, then what else was it 
involved in? I discovered that these 
same institutions owned the segregated 
businesses in the South and maintained 
the ghettos of the North. The coalition 
of business and militaiy institutions 
exploited the underdeveloped countries 
of Asia, South America, and Africa 
where millions were suffering. It 
became clear to me that the problems 
I had dedicated my life to solving were 
caused by the major institutions of our 
society. It was their resistance to change 
and their continuing exploitation of 
people all over the world that caused 
the suffering that I opposed. 

This disillusionment with those in- 
stitutions which created "progressive" 
programs led me to reevaluate the com- 
plete ideology. It was liberalism which 
had convinced me to support the major 
institutions of society. By winning my 
support for some of their programs, 
lhe\' made me into a propagandist for 
the social order and its prevailing value 

If this analysis is correct, then I 
wasted all my energies during those 
years I fought with conservatives. They 
are not the enemy — they are only the 
victims of the system of institutions 
which dominates most of the world. It 
is not their ignorance which prevents 
change, but their manipulation by the 
leaders of the social structures. As I 
have begun to see that the main prob- 
lem in our society is the institutions 
themselves, I find myself in sympathy 
with the conservatives who are victim- 
ized in the same way that I am. 

My conclusion is that I have been 
distracted from the real problem by my 
liberal brainwashing to believe that the 
victim is the cause of the problem. Lib- 
erals have been distracted by the theory 
of the ignorant conservative. Conserva- 
tives have been distracted by the theory 

of the "international communist con- 
spiracy." Both theories have kept us 
from uniting in our concerns for a bettel 

The Church of the Brethren has a 
strong tradition of antiestablishment 
theology. We have, from the beginning 
rejected the way society has been struc-; 
tured. Therefore, we should be able to 
understand as a gioup that modern so- I 
ciety is made up the same way as the ll 
society of the first centur\- which Jesus 
rejected. On the basis of this common 
theology, the liberals and conservatives! 
of our denomination should be able to i 
unite. We must quit reflecting the worldl 
by using the acceptable scapegoat titles! 
of "conservatixe" and "liberal." We mustj 
rediscover the rejection of the world 
which is a part of our tradition and pro^ 
vide the prophetic insight which was 
the genius of our forefathers. D 

Is Nonviolence 
Still Workable? 


by Fred Smith 

"Blessed are the meek," said Jesus, "for 
they shall inherit the earth." We have 
come to a time now when many who 
once felt committed to a policy of non- 
violence in their personal, social, and 
political relationships are stricken with 
severe doubts as to whether or not non- 

26 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

iolence is a realistic or a workable 
olicy for all situations and seasons, 
iter one has been shuck repeatedly on 
re other cheek, then what? 

Having observed and thought about 
onviolence for a number of years, hav- 
ig spent some time in prison over the 
latter before it became respectable or 
eroic to do so, knowing friends in a 
milar situation, and having lived and 
worked with all kinds of people while 
earing myself the indelible social mark 
f severe military nonconformity, it has 
;emed neither strange nor unusual that 
le philosophy and practice of nonvio- 
;nce is coming today to have as large 
crowd of defectors as it had converts 

The crucial point is whether one sees 
onviolence as a policy or as an attitude 
1 his life. As a policy, nonviolence can 
e and has been very effective, but it has 
Iso been equally ineffective. Its effec- 
veness may depend largely on one's ad- 
ersaries. Truth and experience teach us, 
owever, that there are adversaries both 
'uel and murderous, some even who 
elight in torturing and murdering the 
mocent. In such cases nonviolence as a 
olicy is apparently a total failure and 
in scarcely recommend itself to anyone. 

On the other hand, if one commits 
imself to nonviolence as his basic life 
ttitude, then success or failure at any 
articular point is interesting but not de- 
isive. For example an apple tree pro- 
uces fruit because of its nature and ac- 
jrding to conditions. The apples may 
)t on the ground or be placed on a 
ing's table. But every apple's rotting 
'ould not alter the fruit-producing na- 
ire of the tree. 

It is very easy to espouse a policy 
lat seems to be winning its way effec- 
vely. It is less easy to espouse a way 
E life, the fruit of which seems destined 
> rot on the ground. The only thing, it 
;ems to us, which can make such a com- 


mitment possible is a profound trust in 
the innermost nature of the universe. 
"Though he slay me," writes the inspired 
poet, "yet will I trust him." 

Is the innermost root and core of things 
of a nonviolent nature? If we can see 
that it is, then we might commit our- 
selves, insofar as we are able, to a simi- 
lar attitude. If we see othenvise, then 
such a commitment becomes difficult, per- 
haps impossible. 

Is nature red in tooth and claw? Must 
we constantly war against nature and 
subdue it in order to exist? Will our in- 
ternal organs attack us unless we attack 
them first? Does nature inexorably pro- 
duce offspring without any correspond- 
ing ability to support them? Are we al- 
ways about to be engulfed by powerful 
and insidious social, political, biological, 
or religious enemies? Does force always 
overcome gentility? Will evil eventually 
o\'erwhelm and destroy the good? 

We do not live in a nonviolent culture. 
Neither the TV nor the university pro- 
vides nonviolent answers to life's pro- 
found questions. Church philosophy and 
practice, sad to say, are too often similar 
pills, perhaps sugar-coated and deceiving 
no person of discernment. 

But other men in other times and other 
places have had other answers to these 
and other killing doubts. Even some 
men here listen to the distant beat of an- 
other drummer, and so must we if we 
would maintain a nonviolent attitude 
within this compulsively violent society. 

And another drummer may be heard 
even among us also. A person is a 
Christian because he sees in the hfe, 
fate, destiny, and person of Jesus Christ 
a revelation unlocking all the deep mean- 
ings of this world and of the worlds that 
have been and are yet to come. Jesus, 
the Lamb of God that bears away the 
sin of the world, is the epitome and per- 
fection of the attitude of the nonviolent. 
He stands in the same relationship to our 

culture that he did to the establishment 
of his own day. Jesus Christ the same 
yesterday, today, and forever. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the essence of this world 
hasn't changed much in the meantime 

As Christians see it, the cross is the 
center, hub, reason for, and meaning of 
everything. God didn't devise some 
clever plan or policy to cope with un- 
foreseen difficulties. God simply pre- 
sented himself to men as he is in his own 
innermost nature and being. Nonviolence 
is not something new, freshly minted 
during the last few centuries. It is ancient 
and eternal, existing in the mind and 
life of God before the beginning of crea- 
tion. Will the proud and the violent in- 
herit the earth? Will wolves outlast 
lambs? Will darkness swallow up the 
light? Will evil ultimately overcome and 
extinguish the good? Certainly not. These 
things which here assail our minds and 
senses will never prevail. Why? Because 
the innermost heart and being of the 
deity, the creator and supporter of the 
universe, he who is the alpha and the 
omega, the beginning and the end, is 
himself the deepest and most profound 
humility, gentility, peace, harmony, love, 
and self-sacrifice. 

How is night transformed into day, 
pain into joy, and the most dismal defeat 
into the most signal victory? God sacri- 
fices himself. This is the most wonder- 
fully suiprising secret that the wisest men 
of all ages and cultures have discovered. 
And if God is able and willing to accept 
the injustice, shame, and pain of cruci- 
fixion in order to ti\insmute this world's 
evil into good and thereby to establish 
his own kingdom, power, and glory 
among us, then we poor, shortsighted, 
and miserable men should trust our 
creator enough to ti-y also to follow that 
example insofar as we are able and as we 
have been commanded so to do. Lord 
Jesus, help us. D 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 27 


Old Testament Insights on God's Action in the World 

GOD IN MAN'S EXPERIENCE, by Leonard Grif- 
fith. Word, 1968. 192 pages, $3.95 

Hulme. Abingdon, 1968. 157 pages, $3.50 

These books are similar to the extent 
that both deal with a book of the Old 
Testament and both are concerned about 
God's action in the world. Dr. Griffith 
writes on the Psalms and Dr. Hulme on 
Job. Each writes from the standpoint 
of his ministry. Dr. Griffith as a well- 
known pastor and Dr. Hulme as a semi- 
nary professor of pastoral care. Both 
books can be read profitably by pastors 
and laymen. 

In God in Man's Experience. Dr. Grif- 
fith uses a unique format for the dedica- 
tion page and the chapter titles. He 
has chosen twenty-one of the Psalms 
and given each a two-word chapter title 
which describes God's action in the 
world. E.xamples are "God Suffices," 
"God Answers," and "God Unifies." 

Writing from a pastors point of view. 

Dr. Griffith provides stimulating insights 
and comments on the Psalms he has 
used. He gives striking illustrations, 
many of them from his owni wide range 
of experiences. The chapters provide 
good sermon material for any preacher. 
At times Griffith waites from the position 
of both the liberal and the conservative, 
enabling readers holding either of these 
persuasions to gain greater appreciation 
of the Psalms. 

One wonders why Dr. Griffith chose 
the Psalms he did and omitted ones such 
as the first, eighth, ninetieth, and one 
hundred fiftieth. This reviewer feels 
that these and other Psalms which are 
excluded are unfortunate omissions. 
With his sharp insights and his sound 
and logical inteipretations, we could 
wish that more of the Psalms were in- 
cluded in his book. 

Dr. Griffith lived with the Psalms in 
his daily devotions for many years be- 
fore attempting to write about them. 
His main theme is that God is a living. 



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real being who can be discovered and 
known in the Psalms if one deeply in- 
\olves himself in stud>' and meditation 
upon them. Having served as pastor 
of the famous Gity Temple in London 
following Dr. Weatherhead and having 
traveled and preached in many coun- 
tries. Dr. Griffith ably brings to the 
reader his contention that God is alive 
and relevant in men's lives today. 

An example of how he writes is found 
in the chapter on Psalm 121 under the 
title "God Guards." Quoting from the 
first paragraph: "Read my favourite 
Psalm," said the hospital patient. "You 
know — the one that goes, T will lift 
up mine eyes unto the hills.' ..." So 
Dr. Grifiith opened to Psalm 121 and 
read it to the patient. He describes this 
as one of the Pilgrimage Psalms. Every 
devout Jew at least once in his lifetime 
made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Dr. 
Griffith says that when he first made 
that pilgrimage some years ago, as the 
pinnacles of the Holy City came into 
view, he echoed the song of praise, "I 
was glad when they said unto me, let 
us go into the house of the Lord." He 
suggests that God stays close to us every 
step in the journey of life and that one 
of the great truths which modern the- 
ology has rediscovered about God is 
that God is a God who is beside us 
rather than a God who is only "up 
there" or "out there." 

Typical of his illustrations is the one 
found in this same chapter. He tells 
of the time that Abraham Lincoln vis- 
ited a military hospital and stopped at 
the bedside of a dying soldier. The lad 
did not recognize the President. Lincoln 
asked if there was anything he could 
do for the young soldier. The boy re- 
plied he would be grateful if Lincoln 
would write to his mother. The dying 
soldier, in the midst of severe pain, 
dictated a letter to his mother. Lincoln 
wrote it down. "Now will you sign it 
so that my mother will know that you 
were so kind?" asked the lad. When 
he saw the signature, the boy was 
awe-struck. "I didn't know I was both- 
ering the President," he said. Lincoln, 

28 MESSENGER 3-13-69 



peaking tenderly, inquired if there was 
jiything else he could do. After a mo- 
nent's hesitation the lad asked the Pres- 
dent if it would be too much for him 
stay with him until the end, telling 
At. Lincoln it would not be long. So 
he President sat by his bed until past 
hree o'clock in the morning when the 
irst rays of dawn were appearing and 
he young soldier's life expired. The 
'resident gently closed the eyes that 
aw no more, folded the boy's hands 
ver his breast and with bowed head 
sft the ward, having kept his promise 
one lonely soldier. 

This book is not only of value for 
lersonal study but would provide good 
material for group discussions. 

The Book of Job poses the universal 
[uestion of \\^h>' man must suffer. It 
Iso contributes at least a partial answer. 
)r. Hulme deals with the book from 
he standpoint of pastoral counseling, 
ob is alwa\s difficult to interpret and 
)r. Hulme comes through with many 
lelpful insights for both laymen and 
ninisters. He refers to Job as a biblical 
esource in pastoral care. He warns 
gainst losing sight of this by becoming 
00 deeply concerned with the theologi- 
al implications of the book. 

In the midst of the physical suffering 
I'hich threatened to bring catastrophe 
his inner life, Job, unable to live or 
die, hits bottom. The \isits from four 
if his friends, three of whom only in- 
ensified his feelings of guilt and suffer- 
ng, and the taunts from his wife to 
urse God and die reveal how greatly 
ob suffered. 

Dr. Hulme takes the reader through 
he Book of Job beginning with Job's 
ery favored condition in life and then 
lis losses and subsequent physical suf- 
erings in which Job rages at both his 
riends and God for what has come 
ipon him. It is here that the true feel- 
ngs and questions come out of those 
vho suffer deeply. The chapters with 
ttention-getting titles and with sub- 
leadings provide important points in 
he book and a logical outline. Dr. 
iulme does not deal at any length with 

Satan's encounters with Job, since he 
is concerned primarily with the roles 
of Job's friends and the ultimate out- 
come of his attitude toward God. 

The question of why people suffer 
is still much alive today. Some persons 
are very understanding and sympathetic. 
Some can involve themselves with the 
sufferer in a kind of empathy which is 
supportive rather than one of condemna- 
tion or judgment. Others have pat an- 
swers and are all too ready to explain 
why the sufferer is in his condition and 
what is to be learned from the ordeal. 

Dr. Hulme cites, as an example of 
how many try to identify with the suf- 
ferer, the parents of six children who 
lost their youngest in a fire. People 
tried to comfort them with the reminder 
that they still had five children left. 
The bereaved father, commenting on 
this oft-heard condolence, said, "Some- 
how it didn't do much for us." Dr. 
Hulme says it did not do much for them 
because it was spoken primarily to com- 
fort the "comforter." The idea that the 
parents still had five children made 
those who did not share the loss feel 
better about it. 

The persistent question of why man 
suffers as did Job camiot be answered 
fully, but Dr. Hulme brings to the read- 
er Job's answer which comes out of his 
despair; Job sees that God does love 
him even though it is a mystery. 
Though Elihu was angered toward Job, 
it was through his compassionate under- 
standing and reasonable statements 
about the work and nature of God that 
Job was able to accept his suffering and 
listen to the voice of God and become 
a new person. 

As Dr. Hulme points out so effective- 
ly, "The Book of Job is not only a 
drama of a man's trust in God, but 
also a drama of God's trust in man." 

Job came to know God as he had 
not known him before in his life. The 
pastoral counselor and other concerned 
people should endeavor to be supportive 
rather than judgmental of the sufferer in 
his struggle to find meaning in his suffer- 
ing. — Byron E. Dell 

Send only one dollar for FIVE 
Roamer plays. Be prepared for your 
next dramatic production. Special 
limited offer! Write now to JOE 
VAN DYKE, 909 Pine, Alma, Michi- 
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Large midwestern state college seeks 
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academic and many technical disci- 
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the earned doctorate. Minimum salary 
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We provide 

the magic carpet. 

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only U\J down -up to 24 months to pay 

Congregations are going 
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leading them through the 
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have this Christian adven- 
ture of a lifetime, too? 

We take care of all the 
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to Byblos, the city that 
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Bible Land Tours. 



City State Zip 


My Church Is: 


Two Ohio residents were licensed 
recently to the ministry. They are Mrs. 
VVeldon Sheets of Chippewa, who has 
ser\ed in the Northern Ohio District as 
president of the District Women's Fel- 
lowship, arid Gerald Rhoades, a member 
of the Greenville church and a junior at 
Manchester College. 

Elton Berg, pastor of the Outlook 
church in Washington State, has re- 
signed his post there for a pastorate at 
Rosehill Mennonite Brethren church at 
Munich, N.D. . . . Southern Ohio's 
Harris Creek church has secured Dclmar 
Moyer for part-time pastoral duties. . . . 
Leaving the South Bend. Ind., City 
church this month was Philip Lauver, 
who accepted a call from the Lima 
church in Xorthern Ohio. He replaces 
Ronald Hershberger, who has moved to 
Penns\'l\ania to engage in farm 

4" "i* •!• •!" •?• 

In Northern Indiana Allen Weldy will 
become interim part-time pastor for the 
South Bend City church. . . . Ashland 
Seminary student Roger Eberly will 
come to the Pleasant View church fol- 
lowing his graduation in June 1969. 
The Northern Ohio church is near Lima. 

Elected to the board of directors for 
the Indiana State Pastor's Conference 
was David Albright, pastor of the 
Beacon Heights churcli at Fort Wayne, 
Ind. The former chairman of the 
Pastors' Association and pastor of South 
Bend's Prince of Peace church, Clarence 
B. Fike, conducted the installation. 

Willard E. Dulabaum, currently pas- 
tor of Ridgeway Communitv' Church in 
Harrisburg, Pa., will join the coiuiseling 
staff of Bridgewater College next Sep- 
tember as the college's first full-time 
chaplain. . . . Zion Hill pastor Owen 
Shankster has resigned that Northern 
Ohio pastorate. He anticipates re- 

Assuming a part-time pastorate on a 
temporary basis will be Stanley Hanna, 
who \\all serve the Silver Creek con- 
gregation in Northern Ohio. . . . M. R. 
Zigler has accepted the interim full-time 
pastorate at the Messiah church, Kansas 
City, Mo. 

A California pastor has resigned his 


post to enter a nonchurch-related occu- 
pation. C. Leroy Doty Jr. will be em- 
ployed by the go\ernment agency for 
Housing and Urb;m Development. He 
was pastor of the Long Beach church. 


La Verne College president Leiand B. 
Newcomer has been reappointed for a 
three-year term to the President's Com- 
mittee on EmpIo>nient of the Handi- 
capped. Pnniding public information 
and education for employment of the 
handicapped is the function of the com- 
mittee. ... A major work on the Spanish 
and Italian Reformation will be pub- 
lished in the fall, authored by Dr. Jose 
C. Nieto, assistant professor of religion 
at Juniata College. Prepared while a 
graduate student at Princeton Theolog- 
ical Seminary, the book, according to 
Dr. Nieto, "is an attempt to trace the 
origins of the Reformation movement in 
Spain and Italy both on a popular and 
an intellectual level." 

The office of development at La 
Verne College will be the new head- 
quarters of President Emeritus of the 
college, Harold D. Fasnacht, who will 
begin his new duties .April I in the areas 
of deferred giving, estate planning, and 
special gifts. 

^ ^ -I- •!- ^ 

After a seven-year tenure, Garnett 
Phibbs has resigned as executive director 
of the Toledo, Ohio, Area Council of 

The Pleasant Chapel congregation, in 
the district of Northern Indiana, hon- 



March 18-21 

Church of the Brethren General 


March 23 

Passion Sunday 

March 30 

Palm Sunday 

April 3 

Maundy Thursday 

April 4 

Good Friday 

April 6 


April 20 

National Christian College Day 

May 1-7 

Mental Health Week 

May 11 

Rural Life Sunday 

May 11 

Mother's Day 

May 11-18 

National Family Week 

May 15 

Ascension Day 

May 25 


May 30 

Memorial Day 

ored Mary Alice Perkins on her one 

hundredth birthday last month. The 
Simday morning recognition at the 
church where she had been a member 
for sixty-one years was recorded and 
presented to her. 

Our congiatulations go to two couples 
celebrating golden wedding anniver- 
saries: Mr. and Mrs. Don Andrus of 
Modesto, Calif.; and Mr. and Mrs. A. L. 
Hull of Kansas City, Kansas. . . . Among 
couples marking anniversaries of more 
than fifty years are Mr. and Mrs. O. C. 
Frantz, Sebring, Fla., fifty-sLx; Mr. and 
Mrs. E. B. Clark, Kansas City, Kansas, 
sixty-seven; Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy W. 
Shafer, Pontiac, Mich., sixty; and Mr. 
and Mrs. Blaine Miller, Shelocta, Pa., 


The National Service Board for Reli 
gious Objectors, headquartered in Wash- 
ington, D.C.. is searching for a mature 
girl with secretarial training and ex- 
perience, capable of assuming office 
administrative responsibilities. A qual- 
ified person will receive a good salaty 
and benefits. Interested persons may 
\\ rite or call the National Service Board 
for Religious Objectors, 550 Washington 
Building, Fifteenth and New York 
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 
20005, telephone 202-.393-4868. 

Eastern Pennsylvania and Mid- 
Atlantic Brethren Peace Fellowships 
will host a peace seminar March 22, at 
the Westminster, Md., chmch. Dale 
W. Browai of the Bethany Theological 
Seminary faculty will lead the seminar 
on the theme, "A Radical Discipleship." 
The gathering is open to pastors, lay- 
men, and youth. More information may 
be acquired from James C. Gibbel, Box 
287, Lititz, Pa. 17543. M 

Four programs in April on NBC-TV's 
Frontiers of Faith series will treat in 
depth the crisis of the rich and poor 
nations and the responsibility of Ameri- 
cans in such a situation. To begin on 
Sunday, April 6, the series will be 
viewed by study and action groups in 
numerous communities and will also be 
available at a later date for in-church 

Clergymen of all faiths may partici- 

30 MESSENGER 3-13-69 

te in the twentieth annual Institute on 
; Ministry to the Sick at Johns Hop- 
is Hospital April 21-23. Father 
(uinas Sipe of Seton Psychiatric In- 
tiite; Frederick Silber, supervising 
aplain for the U.S. Bureau of Prisons; 
d Cliester A. Raber, chaplain at Brook 
ne PsNchiatric Center, will lecture 
the Institute. Interested persons may 
ntact Clyde K. Shallenherger, Chap- 
n. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 601 
Broadway, Baltimore, Md. 21205. 

Do >ou ha\e a creative stewardship 
!a which your congregation has used 
:cessfully within the past two years? 
so, the Section on Stewardship and 
nevolence. National Council of 
lurches, would like to hear about it. 
;scribe your experience in 1,.500 
irds or less. Authors of the three best 
uiuscripts chosen for publication will 
:h receive SIOO. The ten next best 
tries will each receive S50. Manu- 
ipts must be typed double-spaced on 
>x II sheets and received by June 30, 
69. Results will be announced next 
ptember. Entries may be addressed 
the Department of Interpretation, 
lurch of the Brethren General Offices, 
51 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120. 
^ ^ 4. + ^ 

A new filmstrip, A Special Kind of 
rvant, details the stoiy of village de- 
lopment by Christian missions in 
iia, a land of villages. Especially 
itured is the Rural Service Center at 
iklesvar, in which the Church of the 
ethren has carried a major supportive 
e. Produced by RAVEMCCO and 
; Church of the Brethren, the color, 
jnd filmstrip is available for $5.50. 

.;. ^ ^ ^ 4. 

Church of the Brethren response 
ough the Emergency Disaster Fund 

the crisis of the Nigerian civil war 
far totals $24,500, funds sent to 
geria Biafra through Church World 
rvice. While CWS agencies have 
ipped eight and a half million pounds 
medicines, food, and other relief 
ods to Nigeria/Biafra, contributions 
I still much needed for the Emergency 
saster Fund to permit a continuing 
ethren response in Nigeria 'Biafra and 
other disasters. Gifts may be sent to 
3 Church of the Brethren General 

Board, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 


Elizabethtown College in Pennsyl- 
vania anticipates renoNation of the 
mansion at the Cameron estate near 
Mount Jo\'. currently being used as a 
residence for fifteen men students. The 
remodeling will be made possible bv a 
$60,000 gift from Mrs. G. Howland 
Chase of Washington, D.C. The man- 
sion will be converted into an inde- 
pendent stud>- and conference center. 

Flint Church of the Brethren in 
Michigan dedicated its new education 
wing and remodeled sanctuary in De- 
cember. Emoiy C. Smith is pastor. . . . 
Bethel Church of the Brethren at Naper- 
\ille. 111., will dedicate its new facilities 
April 20. 

The Draft and You: A Handbook on 
Selective Service, by Leslie S. Rothen- 
berg, explains how the Selective Service 
system works and would be particularly 
helpful for draft counselors and to reg- 
istrants for the draft, including con- 
scientious objectors. Orders for the 
book (Doubleday Anchor, No. A649, 
SI. 95) may be placed through the 
Church of the Bretliren General Offices, 
1451 Dundee Ave.. Elgin. 111. 60120. 

Mrs. C. P. Householder is conducting 
a search for a copy of the 1909 or the 
1914 Inp,lenook Cookbook. Persons with 
e.xtra copies for sale may contact Mrs. 
Householder at 1238 Heil, El Centre, 
Calif. 92243. 


Eleven churches have joined others 
in sending Messenger to each member 
family, boosting to nearly 400 the con- 
gregations on the E very-Home Plan. 

The new churches and their districts 
include Cando, N.D., Iowa-Minnesota; 
Pipe Creek, Mid-Atlantic; Woodbridge, 
Va., Mid-Atlantic; Friendship, North and 
South Carolina; Dickey church, Ashland, 
Northern Ohio; 

La Verne Fellowship, Pacific South- 
west; Grottoes, Shenandoah; Jones Chap- 
el, Southern Virginia; Rocky Ford, Colo., 
Western Plains; Eglon congregation. 
Glade \'iew church. West Marva; and 
Harman church. West Marva. 


Barnhizcr. Dallas. Indianapolis. Ind.. on Nov. 2^, 

19fi8. aged 71 
Beck. Dora, Greenville, Ohio, on Jan. 24, 1969. 

aged 92 
Becker. Har\ey, Mount Joy, Pa., on Jan. 23, 

1969, aged 75 
Bowman, Josephns. Clallaway, Va., on No\ . 6, 

1968, aged 100 
Brenneman, Warren. New Carlisle, Ohio, on Nov. 

9, 196H, aged 46 
Bnrke. Grayson. Cumberland. Md,. on Dec. 24, 

1968. aged 66 
Carpenter, Mary, Bcaverton. Mich., on Nov. 3. 

1968, aged 61 

Case. Katherine H., La Verne, Calif., on Jan. 22. 

1969. aged 91 

Cohick, Florence M.. Carlisle, Pa., on Jan. 12. 

1969, aged 83 
Cutsail. Milton, Littlestown. Pa., on Nov. 26. 

1968. aged 76 

Diiling. Rov. West Palm Beach. Fla,. on .\ug. 

9. 1968. aged 86 
Dutton, Clara A.. Smith Center. Kansas, on Oct. 

30. 1968, aged 86 
Fasick, Clara, Greenville, Ohio, on Jan. 28, 

1969, aged 71 

Flora, Cornelius J., Boones Mill, Va., on Oct. 

3. 1968, aged 88 
Florv, Samuel M., South English. Iowa, on Jan. 

30, 1969. aged 86 
Frantz. Grace, Conway Springs. Kansas, on Feb. 

5. 1969. aged 88 
Frymoyer, Norman, Mifflintown. Pa., on Oct. 10, 

1968, aged 79 

Funderburgh. Irene K.. La Vertie. Calif., on Jan. 

22. 1969, aged 71 
Gordon. Grace A.. New Carlisle. Ohio, on Jan. 

16. 1969. aged 92 
Harbold. Sue T., York Springs. Pa., on Jan. 7. 

1969. aged 90 

Hauck, Mary E., Hollidaysburg, Pa., on Nov. 10, 

1968, aged 77 
Helm. Mary, Huntington, Ind., on Sept. 7, 1968, 

aged 88 
Hunn, David L., Phoenix. .\riz., on Jan. 31, 1969. 

aged 35 
Jarboe. William. La Verne. Calif., on Nov. 13, 

1968, aged 67 
Kauflman, Ruth. Mifflintown. Pa., on Dec. 13, 

1968, aged 74 
Kibler, Joseph E.. Luray, Va.. on Dec. 25, 1968, 

aged 58 
Kline, Ihelma. Moutit Crawfonl. Va., on Nov. 16, 

1968. aged 61 
Livengood, Darrell E., Cumberland, Md., on April 

9. 1968. aged 48 
Livingston. James H.. York Springs, Pa., on Dec. 

5. 1968. aged 63 
Miller. Frank E,, Dayton. Va., on Sept. 15. 

1968. aged 90 
Fubbs. Doris. Cocolamus, Pa., on Nov. 24. 1968. 

aged 34 
Wickert, Alma. Dixon, III., on Nov. 28. 1968. 

aged 77 
Woodward. William L.. Luray. Va.. on Dec. 25. 

1968. aged 88 
Wray. Mrs. Irvin, Roanoke, Va., on Dec. 9, 1968 
Wright, Maude. Boones Mill, Va.. on Nov. 25, 

1968, aged 68 

3-13-69 MESSENGER 3T 



Draft Compliance and Draft Resistance 

:irly in this session of Congress a bill was introduced 
by a bipartisan group of nine senators proposing to abolish 
the draft and support the development of an all-volunteer 
army. The bill is sponsored by such diverse spokesmen 
as Mark Hatfield, Barry Goldwater, and George McGov- 
ern. Toward the same end President Nixon has called on 
the Department of Defense to establish a commission "to 
develop a detailed plan of action tor ending the draft." 
And Secretary Laird has observed that, after the war, "we 
could move toward a voluntary anny situation." 

Any movement to bring about an earlv end to the 
draft certainly merits careful study and enthusiastic sup- 
port. But to be realistic we must note that current pro- 
posals, while moving in the right direction, do not insure 
that conscription will be abolished; and thev may actu- 
ally be contingent upon how soon the conflict in Vietnam 
is resolved. 

Meanwhile, as long as we have the draft, voung men 
of draft age will be confronted with choices that challenge 
each one's conscience. They must experience all kinds of 
interruptions and delays as they make plans for the fu- 
ture, and they will often feel that their lives are hardly 
their own. Some of them, particularly the more gifted, 
the more talented, or those with well-to-do families, can 
find deferment possibilities that bypass the hardest de- 
cisions. Others who have conscientious convictions about 
participation in war may be able to choose alternative 
service and still comply with the demands of the draft. 

But ever since the beginning of peacetime conscrip- 
tion in 1948, some young men, including a few members 
of the Church of the Brethren, have refused to register or, 
more recently, have returned their draft cards, choosing 
to resist the draft rather than to comply with the require- 
ments of a system they feel to be evil. Recently the 
number of draft resisters has increased markedly, and 
even among the young men who have so far complied 
with draft requirements there is a feeling that to cooper- 
ate with the draft is to support conscription for the pur- 
pose of killing. 

What should the church, particularly one of the so- 
called peace churches, say and do on behalf of yoimg men 
facing the draft? Obviously we ought to be doing far 
more than we are presently doing. For what they are 
worth, here are a few suggestions. 

1. Let's recognize that there is little point in having 
historic position if it does not speak to a current neec' 
The most recent Annual Conference statements on th; 
church and war, while acknowledging a variety of o] 
tions, really put the weight of the institution behind thos 
who comply with the draft by choosing some fonn c; 
alternative service. Yet it was evident at Ocean (won 
last summer that the changes accepted by delcgati 
there begin to move in a new direction. The change 
recognized our uneasy conscience about accepting mir 
isterial exemption, about the pavment of war taxes, am 
about accepting a pro\'ision for our conscientious objecj 
tors that does not apply as well to selective objectors. On[ 
wonders, therefore, if the time is not here for a majo' 
review of our position, a review that would ask als^ 
whether vou can say an unreserved no to conscriptio: 
if at the same time you cooperate with it. 

2. Let's begin at once to increase and extend our serv 
ices to men of draft age. Many thousands of young mei 
are honestlv opposed to participating in the war in Viet 
nam, but they get practically no help from their parents 
their teachers, or their pastors, even by way of explaininj 
the options that are open to them. Some of these fellow 
have basic reHgious reasons for their stand; others are las 
certain why they feel as they do. But they need counsel 
ing and understanding and support no matter what op 
tion they choose. The church ought to be helpful simpl; 
because they are persons. A peace church ought to havi 
additional reasons for aiding young men who questioi 
the war system. 

3. Let's turn an attentive ear to the voung people whi 
feel that they must resist rather than comply with th< 
draft. We hope to carry soon in Messenger the statemen 
by one young man who turned in his draft card. Yoi 
may not agree with the resister; you may feel that i 
course which involves that kind of civil disobedience i: 
unwise; but at least you need to listen to all such person; 
who seek honestlv to do what thev think the churcl 
has prepared them to do. Remember that many of th( 
groups that helped to colonize America, including Breth 
ren, came here to escape conscription. Maybe the resister 
to our present brand of conscription can help the rest o: 
us find more effective ways to say no to military training 
and military service. — k.m. 

3 J MESSENGER 3-13-69 

in response 

to a world 
in want 

One of the world's most courageous 
men is Alan Paton, who works from 
within South Africa to correct the na- 
tion's racist order. As he perseveres in 
the commitment to peaceful change, 
Alan Paton takes a long view, a per- 
spective rooted in the faith and hope 
and love of Christ. "Life has taught 
me," he says, "that active loving saves 
me from a morbid preoccupation with 
the shortcomings of society." 

Active loving is the need of the hour. 
It is the need of tomorrow. It is the 
decisive factor between that which 
renders human life utterly useless and 
that which makes it fully possible. 

Active love is the vocation of Alan 
Paton. It is the calling also of such 
persons as those who transport medi- 
cines and food for airlift to Biafra, 
who minister to refugees in Vietnam, 
who demonstrate new methods of agri- 
cultural development in India and Iran, 
who teach family planning in Ecuador, 
who establish a cooperative store in 
inner-city Baltimore. This witness to 
the way of love is the task of some 500 
additional mission and service workers 
on assignment in 20 countries under 
Church of the Brethren World Min- 

Moreover, active loving is your call- 
ing, too. It is your calling in daily 
relationships, in life decisions, in your 
support of life-sustaining ministries to 

Out of the relentless struggle for the 
freedom and the dignity of all men, 
Alan Paton pleads that when there is 
a knock on the door, answer it. "You 
will never know if the man outside is a 
friend or an enemy until you open the 
door. But if you do not open the door, 
you can be sure what he will be." 

One Great Hour invites you to open 
the door on a world in want — in 
want, above all, of the active love 
which is yours through Christ to 







District . 

(Please send this form with your gift to the 
Church of the Brethren General Board, 1451 
Dundee Ave., Elgin, 111. 60120) 



No Room for Them? Four fifths of the people in our nation enjot/ the pros- 
peritij of our abundance. Manij of the others live in the Southern mountains. 
by Ernest H. Walker, page 3 

Faces of the One Fifth. Photography by Edward Wallowitcli. page 5 

Harold B. Statler: Ecumenical Churchman. The duties of an executive for 
a state council of cliurclies are varied and ck'nunnliiiii, and fJ)ei/ <!^ive liini an 
unu.s-ual perspective from whicli to view cooperative CJiristianitij. by Richard 
L. Landnim. page 8 

Pedregal Alto: A High Place Full of Stones. Peruvian families are hard at 
work Iniilding a new communitt/. thanks to the leadership of their Protcsiant 
lay niinisier and gifts from Church World Service, by Theresa Herr. page 21 

Speaking Up and Speaking Out. Leona Dick insists that "All Life Is Holy." 
James Poling asserts that "The Conservative Is Not the Enemt/." Fred Sniitli 
asks, "Is Nonviolence Still Workable?' page 24 

Other features include "Day by Day," by Ray and Elaine Sollenberger (page 11); "Inside 
the Congregational Arena," news of local churches (page 14); "The Widening World of 
BVS" (page 16); and a review of two books pointing up "Old Testament Insights on God's 
Action in the World," by Byron E. Dell (page 28). 


The events diat accompany /c.sii.s' death and resurrection arc meaningful a.s histonj, Ijut llicij 
also illuminate what Is happening in today's world. Contributors to the Easter issue speak 
from a variety of vantage points, looking from past to present, from present to past, even to 
the future, almost as if each one wanted to offer a new variation on a familiar theme. Among 
the writers arc Ronald Morgan, Andreiv Murray, Howard Miller, Conrad Burton, and several 

PHOTO CREDITS: Cover. 2, 12 Edward Wallowitcli; H Religious News Service: Ifi (lop to bottom) Joanna Nell: 
(lower right) A-1 Passport Studio, Inc.; 17 Charles Cable 

Kenneth I. Morse, editor; Wilbur E. Brumbaugh, 
managing editor: Howard E. Rover, director of news 
service; Linda Czaplinski. assistant to the editors. Mes- 
senger is the official publication of the Church of the 
Brethren. Messenger is copyright 1969 by the Church of 
the Brethren General Board. Entered as second-class 
matter Aug. 20, 1918 under Act of Congress of Oct. 
17, 1917. Filing date, Oct. I, 1968. Messenger is a 
member of the Associated Church Press and a sub- 

scriber to Religious News Service and Ecumenical Press 
Service. Biblical quotations, unless othenvise indicated, 
are from the Revised Standard Version. Subscription rates; 
S-i.20 per year for individual subscriptions; S3. 60 per 
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VOL 118 NO. 

Every daiy we experience s«Miietliing of tlie death 

of the LORO JESUS, 
so that we may also know the power of the life 

of Jesns in these bodies of ours. 
\¥g are always facing death, 
but tills means that ymi know more and more 

of life. >C<r.J:ll-llIPULllp>) 

- f 


ruiisru OF THE BRETHREN ^^ 3/27/69 


a death and Jife thenie. . . 

Every day . . . something of his death 

Easter is contemporary. This is as it should be. Every 
springtime ought to reaffirm as well as to recall Christ's 
resurrection. What looked like a dead tree buds and blos- 
soms. Dark, dull fields are punctured by green blades. 
There is a new warmth in the air. Our spirits lift. We all 
want to sing alleluias. 

Easter is contemporary — and no one objects. But 
Good Friday? We would prefer to think of it as history. 
Contemporary crucifixions trouble us. Put a cross on your 
magazine cover — and it seems just right for any week in 
the year. Picture an ancient martyr's death — Polycarp, 
Tyndale, or Huss — and no one will protest. But have the 
audacity to recognize Martin Luther King's martyrdom just 
before Palm Sunday, and you get letters, indeed, you get 

Gethsemane and Golgotha, are they not also contempo- 
rary? It subtracts nothing from the uniqueness of Jesus to 
suggest that the garden and the cross are reflected in the 
experiences of many persons today. The trouble is that we 
who honor the crucified Christ may be among the crowds 
who look with distaste at a contemporary prophet and cry 
out, "Crucify him!" Or, being a little more polite and dis- 
believing in violence, we are more likely to observe that if 

some fool is crazy enough to get himself in trouble v 
the authorities, it is obviously his own fault, and he co 
get tiie whole mess straightened out if he simply uses 

But Paul the apostle thought otherwise, and he foun( 
to be otherwise. "Every day," he wrote, "we experiei 
something of the death of the Lord Jesus. . . . We are 
ways facing death." He knew what it was like to be f 
saken by friends, betrayed by an opponent, criticized by 
colleagues, and scorned by the populace. His persecuti 
was also physical, and he suffered bodily harm. But Pi 
saw a connection between crucifixion and resurrection, I 
tween the dying a Christian must experience and the vi 
tory he can also experience, a connection that applies 
men as well as to the historical Jesus. And, says Paul, t 
result is not merely that one man suflfers, but that otl 
persons, including his tormentors, may "know more a 
more of life." 

So there you have a theme to ponder, a death and 1 
theme that runs througii the entire fabric of the Christi 
faith and of the Christian experience. It turns up also 
some of the features, most of them unsolicited, that folh 
in the pages of this Messenger. — k.m. 

BYLINES: Pennsylvanian Elaine Sollenberger (Mrs. Ray) has contributed several articles to MESSENGER. A member of the Everett congregation, she wr 
a weekly column for a local newspaper. . . . Andrew Murray, enthusiastic pastor of Portland's Peace church in Oregon, ftrst presented his "Letter 
Isaiah" as a sermon. The 1968 graduate of Bethany Theological Seminary has encouraged his congregation in such creative efforts as the seven-Sum 
study of youth-adult relations last month. . . . Contributor Howard A. Miller, who has written other poetry for MESSENGER, serves as pastor of the Dix 
Illinois, church. . . . When Manchester College student John Flory returned his draft card, saying, "I can never accept war as a solution to the probit 
of the world," he received commendation from the editor of an Indiana newspaper who wrote that Flory "deserves encouragement in his search for m 
creative and positive answers than we're using today." . . . Dayton, Ohio, is the home of Ronald K. Morgan, pastor of the Mack Memorial church th( 
Pastor Morgan's articles have appeared in previous issues of MESSENGER. . . . D. Conrad Burton, in process of writing a dissertation for his doctoral 
gree, holds the pastorate at the Panorama City church in California. His message of hope to Oedipus grew from a graduate course in literature in wf 
he studied ancient Greek drama. . . . Writer and poet Edith Lovejoy Pierce, known by MESSENGER readers for her poetry, contributes a prose selection 
this issue. Mrs. Pierce lives at Evanston, Illinois. . . . The seventeenth-century English poet George Herbert took the vows of a deacon in the Church 
England after he had received degrees at Cambridge University and had been among the retinue of the court of King James. ... "I am a person i 
learning how to be a Christian" is the way in which Glen Weimer, retired pastor, describes himself. Now living at Urbana, Ohio, where he is recover 
from a heart attack, he served congregations in Michigan, Indiana, Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania before retirement. He writes that he has apprecia 
cards and letters received during his recovery. . . . For twenty-seven years a pastor in the Church of the Brethren, Jacob T. Dick currently seeks a car 
in education. He and his wife Leona, an English teacher, reside in Fresno, California. 

MESSENGER is owned and published every other week by the Church of the Brethren Gen- 
eral Board, 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, III. 60120. Second class postage paid at Elgin, 111. 


by Elaine Sollenberger 

'tes from the diary of a Roman reporter 

!Em: The Nazarene Jesus led a march into the Holy City 
day. Given a purple robe, a crown, and a chariot, the 
nkey rider would have looked more the part of the king 
; crowd acclaimed him. 

But Caesar need not fear for his throne. Only a minor- 
' group of women, children, fishermen, tax collectors, 
ipples, and the like made up the motley parade. No inci- 
nts — only the waving of palm branches and chanting of 
[osannas." I can see this one making front page! 

em: This fellow Jesus surely likes to walk. Today he 
cided that he wanted figs. Everyone knows they aren't 
season. He found a tree full — of leaves, no figs. To 
ow his disgust he put a curse on the tree. I can see my 
iter's reaction to that! Wonder what's on for tomor- 
w. . . . 

em: Off to the temple. If I hadn't been there, I wouldn't 
ve believed it. In a fit of anger Jesus scattered money 
t and right. As he walked by, he upset tables and chairs, 
geons flew in all directions. No wonder rumor has it 
It the chief priests and scribes are plotting a way to get 
1 of this "superman." 

em: Saw that crazy fig tree — it's dead and withered, 
ter, one of the inside boys, mentioned it. Jesus wasn't 
; least surprised. He said something, instead, about be- 
l able to move mountains if you believed you could. Do 
; have a sorcerer on our hands? 

I don't know what the priests are up to, but they 
i full of trick questions. "Is it lawful to pay taxes to 
lesar or not?" So far Jesus has always had an answer 
zy couldn't dispute. One can't miss the obvious de- 
;ht the people take in seeing the priests meet their 
itch. . 

em: I'm as tired this morning as when I went to bed 
>t night. Leaning against rocks in a garden isn't the ulti- 
ite in accommodations. The questions continue: "If a 
jman has had seven husbands, in the resurrection whose 
fe will she be?" At one point Jesus actually said, "Be- 
ire of the scribes . . . who for a pretense make long 
ayers." Must include that in my report; Rome will enjoy 

Thursday: Jesus and the inner circle of twelve had supper 
together. The press was barred. I took a nap. Their sing- 
ing wakened me as the group walked toward the garden. 
It looks as if we'll be sleeping on rocks again tonight. 
Overheard Peter say something about dying with him. 
Perhaps there will be some excitement after all. I'll want to 
question Peter later. 

As we walked a fellow named Judas approached 
and kissed Jesus, who was immediately seized by wait- 
ing soldiers. What a night! The high priest's ques- 
tions, Pilate's decision, the cries of "Crucify him!" He got 
his purple robe, a crown, even a title: King of the Jews. 

Friday: The shouts and mocking are the worst I've ever 
heard at one of these crucifixions. I recognize many of the 
people as the same ones who cried "Hosanna" last week. 
Quite a switch! 

He is dead. Joseph of Arimathea, a well-known mem- 
ber of the Sanhedrin, donated a tomb for his burial. I dare- 
say it won't be much trouble to settle his estate. 

Saturday: This is the day the Jews call their Sabbath. 
Slept most of the day. The town is deathly quiet. 

Next Day: I'm off to buy Cornelia a 
gift, then home to Rome. I wonder if 
she would like a new hairpiece. 
Everyone seems in such a rush. 
Met some women babbling 
over and over, "The 
Lord has risen." A 
strange man greeted 
me by name. His 
face was familiar, 
but I can't recall 
where I ever 
saw him before. It 
seems peculiar that I wouldn't 
recognize one who knows me 
by name. Oh, well, maybe 
later I'll remember. Surely 
glad to leave this place. Hope 
next time I draw a front- 
page assignment. D 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 1 

A Letter to Isaiah 

by Andrew Murray 

They crucified the Prince of Peace . . . 

Dear Isaiah, 

I know that you are not accustomed to getting greetings 
rom half way around eternity and much less from the 
Jnited States. 

I have read your writings many times. Does it surprise 
'ou to hear that your words have lived for such a long 
ime? I find your work both beautiful and diiflcult to un- 
lerstand; both comforting and confusing. I guess the parts 
)f your writings that strike me the most, the ones I read 
)ver and over, are the ones that tell of the coming Prince 
)f Peace. I must tell you, Isaiah, that your words about 
he Messiah have given our best scholars some real work 
D do for about twenty centuries. They question whether 
'ou refer to a king already living in your day, a future 
:ing, or some ideal Messiah that may never come. 

Although I find the scholastic chatter entertaining, it 
eally does not grip my soul. But your words, that's the 
iroblem. If I could forget them or dismiss them as the 
labblings of some antiquated Jewish radical, they would 
lot bother me so. But I can't. I read them and they won't 
it me go; they seemingly have a power in themselves that 
uts to the soft part of my existence and lingers there — 
k-elcome or not. I guess it's difficult for me to see how a 
leople that had suffered as much as your people could 
lossibly keep on hoping for a Prince of Peace. 

The way you described your hope — it is either in 
ome of the most beautiful words given to man or it is 
nsane. You said the coming king of Israel would be called 
Vonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, 
'rince of Peace. Those are pretty high-sounding titles, 
saiah. You also said that he would sit on the throne of 
)avid and rule to the ends of the earth and that there 
/ould be no limit to the justice of his rule and the peace 
f the earth. I guess the part I really like the best is where 
ou tell how the lion and lamb will lie down together and 
hildren will play with snakes, and cows and bears will eat 
agether. That's beautiful! That's really beautiful! You 
now, sometimes you talk like a hippie, Isaiah. 

I guess, though, you wanted peace as badly as I do. I 
[link you were much bolder in doing something about it 
nd your writing certainly shows more courage than my 
^reaching; but I think you must have had the same kind 
if hunger and thirst for peace as I feel in my own mind 

and body. Of course, you saw the armies come right 
through your own country. You probably remember the 
bitter sting of defeat and exile and of seeing your loved 
ones suffer and die. I never saw that. But I've had war 
in my home. We have what we call television now, Isaiah. 
You can watch war and it doesn't hurt you. You can see 
a soldier die while you're eating supper. Your Prince of 
Peace sounds beautiful to me, Isaiah, because in my own 
small way, I hunger for peace. 

You say that the only armor he will wear will be righ- 
teousness and faithfulness? That is — well, it's just won- 
derful! Yeah! I guess that's what you said, isn't it? Won- 
derful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince 
of Peace. 

Listen, Isaiah! Are you ready for this? There are 
many living here on earth today who believe that this 
Messiah, this King, this Prince of Peace — has already 
come. The man's name was Jesus, and he was from Naz- 
areth. And his followers all said — and they still do say — 
that he was the man who fulfilled your prophecy. Now, 
you may believe that! On the other hand, since you were 
a very good Jew, you may not believe it. 

Anyway, this Jesus was a king and then again he 
wasn't. He certainly wasn't born in a kingly fashion — 
tradition has it that he was born in a stable of very humble 
parents. But he was called all of the things you called 
your Messiah — Wonderful Counselor, Prince of Peace. 
When they crucified him, they even said he was King of 
the Jews. That's what I said, Isaiah. They crucified him. 
The Messiah who was to sit on the throne of David and 
rule all the nations in peace and justice was nailed to a 
tree and left to die. That's hard to understand! 

I'll tell you something else that's hard to understand. 
As a matter of fact, you've probably been thinking about 
it but have just been too polite to bring it up. You're won- 
dering why, if this Jesus was the true Prince of Peace, why, 
since about three hundred years after he left the earth, his 
followers have been at almost constant war with one an- 
other. I don't know how to answer that. I wish I could. 
I really do! But, Isaiah, I must tell you now that I am 
among those who believe that Jesus was the Prince of 
Peace — that he was the Messiah. True, I am the first to 
admit that we are just as much at one another's throats 
now as you were in your day. True, the world is not united 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 3 

in a reign of blessed and glorious hope. There is no great 
king of'^the Davidic throne who administers righteousness 
and justice and depends on faithfulness to be his battle 
armor. Instead, all we have is a living memory of a Mes- 
siah and that, I am afraid, is limited to a faithful few. 

But perhaps, Isaiah, you and I both have hoped for 
the wrong thing. You see, I think it is easy when one 
wants peace so badly to hope for and expect a fiery mes- 
senger from God who will come to earth and force us to 
love our brothers and to be just. I think we naturally think 
in terms of rulers because they have the power to do what 
we think must be done. But we must remember that God 
created us free men. As long as we are free. God himself 
cannot rule us, cannot make us just and loving. And so, 
naturally, the son of God — the Messiah — could not es- 
tablish the kind of kingdom that you and I would like to 
see. Since he could not rule us, he died for us. Now, 
that's a shaker, isn't it? As if there weren't enough death 
already in this tired world! But his was different. I don't 
know how; I know only that it was through his death that 
he established his peace. It was through his death that 
he taught us that peace will never come to the world 
through the design of some mighty ruler; that peace — 
true peace — begins in a man's heart and grows out to his 
family, his friends, his city, his country. 

You said. Isaiah, that the people who live in darkness 
have seen a great light. Well, myself, I don't feel that I 
live in darkness — more like a murky gray. I mean, so 
many things seem to be neither black nor white but just 
fuzzy and gray, like a thick fog or mucky smog. Although 
I guess you don't know about smog, do you? And I can't 
really say that I've seen the great light. I wish I could. 
I know some have. But. Isaiah, I know the great light is 
there because at night, when there's no light, you can't even 
see the fog. I've seen glimpses of the light like when there's 
a slight break in the clouds and the sun slips through just 
for a moment. And I know that light is the Jesus, the 
Christ, my Messiah — the Prince of Peace. 

So that is why I sing words of praise and thanksgiving 
because, for me, the Messiah has already come. And 
when I hear again the fantastic and beautiful words you 
have given us, I will assume that they tell of the coming of 
a humble man named Jesus. 

Yours truly, 
Andrew Murray 



4 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

Iris thrusting up between roots 

of a forty-year-old cedar — living things 
Neither knowing those who lay buried 

six feet down 
Who had viewed a world of horse-drawn carriages 
and had never heard the sound of 

the eighty horsepower John Deere 
in the field from which the 
small square of sacred and 

hallowed ground was borrowed 
long ago 

Old grave markers 
fallen at last 

succumbing to old age as had those 
who lay now long since decayed 

ashes to ashes 

dust to dust 

And I — a living thing 

who were the unknown dead 

with what dreams did they live and 

for what accomplishments were they 

who cried over the cold grave 
in the evening 

when the friends had all gone home 
to do chores and plan for 
tomorrow's spring plowing 

what will spring say when I am absent 
from the living things 

the iris 
the cedar 
the birds 
the hickory 

Flutter of wings overhead 

Cacophony and harmony of winged creatures 

now resting and singing — living things 

ignorant of those who lay 

covered with clay and shaded by the cedar 

Buds on tips of twigs betray 

dead-appearing hickories — living things 
now throwing off the sleep of winter 
soon to dress out in leafy green 
soon to begin building 

those hard delicacies for 

busy hollow-cheeked chipmunks 


a mystery of life and death in a 
small spot of common earth 
that shelters the dead and 
brings forth the living things 

deafening testimony of 

Lord of the living and the dead 

Able to bring from death 


Spring in an Old Cemetery 

by Howard A. Miller 

3-27-«9 MESSENGER 5 

The Day I Became a Draft Resister 


, 1... ,_ r~i.^-. 


/ left the little brick building feeling fine . . . 

The office of the Lafayette draft board is located in a small 
brick building on the edge of a typical shopping center. I 
parked my car, got out, and tensely walked to the door 
and into the office. I tried to relax as I spoke to one of 
the two women in the office, explaining why I was there. 

Fifteen minutes later I left the two women in the little 
brick building on the edge of the shopping center. I 
left smiling and relieved, feeling very much at peace, feel- 
ing strangely free, feeling that there was much in life to 
affirm. It was November 14 — a day I'm likely to remem- 
ber because it was a day of commitment. I left behind me 
in that little brick office my draft card and notice of classi- 
fication and a letter explaining my decision to refuse to 
cooperate with the Selective Service system in any capacity. 
It was the day I became a draft resister. 

My decision to resist the draft was not an act of re- 
bellion against the values which my parents had tried to 
instill in me or against the values strongly emphasized by 
the Brethren tradition, but rather a fulfillment of these 
values. I have always been impressed by the tone of 
Christ's life with his emphasis on love, compassion, and 
understanding rather than on hate, vengeance, and distrust. 
I admired the strength of a call not only to love one's 
neighbor but also one's enemy. It soon became apparent 
to me that it would be difficult to formulate a life-style on 
the basis of these ideals, especially as a citizen of a nation 
which rejects such an approach on the international level. 
It also became apparent that the church was interested in 
acting on the basis of these ideals when it was convenient: 
That is. love your enemies — after they are defeated and 
can no longer pose a threat; be very humane to defeated 
Japs and Germans. But in times of crisis, the church 
would prefer to remain silent or try to adjust the interpre- 
tation of Christianity to the situation (for example, instead 
of opposing the slaughter of parents, support the noncon- 
troversial aid to innocent orphans which would satisfy any 
pangs of guilt and help convince the givers that they are 
concerned Christians). The need was for a new and radi- 
cal commitment to the spirit of Christianity in the face of 
a political power inclined to repress whatever actions are 
not in its best national interest. 

How does this lead to draft resistance? Very simply, 
there is in America today the most powerful military ma- 
chine that has ever been in existence. It is designed to kill 

men. It is designed to kill men efficiently and indiscriir 
inately on a large scale. In fact it is involved in such actio 
at the present (recent figures released in Saigon show th! 
the allies kill an average of 523 communists daily). And i 
all probability such action will continue in the future. 

Man is called by God to celebrate life, not to accelerat 
death. Christ came to spread compassion, not napalm and 
antipersonnel explosives. He came to emphasize the valui 
of human life, not the sacrifice of that life to worldb: 
causes. For those who value human life more than nationa 
power, material wealth, or abstract ideals, there seems tc 
be one alternative — uncompromising opposition to the' 
military machine, to the death machine. For those who 
believe that individual persons are of value in themselves 
and that their worth is not determined by the country they 
live in, the culture they belong to, or the ideology theyjl 
embrace, there seems to be one alternative — uncom-l 
promising opposition to a system that makes judgments ofi 
life and death on this basis. When individual lives become' 
mere units for keeping score in a power struggle, a radical 
eflbrt must be initiated to challenge the present system of 
values in an attempt to turn them back to the basic, the 

We must attack the root of the problem, the drive 
toward militarism. Our whole culture is interwoven with 
justifications for military action as a solution to problems, 
a solution to people. Our culture is pervaded by rationali- 
zations which lead us to accept what we are told is the 
repeated necessity of war every eight years, every ten years. 
This is an organized effort, a planned drive. Thousands of 
men sing the praises of war (in the interest of peace); 
thousands of men are employed in the mechanics of war- 
making, of war planning. It is an effort financed with 80 
billion dollars and enjoying full government support. 

How can a handful of individuals challenge such a 
massive program? They can't if all they are interested in 
is talking peace, if all they are interested in is adjusting 
to and working around the present war system. The only 
way is if they can manage to break through the system of 
thought upon which the militaristic approach to life is 
based. There must be a revolution. Not a revolution to 
overthrow a government, but a revolution to overthrow a 
tyrannical system of thought. Man does not have to be 
trapped by ideological or intellectual systems, he does not 

6 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

jiave to be trapped by structure and forced into situations 
Inhere the only apparent solution is atrocity. He can live as 
|i human being, he can treat other individuals as human 
i^eings, he can truly go about celebrating the beauty of life. 
But to do this he must be freed. 

j The return of a draft card is a symbolic act. The draft 
[will not be stopped by draft card turn-ins. The war will 
not be stopped. But the return of a draft card is the be- 
ginning of the revolution. It is a dramatic attempt to 
mobilize opinion, to raise questions ordinarily glossed 
over, to challenge directly the military system, to under- 
mine the assumptions on which the military machine is 
based. Ignazio Silone, in the novel Bread and Wine, says, 
"In the Land of Propaganda ... a man, any man, any 
little man who goes on thinking with his own head, im- 
perils public order. Tons of printed paper repeat the gov- 
ernment slogans; thousands of loud-speakers, hundreds of 
thousands of manifestos and leaflets, legions of orators in 
the squares and at the crossroads, thousands of priests 
from the pulpit repeat these slogans ad nauseam, to the 
point of collective stupefaction. But it is enough for one 
little man to say 'No!' in his neighbor's ear or write 'No!' 
on the wall at night, and public order is endangered." 

In the same way, the return of a draft card says "No!" 
in a public and dramatic way, which provides the platform 
for an assault on the whole mind-set that sanctions and 
supports the death machine. The acceptance of an alterna- 
tive to military service does not do this effectively, but 
instead channels thousands of potential war resisters into 
areas of social concern which will in no way affect the 
operation of the military machine. 

The return of a draft card is the freeing of oneself from 
the grips of the system. It is a statement that "I will no 
longer be intimidated. I will begin to live now as a com- 
passionate person, regardless of the consequences, and I 
will begin now to tell other men they can free themselves 
from a system which forces them to commit acts they 
abhor." It is a complete commitment to the cause of 
brotherhood. It is the beginning of a new life-style. Man 
can live in peace. Man can be humane. In fact he can 
do so in the face of violent opposition, in the face of 
slavery, war, oppression. Man can be free. He must be 
willing to accept the consequences of freedom, but he can 
be free. He may be imprisoned, he may be killed; but 

the goodness of life is measured not by its length but by 
its depth, by its quality, by its intensity. The return of a 
draft card is the decision to begin living as a free man, a 
compassionate man, now. 

The Church of the Brethren has long emphasized pac- 
ifism, but it has tended to suggest the withdrawal of a 
community of believers from that which is sinful and 
worldly. Today, though, it is time to move out into the 
world with an evangelizing spirit, an active pacifism. Fol- 
lowing the teachings of Christ means ministry to the needs 
of the suffering, an attempt to heal the broken. But not 
only that, it means also a direct assault on the causes of 
suffering. In the case of militarism and conscription, I feel 
it means that the Christian must not merely find personal 
alternatives to participation in war but must also put his 
body in the way of those who would wage war. This belief 
led me away from the usual approach taken by Brethren 
to seek out a course of action which in my interpretation 
was closer to the call of Christ. This belief led me to 
confront and to challenge directly the recruitment arm of 
the death machine and the assumptions upon which the 
whole machine is founded. This belief led me to draft 
resistance as the first step toward a new life-style of radical 
commitment, toward the building of a hard-core peace 
movement which will withstand the pressures from govern- 
ment or from the public in the ongoing affirmation of the 
possibility and reality of brotherhood. D 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 7 

There he was, on Friday afternoon: 
Hanging on a cross; up a tree! 
I looked up at him and said, 

"Jesus Christ! What, in God's name, are you doing up there? 
"How in the world can you do anything about 
race riots 

or napalm bombs 
from a cross, 
with your hands and feet nailed tight? 
"I can't see how you can cope with 
substandard housing 
or drug addiction 

or despair and hopelessness. 
"Come down to earth!" I cried. 
But he didn't. 
At three o'clock he died. 
God died! 

On Saturday, it was all over. 
And then. . . . 

Up There... 
And Down Here 

There he was, again, on Sunday morning! 

Walking in the garden; outside his tomb! 

I looked over at him and said, 

"Jesus Christ! What, in God's name, are you doing down here? 

"It's my word you've come down to, bringing brotherhood, 

and goodwill 
toward men 

while the scars are still fresh in your hands! 
"I can see now that it's I who must 

build new cities, 

renew warped lives, 

instill faith in the future. 
"You must stay here, on my earth!" I pled. 
And he did! 

At dawn today, he arose from the dead! 
God lives! 

by Jack Williams 

8 MESSENGER 3-27.69 

In the }^ar That King and Kennedy Died 

by Ronald K. Morgan 

In the year that King and Kennedy died 
I saw the Lord 
lying on a curb 
t}loody and beaten 
and his compatriots filled the streets. 

Above him stood the police 

each had six-chamber guns 
blood stained clubs 
well-padded helmets 
a mask to cover his face 

and one called to another and yelled, 
"Get that Yippie b . . . " 
"Club that long-haired b . . . " 
"The whole street is full of his kind." 

And the ground trembled with troops 
shook with violence 
and the street was full of smoke. 

And I said, "I'm sick 

And I live in a sick society 

for I have seen the Lord 

and he was beaten again in the street." 

Then one of the rioting police came near 
eyes red with hate 
staining my sleeve with his dripping bludgeon. 

And I thought 

the blood is on me 
to heal or accuse? 
to forgive or show guilt? 

And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, 
"Does anyone care? 
Will somebody act?" 

And the answer came back 
"Let George do it." 

And the Lord slumped in his cell 
"They hear but don't understand 
They see but don't perceive." 

Then I said, "How long, Lord?" 

"Until cities lie waste 

and houses are empty 
there will be burning again. 
But there will be a stump 
when the burning is done 
that will be a holy seed." 

And I said, "Lord, you mean me?" 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 9 


by D.Conrad Burton 

Oedipus! You need not be bound! There is a way! 

I recently met a noble but tragic character, long famous in 
the annals of ancient Greek literature but one with whom 
I personally had had very little contact. The man to whom 
I refer is Oedipus the King. 

Oedipus is the hero, or perhaps I should say, the anti- 
hero, of some of the world's greatest dramas. He is the 
chief character in three of the tragic masterpieces written 
by Sophocles in the fifth century B.C. I first met this char- 
acter in a filmed version of what many call Sophocles' 
best play. Oedipus Rex. I then walked with him through 
the tragic path of his life and his family's life that unfolded 
in more detail as I engaged in a study of that text and the 
texts of Antigone and Oedipus at Colonnus. In this walk, 
with the help of persons more perceptive than I am, I 
became aware of a wondrous quality of goodness that is 
a part of my own life, a quality which too often goes un- 
recognized and unacclaimed. 

Oedipus is important not only because he happens to 
be the lead character in an ancient drama. Rather, he is 
important because he represents a great dramatist-philoso- 
pher's concept of what life was all about. Oedipus was 
the everyman image through which Sophocles attempted 
to define and reveal the spirit and character of his own age. 

Sophocles lived and wrote during that period of history 
when ancient Greek civilization was in full bloom. As a 
result, he was working with the distilled concepts and in- 
sights of generations of experience. One might expect 
that, having all of this accumulated experience in hand, 
he would have revealed some new and exciting and hopeful 
insights into the meaning of life and of man's involvement 
in it. 

Instead, just the opposite occurred. The result of this 
one thousand-year walk into knowledge was not a spirit 
of hope, was not a spirit of eventual triumph — it was a 
spirit infused with deep sense of tragedy. Life, for all 
the attainment which civilization had achieved, was for 
man more a riddle at the end than it had been at the 
beginning. And Oedipus personified this world view. 

In Oedipus Sophocles presented to the world a noble 
man who had done his best. He had taken every possible 
precaution to refute and render impossible the working 
out of the mysterious oracles which had ushered in his life. 
And yet for all his noble character, for all his intense and 
dedicated effort to do otherwise, for all his behaving ad- 

mirably through his life circumstances, he failed! Ancj 
compounding the tragedy of his failure was the fact tha' 
his noble actions were doomed to failure from the begin; 
ning. They were doomed because the world view o, 
Sophocles provided no room for the redemptive power o' 
good intent or of providential guidance. His was a workj 
of invisible barriers, barriers through which a man musij 
pass but for whose openings there were no guides. ( 

Oedipus is presented as a good man wanting more tharj 
anything to live honorably and responsibly. But becausel 
of the innate blindness of his own humanity and because 
of the unfeeling, noncaring, indiscernible nature of the 
powers behind the universe, he found himself stumbling 
unwittingly from error to error and from sin to sin until 
at last his whole life came crashing down around him. 
Finally, near the end of Oedipus Rex with a cry of agony 
he grips his head and moans: "I have been found ac- 
cursed in birth, accursed in wedlock, accursed in the shed- 
ding of blood." With that he rushes into the palace and 
blinds himself in an effort to purge his life from the luckless 
evil of the compassionless maze in which he had become 
enmeshed. Then in his blindness he stands alone, his life 
tragedy compounding itself in the midst of his own lostness. 

The story of Oedipus the King really shook me. Can 
you imagine living with a world view like that? a world in 
which there was no word like providence? a world in 
which there was no concept of providential concern for 
creation, and certainly no concept of God as love? No 
concept of God as a heavenly Father who cares, who is 
morally responsible, and whose ways can be known and 
of whose faithfulness there is no end? 

I found myself wanting to cry out. "Oedipus! Oedipus! 
You need not be bound! There is hope! There is a way! 
Even in the horror of the unwitting incestuous darkness 
that has gripped you, there is a way!" 

I could not help thinking that at about the same time 
the story of Oedipus was being written in Greece, another 
story was being told in the faraway city of Babylon. But 
what a different story it was; what a different world view 
it reflected! It was a story being penned by an exile. He 
was a prisoner of war, a refugee in a far country, and his 
name was Isaiah. In contrast to Sophocles, his life circum- 
stances had not brought him wealth and comfort. He was 
living in the midst of real difficulty. Yet he had a deep 

10 MESSENGER 3-27-69 




sense of peace and even more importantly, a deep sense of 

Oedipus Rex ends with a blind man stumbling hope- 
lessly into banishment. As he goes, the chorus intones: 

"Dwellers in our native Thebes, behold this is Oedipus, 
who knew the famed riddle and was a man most mighty; 
what citizen did not gaze with envy on his fortunes? Be- 
hold into what stormy sea of dread trouble he has come. 
Therefore, while our eyes wait to see the destined final 
day, we must call no one happy who is of mortal race 
until he has crossed life's border, free from pain." 

Isaiah, on the other hand, standing in long tradition 
of insight of those who had come to know Jahweh, wrote 
to his people, from the midst of his own trouble, a cry 
of challenge: "Make straight in the desert a highway for 
our God. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every moun- 
tain and hill be made low; the uneven ground shall become 
level, and the rough places a plain. And the glory of the 
Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, 
for the mouth of the Lord has spoken. . . . 

"Get you up to a high mountain, O Zion, herald of 
good tidings; lift up your voice with strength, O Jerusalem, 
herald of good tidings, lift it up, fear not; say to the cities 
of Judah, 'Behold your God!' Behold, the Lord God 
comes with might, and his arm rules for him; behold, his 
reward is with him, and his recompense before him. He 
will feed his flock like a shepherd, he will gather lambs 
in his arms, he will carry them in his bosom, and gently 
lead those that are with young" (Is. 40:3-5, 9-11). 

What a difference! And this difference is the goodness 
in my own life that I was talking about earlier — not a 
goodness or a blessing that I have earned and certainly not 
one that I have merited or one that is innately mine — but 
rather a matchless worth that has come into my life be- 
cause of the incessant effort of a loving God to reveal 
himself and of an historic response on the part of percep- 
tive and receptive men who have opened their lives to his 
self-revelation and who have passed their insights and 
their deep convictions on to us. 

At this Easter season we are celebrating the great 
"Amen" to Isaiah's convictions — the Amen that came 
with the resurrection of Jesus Christ. And with this great 
Amen even deep human tragedy begins to take on new 
meaning. It gives new perspective to the reality of suffer- 

ing. It brings hope even in the midst of pain. By it, all 
efforts toward noble living are affirmed. The horror of 
unwitting error in an unintelligible maze is overcome, and 
an unknown word comes alive — the word providence. 
With this word, the idea of inscrutable fate gives way to 
the gracious concept of a divine providence whose rod 
and whose staff are with us though we walk through the 
valley of the shadow of death. What a difference! To be 
able to live with this kind of trust! With this kind of 
assurance! With this kind of hope! With this kind of 
splendid aflSrmation! 

I'm talking about a trust, a hope, and an affirmation 
that are live options today. They are not just warm mem- 
ories coming to us out of Isaiah's past. This providence 
is still at work and a shout of "Amen" can still be heard. 
A modern prophet, the late Dr. Martin Luther King, 
who knew well the deep meaning of human tragedy, put 
it very clearly in his "Pilgrimage to Nonviolence": 

"In recent months I have . . . become more and more 
convinced of the reality of a personal God ... a living 
reality that has been validated in the experiences of every- 
day life. Perhaps the suffering, frustration, and agonizing 
moments which I have had to undergo occasionally as a 
result of my involvement in a difficult struggle have drawn 
me closer to God. In the midst of outer dangers I have 
felt a real calm and known resources of strength that only 
God could give. In many instances I have felt the power 
of God transforming the fatigue of despair into the buoy- 
ancy of hope. I am convinced that the universe is under 
the control of a loving purpose. . . ." 

It is necessary always for Christians to be examining 
the meaning of faith for their own particular circumstances. 
We need constantly to be asking ourselves what our mis- 
sion is here in this place. What does God's love demand 
of us in this situation where we now stand or in that 
situation where we should be standing? As a Christian I 
will continue to press for such a questing in my own life 
and in the life of the church. Our faith must have this kind 
of real-life practicability. 

But at Eastertime I would also remind you that much 
already has been accomplished. As a result, we stand in 
a living stream of blessing, and there is a story to be told — 
Christ is risen. And so, ours is not only a faith for living — 
it is also a faith of celebration and a faith of acclamation. D 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 11 

Hope Is a Constant Necessity 

by Edith Lovejoy Pierce 

And that is what the risen Christ provides . . . 

Much of the present turmoil in the world can be laid to 
lack of belief in the future. For the future has been a kind 
of fourth dimension in life, an extension in which dreams 
would find fulfillment. We laugh at our forebears for 
emphasizing "pie in the sky by-and-by." But pie on 
earth — and "instant mix" at that — is no more sensible. 
Because we cannot trust to the slow fruition of nature or 
the final affirmation of religion, everything must happen 
now for us to take part in it. Freedom now. Revolution 
now. Unfortunately, the attempt to force social growth 
produces not freedom but anarchy. 

Is ours the first generation to decapitate society? The 
ancients, unable to envision social change, placed their 
better world beyond the tomb. But modern secular man 
has given up the afterlife, so there is no justice anywhere 
unless there is justice on earth. (One might argue that 
the very concept of justice implies another world, since 
there is so obviously no justice in this world. Where did 
we get the idea?) 

Of course we should not give up our attempts to im- 
prove life in this world. One does not have to try to block 
change if one deplores impatience. Change will come, is 
coming, at its own pace, which is fast. 

The hydrogen bomb, along with secularization, is at 
the bottom of man's distrust of the future. The neglected 
poet, starving in his attic, could comfort himself with the 
thought that one day his poems would be discovered and 
appreciated. But if the world is going to blow itself up 
shortly, his poems, along with much else, will never find 

This lack of a future thrusts back into the present in 
all kinds of ways. Premarital sex? Of course. Who can 
wait for marriage? What if the boy is drafted, is killed? 
What if the world blows up? 

Private debt? Of course. Why save for a future that 
may never come? Spend everything now and forget about 
old age. Naturally, this attitude lends itself to exploitation 
on the part of merchants who virtually make slaves of the 
weak who are unable to resist the lure of advertising. We 
deplore government deficits, but do we ever stop to deplore 
the prevalence of private debt which enslaves a citizen? 
We talk of freedom, but how much freedom does a man 

have who is no better than an indentured servant? He 
must slave to pay the mortgage, to pay installments on the 
car and color television set. No wonder he becomes frantic 
at the thought (mythical or otherwise) that someone of 
another race might take away his job or decrease the equity 
in his house. 

And so it is the young who are left to strike out in 
adventurous channels. They alone are unmarried, unen- 
cumbered, and unfettered. Perhaps their only failing is not 
that they try, but that they try too hard. They feel they 
must personally produce Utopia by next week. They cannot 
allow time and history to contribute to the task. And so 
everyone over thirty is suspect, because the old, and even 
the middle-aged, remember history and recognize the pow- 
er of time. 

Youth goes too far and youth, too, are exploited by 
the merchants of appeal. But mainly it is the middle-aged 
who find themselves the victims of our youth culture. Try 
to buy a sensible dress for a woman in her "sunset years." 
There isn't a mannequin over twenty-five in any shop win- 
dow. The youth culture downgrades age. No one grows 
old. No one grows any older than "elderly." If you are 
just plain old you are near to death. And death is the 
big taboo. Not sex anymore. Sex is all right because sex 
is youth-oriented. Death is the great new obscenity, be- 
cause death is the end. So age must not approach it. Why 
is death the end? Because there is no afterlife. There is 
no afterlife for secular man who has lost his religion. 

Now we see how this loss of the future conditions the 
present. For just as the past stretches forward into the 
present through memory, so the future, or lack of it, colors 
or shadows the present. And a futureless present is a very 
sad age in which to live. 

The essence of the Christian faith is not morality but 
existential hope. Perhaps morality, or our interpretation 
of it, is only relative. What is moral may vary from one 
civilization to another, but hope is a constant necessity, 
and this is what the risen Christ provides. Hope, a future, 
and an afterlife. This should not prevent us from trying 
to improve the present, but it should save us from despair 
when we are unable singlehandedly to produce instant 
Utopia, n 

12 MESSENGER 3-27-69 




■m. "S, 



- ^»: 













% ^ 

To Celebrate 

Rise, heart; thy Lord is risen. Sing his praise 

Without delays, 
Who takes thee by the hand, that thou lil<ewise 

With him may'st rise: 
That, as his death calcined thee to dust. 
His life may make thee gold, and, much 

more, just 

Awake, my lute, and struggle for thy part 

With all thy art: 
The cross taught all wood to resound his name 

Who bore the same. 
His stretched sinews taught all strings what key 
Is best to celebrate this most high day. 

Consort both heart and lute, and twist a song 

Pleasant and long; 
Or, since all music is but three parts vied 

And multiplied, 
O let thy blessed Spirit bear a part. 
And make up our defects with his sweet art. 

This Most High Day 

by George Herbert 

14 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

day by day 

Being in a parsonage family, our chil- 
dren often get a lunchtime grilling from 
their father on Sunday. "Did you follow 
the sei-vice today? Do you know what 
the sermon was about? Do you remem- 
ber anything that was said? What did 
you hke best? Did you sing the hymns?' 

While we are sure that the children 
sometimes grow weary of this quizzing, 
they usually submit, though with some- 
thing less than an overabundance of en- 
thusiasm. Once in a while, however, this 
does launch us into a hxely conversation. 
And on the strength of those experiences 
we think there is merit in discussing the 
Sunday service. 

Granted, an every-Sunday approach 
may get your family to the saturation 
point in short order. Nevertheless, there 
are times when we have found our Sun- 
day noon table conversation to be an 
extension of the morning worship hour. 
The absence of religious architecture and 
atmosphere is no handicap if we under- 
stand that worship and life belong to- 
gether. Indeed, it is the unnatural sep- 
aration of the two that keeps both from 
becoming what they ought to be. 

We adults tend to measure the effec- 
tiveness of a conversation by how long 
it lasts. While that may be one indicator 
of what is going on in terms of communi- 
cation, another is intensity of involve- 
ment. For our part, a single sentence 
that reflects a child's true feeling is 
worth much more than the lengthy 
speeches to which we adults are given. 
We grown-ups seem to have such a hard 
time learning that true communication 
may only be hampered by too many 

At our family talk-backs on Sundays 
we have seen our children become ani- 
mated and alive with interest, for ex- 
ample, as we talked about the service 
of child-parent dedication we had in 
church that morning. Especially when 
we relate such an experience to the times 

when our own famih' has stood in the 
chancel and dedicated our children and 
ourselves do we have some deeply sat- 
isf\ing periods of sharing. 

When we actually do in our home 
what Daddy encouraged the parents that 
morning to do ("Your child will not re- 
member this day. Therefore, tell him 
while he is still young of the prayers 
and vows made here on his behalf"), 
sense of worship comes into our family 
circle and we feel the bond between us 
grow stronger. It becomes perfectly nat- 
ural at such times to talk about why 
we all go to Sunday church school and 
worship; why we are active in the 
church; what we can do at home to help 
one another grow up in God's family. 

The Sundays when we have baptism 
as a part of the morning sei'vice can 
also be counted on to produce conversa- 
tion that partakes of the nature of wor- 
,ship. A great deal of spontaneous Chris- 
tian education is accomplished in those 
sandwich chats around the kitchen table. 
Even our four-year-old comes in for a 
good bit of theological training in those 
moments from her bigger brother and 

On a recent Sunday when Mother had 
to stay home for the second week in a 
row because of illness, our table con- 
versation took a little different turn. At 
Mother's urging our ten-year-old showed 
Daddy what she had done during the 
ser\'ice. Knowing that Mommy was dis- 
appointed at not being able to go to 
church with the rest of us, she had 
taken notes on the back of the bulletin 
insert and brought them home to her. 

The key sentence of the scripture les- 
son was recorded in careful handwiiting. 
And the rest of the page was filled with 
notes on the sermon. Mother had missed 
the service, but Brenda wanted to in- 
clude her in it, and the notes were her 
way of making it possible. Mother was 
moved with emotion by not being left 
out, and Daddy was pleased to know 
that what he had said made sense to a 

All we mean to do here is emphasize 
the ready-made opportunities we have 
within our families, and to sensitize us 
by the citing of a few examples to be 
on the alert for those "unlabeled" mo- 
ments of worship that may occm- at 
home. — Beverly and Ronald Petry 

Luke 2:41-52. A boy grows up. 
Rom. 12:1-8. This is true worship. 
Rom. 12:9-16. Paul has some practical advice. 
Rom. 12:17-21. Be at peace with all men. 
Rom. 15:1-^. Care about others. 
1 Cor. 12:12-20. All belong to one body. 
1 Cor. 12:21-26. Each needs the other. 
1 Cor. 13:1-13. Nothing counts without love. 
Eph. 2:1-10. We are saved by grace through faith. 
Eph. 2:11-22. All are members of God's family. 

Luke 6:1-5. We have freedom in Christ. 
Luke 10:25-37. Worship and life belong together. 
Luke 12:22-31. God cares for his children. 
John 4:7-24. Who are the true worshipers? 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 15 

Evangelism for today 

A SURE STOPPER in a new set of charts 
and maps compiled by tlie Department of 
Interpretation and used in Self-Allocation 
meetings is a sheet depicting membership 
and giving trends in the Church of the 
Brethren. Explanations invariably are 
called for on two graphs running in de- 
cidedly different directions. 

One graph re\eals that membership in 
the USA is on the downswing, from 
200,067 in 1964 to 188,030 five years 
later. The second graph indicates that 
total .giving is on the upswing, at a more 
accelerated pace, climbing from $1.5.2 
million in 1964 to $18 million last year. 

Rationale: E.xplanations of the church 
membership trend often tend toward 
o\ersimplification. Pared membership 
rosters are a factor. So too is the fact 
that the number of baptisms in this coun- 
try declined for several years, a direction 
reversed only in the past year. 

Of comfort to some, but perhaps not 
to many, is that the Church of the Breth- 
ren shares such a decline with much of 
Protestantism. Some look at the current 
direction and rejoice, on the grounds that 
members now are more committed than 
they were during the season of popular 
religion a decade ago. The stewardship 
graph is sometimes pointed to as evi- 
dence of this fact. But others decry that 
evangelism has become so broad, so so- 
phisticated, so secularistic as to under- 
mine the significance once placed upon 
church membership. 

Query: It was possibly a combination 
of concerns which prompted a query to 
Annual Conference pressing for added 
resources, specifically more personnel, 
from the Brotherhood to assist churches 
in evangelism and fund raising. In 1967 
the Conference approved a recommenda- 
tion from the General Board that the need 
be met by recruiting a number of consul- 
tants to assist in these tasks. 

In the evangelism area, a counselor 
program is now being launched as a 
response to the Conference query. Nine 

ministers — eight of them pastors and 
one a district executive — are a\ailable 
to interested groups on an indi\idual 
basis and at an established service fee. 
The group, di-awai from a wide regional 
or area base, was convened by Carl E. 
Myers, Mission One coordinator, for a 
training and planning session. The coun- 
selors will function under the Parish Min- 
istries Commission of the General Board. 

Enablers: -Mr. M>ers pointed up that 
the team of evangelism counselors repre- 
sents essentially an "enabling ministry," 
ready to assist dishicts, congregations, 
and individual members "to discover and 
to engage in the sharing of the good news 
of God's love for all men, most perfectly 
e.xpressed in Jesus Christ." Underscoring 
the consultant aspect of the program, he 
stressed that the team members will strive 
to work witli rather than for those who 
use their services. 

The team members will offer leader- 



Membership - United States 

ship in training workshops, stimulate ex- 
perimentation in new forms of community 
outreach, and promote the growth of 
church membership through appropriate 
recruitment efforts. But rather than offer 
a prepackaged campaign, the counselors 
will seek to work with pastors and laity 
in evolving specific programs geared to 
the particular understanding and needs 
of those in\ol\'ed. 

Dual thrust: A position paper on evan- 
gelism, a paper still in process of being 
worked out b\ the team of counselors, 
will set the framework for the team's ef- 
forts. In the tentative draft of the paper 
evangelism is interpreted as having both 
a broad outlook and a sharp focus. 

"In its wider context evangelism is 
deeply in\()lved in total witness — in the 
church's presence, action, and word with- 
in today's secular culture. 

"In its focus on individuals evangelism 
is concerned with the response of individ- 

Total Giving 



1964 1965 19ob 1'-' 

196A 1965 1966 1967 

From "Profile," a study resource on the Church of the Brethren 

16 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

ual persons to the unmerited grace of 
God — to what God has done for all men 
in Jesus Christ." 

The paper, in elaboration, notes that 
evangelism in a broad context must take 
seriously "the breadth of the gospel of 
God's reconciliation in Christ as related 
to the whole man and his total society." 
It suggests that "the extension of minis- 
try in God's world must be related real- 
istically to the amazing variety of today's 
fast changing, mobile, pragmatic (only 
what works) and profane (this world 
first) culture." It affirms an evangelism 
"engaged in a continuing search for crea- 
tively new and relevant forms of ministry" 
and the need to find "a new language of 
communication . . . one that will 'contem- 
porize' the biblical idiom and speak also 
through the idiom of modern speech." 

Individual response: As to the focus 
on persons, the statement points to evan- 
gelism as a call "to repentance and faith, 
to a commitment to Christ and his church 
that issues in obedience, and to a sharing 
with Christ in his healing, reconciling 
ministry in the world." 

It further upholds an evangelism "al- 
ways committed to the proclaiming of 
the gospel in a manner that evidences 
trust in the Holy Spirit and that leaves 
men free to accept or reject the reconcil- 
iation God has provided in Christ." 

For the individual Christian, the pa- 
per asserts that witness entails 

— "person-to-person dialogue involving 
complete openness, honesty, and mutual 

— "full acceptance of the Christian 
disciplines (worship, study, service); 

— "joyful response to the love of God 
as manifested in uncompromising obe- 
dience and sacrifice; 

— "the relating of Christian faith to 
daily work. ..." 

Group response: For the corporate 
body, the church, the witness entails 

— "unequivocal statement and action, 
relating the Christian witness to contem- 
porary issues; 

— "sharing in public demonstrations to 

Evangelism counsel- 
ors, 1. to r., front 

row, Carl E. Myers, 

coordinator; Alan L. 
Whitacre, Pennsyl- 
vania; Gordon Bucher, 

Ohio; Charles Rine- 
hart. North Carolina; 
Olden Mitchell, Indi- 
ana. Back row, Kent 
Naylor, Iowa; Fred C. 

Hollingshead, Flori- 
da; William L. Gould, 

Pennsylvania; Albert 
Sauls, Virginia; Rob- 
ert Mays, Washington 

highhght the struggle to 'humanize' our 

— "seeking through task forces com- 
mitted to specific objectives to influence 
the power structures of our times; 

— "a continuing search for and experi- 
mentation with new ministiies in areas 
where God is pressing his reconciling 

In brief, the position paper as set 
forth in its present draft expounds both 
a priestly ministry of reconciliation and 
a prophetic ministry for justice and truth. 

Whether an evangelism thus defined 
succeeds in reversing the downswing of 
the membership chart is an unknown. 
What the new program does regard as 
paramount is an evangehsm encompass- 
ing the fullest biblical perspective pos- 
sible and at the same time responsive to 
the needs of contemporary man. 

To districts and congregations seek- 
ing to work at achieving such an under- 
standing of evangelism, the team of coun- 
selors awaits their call. 

A renewed liturgy 

A LiTUBGY FOR THE PEOPLE, emphasizing 
the themes of celebration and the exten- 
sion of worship to everyday life, has been 
developed by the Consultation on Church 

Written in contemporary English, the 
resouire is officially titled. "An Order of 
Worship for the Proclamation of the 
Word of God and the Celebration of the 
Lord's Supper. " 

Intended for experimental use by con- 
gregations related to COCU, the docu- 
ment, according to the drafters, "is by no 
means a definitive service to be imposed 
upon the uniting churches." 

COCU general secretai^ Paul A. Crow 
Jr. commented, "The whole service rep- 
resents an attempt to be faithful to the 
traditions of the participating churches 
but also seeks new forms of worship." 

One reviewer, Edward B. Fiske of The 
Neiv York Times, said the new liturgy, in 
spite of its being termed "experimental" 
by the authors, is far from radical. He 
said it does offer, however, a preview of 
the type of service much of American 
Protestantism can expect to find in the 
churches in the coming years. 

To be faithful to tradition and yet not 
hang up on denominational differences, 
the drafting committee leaped over much 
of the post-Reformation period to pick 
up worship traditions of the early Chris- 
tian church. 

One of the features of the new order 
is increased participation of the laity, sug- 
gested in the reading of the scriptures 
and even in the leading of the prayer. 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 17' 

Daily workout: The Richardses, Paul, Bob, Mary, Bob Jr., led by Smokey Bob teaches youth, preaches some at Fellowship church 

Now it's leg power 

"Why would I choose to spend three 
months of my life jogging and bicycHng 
cross country this summer?" 

The answer, says Olympic champion 
Bob Richards, is simple. "In spite of the 
popularity of jogging and cycling, there 
are millions of Americans who have yet 
to e.xperience the great joy of the open 
road — under their own leg power." 

It is this concern that underlies the 
Bob Richards Fihiess Crusade, to be 
launched by the 43-year-old athlete on 
June 1 from Los Angeles. The destina- 
tion is New York City, to be reached by 
early August. 

The campaign is expected to give a 
further boost to the sport of jogging, in 
which widespread interest already has 
led to the formation of a nationwide, non- 
profit federation of individuals and clubs 
into the National Jogging Association. Its 
president is Lt. Gen. R. L. Bohannon, 
M.D., USAF (Ret), who along with 
Richards announced the forthcoming cru- 
sade at a press conference last month. 

Trail: As the trail unwinds through 
deserts, over mountains, and along sec- 
ondary roads into hundreds of towns 
and cities, Richards is expected to be 
joined by young and old joggers and cy- 
clists who will escort him through their 
respective areas. With a professional 
agency handling mass media relations 
along the route, numbers of reporters 
also are likely to join in the feat. 

The eastward direction of the crusade 

will be from Los Angeles to Phoenix to 
Kansas City to Des Moines to Chicago to 
Detroit to Cleveland to Pittsburgh to 
Harrisburg to Philadelphia to New York. 

The star trekker, an ordained Church 
of the Brethren minister and former pas- 
tor of the Long Beach, Calif., church, is 
well known among Brethren whose gath- 
erings he has addressed frequently. He 
continues to carry a heavy schedule of 
public speaking, much of it as director of 
the Wheaties Sports Federation. 

Champion: In Olympic competition, 
Mr. Richards won two gold medals in 
pole vaulting. He was tJrree times U.S. 
decathlon winner. He has captured 21 
national titles, beginning with all-state 
honors as a high school senior in his na- 
tive Champaign, 111., where he started 
pole vaulting at age 12. 

It was at Champaign where he came 
into inembership with the Church of the 
Brethren and from where he went on to 
attend Bridgewater College and Bethany 
Theological Seminary. He also holds an 
M.A. from the University of Illinois and 
has taught at La Verne College in Cali- 

At La Verne, where he resides with his 
family, he is a prime leader in the recent- 
ly formed Fellowship congregation of 
the Church of the Brethren. He preaches 
at the church about once a month and 
teaches the high school class. 

The Richardses have a daughter, Car- 
ole, 20, who is maiTied and attending the 
University of Seattle with her husband, 
and two sons. Bob Jr., 18, and Paul, 16, 

both of whom are promising pole vault- 
ers. Bob Jr., who has cleared 15 feet, 
is mentioned by sports writers as a 1972 
Ohmpic track team competitor. 

If the Bob Richards Fitness Crusade 
succeeds, the movement of Americans will 
be to the out-of-doors and the open 
road — on their own leg power. 

Whose way of life 

"Most churches are so comfortably do- 
mesticated in the American culture that 
they can operate with little sense of ten- 
sion or contiadiction between what they 
are doing and what they think the nation 
stands for," declared C. C. Goen, the 
keynote speaker for Bridgewater College's 
74th Spiritual Life Institute. 

As a resTilt of this fact that the pre- 
vailing culture often blurs the lines be- 
tween the mission of the church and 
national objectives, he said the basic 
identity of most Americans is found not in 
a "life-style defined by the God who 
called them" but in "the American Way 
of Life" which becomes their religion. 

Being a Protestant, Catholic, or Jew, 
he added, are "simply three socially ac- 
ceptable ways of being an American." 

Loyalty: Professor of church history 
at Wesley Theological Seminai-y, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Dr. Goen viewed the coun- 
try not as a Christian nation but a 
secular one. He asserted that our pri- 
mary loyalty has been not "to the church 
but to the secular nation which we 
have invested with churchlv attributes. 

18 MESSENGER 3-27-69 


"This is the explanation, incidentally, 
for the great outcry in fa\'or of 'religion' 
in the public schools," he contended, "for 
in our kind of democracy the closest 
thing we can have to an established 
church is the school system." 

He said that when churches fail in 
obtaining the loyalty and discipline of 
their parishioners, "we naturally look to 
other institutions to fulfill their neglected 
tasks of spiritual nmture and moral in- 

"As the established national 'church,' 
the schools instill the values of democ- 
racy, which in turn becomes the nation- 
al religion to which all Americans pay 
ultimate devotion. And the private or- 
ganizations we call churches not only 
accept this arrangement but actually 
reinforce it." 

In driving e\en harder the concern 
about the "cultural captivity of the 
churches," the theologian said that in 
pressing moral issues, the rank and file 
of the church seems reluctant "to seek 
a distinctively Christian role and ful- 
fill it. Whenever a moral crisis erupts in 
a local community, church members 
rarely move into the breech with a genu- 
ine ministry of reconciliation; instead 
they usually polarize themselves accord- 
ing to the conflict patterns which prevail 
in the wider society. They thus reflect 
the culture rather than judge it and re- 
deem it under the grace of God." 

In dealing with the theme of the insti- 
tute, "The Future Shape of the Church," 
Dr. Goen gave top priority to the need 
of church members to be reconciled to 
one another, and to be a reconciling 
force within the world in which they 

A fellow speaker at the institute, the 
college's own David G. Metzler, pointed 
out as three factors in the church's fu- 
ture and its revival in our time the secu- 
larization of modern life, the revival of 
bibhcal theology, and the understanding 
of the church and the world given us by 
sociology. The latter, he noted, "can 
assist the church to perceive the false 
gods its structures often serve." 

Preschool equality 

Watch out for those subtle forms of 

Almost overlooked in Talbot County, 
Maryland, was the fact that the white 
middle class was providing private kin- 
dergartens for their children, while the 
poor, mosth' black, were denied pre- 
school readiness. The poor could not af- 
ford the pri\ate schools, most of which 
are held in churches, and as yet there is 
no public kindergarten in the count\'. As 
a result a high percentage of black chil- 
dren are ill-prepared to enter first grade 
and compete with kindergarten-exposed 
white children. A recent county survey 
revealed that over one half of first-grade 
failures were black, while blacks consti- 
tuted but a third of the total enrollment. 

The Church of the Brethren in Easton 
set out to do something about this ine- 
quality. In cooperation with Talbot Ac- 
tion Group, Inc., the church established 
a free kindergarten to dramatize its inter- 
est, at the same time encouraging the 
county school board to work with deliber- 
ate speed toward beginning public kin- 
dergarten in the county. As a result to- 
day there is a flourishing kindergarten in 
operation in the Brethren church and a 
timetable scheduling a countywide pub- 
lic kindergarten for the fall of 1970. 

The free school held at the church en- 
rolls 23 black and seven white five-vear- 


for the less 

privileged . . . 


meeting in the 

Easton church 

olds all from homes of an annual income 
of $3,100 or less. There are Uvo half- 
day sessions with fifteen children in each. 
The school employs a full-time teacher, 
Mrs. Olivia Williams, who has had post- 
graduate studies in psychology and lan- 
guage arts in elementary education and 
a year's experience teaching a multiracial 
first grade. Also employed full-time is 
Mrs. Joyce Johns, who serves as an as- 
sistant teacher. In addition the School 
Advisory' Committee has organized a 
volunteer staff of ten women, black and 
white (some mothers of the children) to 
help with the hot snack program. 

The curriculum for the school follows 
the program guide of the OflBce of Eco- 
nomic Opportunity which stresses cultur- 
al enrichment and preschool readiness. 

The Easton Brethren have recently re- 
modeled the church's social room with 
new \in\'l floors, improved lighting, fresh 
paint, and window decor. 

The school is scheduled to operate 
from January through May of this year 
at a cost of $4,000. The needed revenue 
has already been raised through mem- 
bers of the church and other interested 
community residents. 

The church s pastor, Kenneth C. Mar- 
tin, who is also president of the Talbot 
Action Group, points out that there are 
plans in motion to enlarge the program 
to an enrollment of 130 children in sev- 
eral churches throughout the county. 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 19 I 


■he church, along with every other 
segment of society, is learning to live 
with mass commmiications. That is, the 
chui-ch is striving not only to exist be- 
side the media but to utilize them and 
to learn from them in its own communi- 
cations task. 

But just as the past two decades have 
seen sweeping changes occur in mass 
media, so has the church's approach to 
the media been decisively revamped. 
The director of the Broadcasting and Film 
Commission of the National Council of 
Churches, William Fore, detailed some 
of the shifts as the following: 

• At the network level, the BFC / 
NCC is engaging less in program produc- 
tion and doing more in program consul- 
tation. In effect the stress is on the re- 
sponsibihty of each net\vork to provide 
programs in the religious public interest. 

• Religious broadcasts tend to be of 
shorter duration. Some of the messages 
with the greatest impact on mass media 
audiences are one-minute and half-min- 
ute spots. 

• The focus in religious broadcasting 
has shifted some from denominational 
centers to local cooperative ventures in 
the major broadcast markets. A cadre of 
local cormcil of churches broadcast pro- 
fessionals has emerged. Denominations 
are pooling program resources in new 

• A new style of relationship is taking 
shape with radio and television in the 
handling of religious news. The spark 
for this came with the Crisis in the Na- 
tion program last summer. 

• The stance of churches is away from 
film censorship to film education. Edu- 
cation is aimed at helping churchmen and 
the public both to be more selective and 
more reflective about what they see. 

These were among trends cited by Mr. 

Fore last month to the Board of Mana- 
gers of the Broadcasting and Film Com- 
mission, which is comprised of representa- 
tives of 18 denominations, the Church of 
the Brethren among them. 

Priority themes: As acknowledged 
outside church circles as well as within, 
some of the most creative and in-depth 
television coverage today occurs on Sun- 
days on the network-produced religious 
programs to which national Protestant, 
Catholic, and Jewish broadcast agencies 
serve as consultants. ABC's Directions, 
NBC's Frontiers of Faith, and CBS's 
Look Up and Live and Lamp Unto Mij 
Feet make up the ongoing cluster. 

While program details for these series 
often come too late to be announced 
through usual church channels, both the 
topics and the guests generally are im- 
pressive. For example, Look Up and 
Live recently carried a four-part series on 
"The Word Is Celebration." On Easter 
Sunday the Dave Brubeck Oratorio will 
be featured. Directions just completed 
four programs on "Black Church — Black 
Power." Frontiers of Faith in February 
zeroed in on issues in Christian unity 
and now is in the midst of a series on 
"Crisis," moderated by black host Del 

Beginning on Easter, Frontiers of Faith 
will begin a fom--Sunday examination of 
poverty and wealth as they relate to 
world development. The series, an- 
nounced previously in Messenger, is en- 
titled "The Challenge of a Closer Moon." 
In several cities local groups are forming 
to follow up the programs with discussion 
and action. 

Currently at the National Council of 
Churches the three priority themes for 
rehgious programs are: (1) justice/ 
rights; (2) peace / violence / war; and 
(3) technology / depersonalization. The 


list is not exhaustive, however, for other 
frequent themes include the Bible, the 
arts, death and resurrection, education, 
ethics, leisure, mission, science, youth, 
culture, vocations, and worship. 

Network relations: In recent months 
religious leaders in some areas have 
pressed hard to retain prime network 
time for religious programming. A year 
ago, for example, CBS decided to drop 
one of the two half hours devoted weekly 
to religious fare. To discuss the matter, 
four representatives of the Broadcasting 
and Film Commission met with eight 
CBS officials. Eventually the additional 
half hoiu- was restored. 

Similarly WNBC in New York, a flag- 
ship station for NBC radio nationally, 
pushed two longstanding religious pro- 
grams to extremely unfavorable time 
slots. Religious spokesmen protested the 
changes and again, after awhile, favor- 
able scheduling resulted. 

In local usage, whether a network 
program is carried directly, retaped for 
later broadcast, or not used at all is 
determined by the local station. NBC 
religious programs get the greatest num- 
ber of delays, it is reported, with most 
of the major markets holding at least a 
week and airing at an hour other than 
that annoimced by the network. 

Religious spots: Widely accepted for 
both radio and television usage have been 
such 60-second and 30-second messages 
or spots as originated by Stan Freberg 
and the United Presbyterian Church. 
Often the spots are tagged with a local 
council of churches credit line. In near 
phenomenal coverage, a Freberg spot 
with a "hippie" motif was used by 300 
TV stations and a second series of Fre- 
berg radio tapes was aired by nearly 
1,000 radio stations. 

Other spots to have been broadcast re- 
cendy have been on the Week of Prayer 
for Christian Unity in January and the 
World Day of Prayer and One Great 
Hour of Sharing this month. Still other 


20 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

nevv films and tapes are an Episcopal 
Church TV spot titled "Being Christian 
Is Not a Spectator Sport" and four radio 
spots titled "There's Always Next Sun- 
day," United Presbyterian spots on "Who 
Cares?" and "The Lesson," and an Ameri- 
can Bible Society spot on Easter. Reli- 
gion in American Life messages urging 
the practice of religion in daily affairs 
are among other spots hitting the top 
media markets. To come in May is a 
series of TV spots produced by the Men- 
nonites dealing with family relationships. 

Church output: From the denomina- 
tions and agencies who cooperate with 
the NCC's Broadcasting and Film Com- 
mission, the current output for radio and 
television is about 60,000 individual pro- 
grams a year. 

While a dozen or more of the denomi- 
nations are in production and distribu- 
tion — some of them such as Methodists, 
United Presbyterians, and Lutheran 
Church in America with fairly extensive 
facilities — the Church of the Brethren, 
Christian Churches (Disciples), Mora- 
vian Church, and Reformed Church are 
members of BFC who do not engage in 
regular preparation of films and broad- 
casts on their own. 

Illustrative of some of the denomina- 
tional releases are two continuing pro- 
grams for youth audiences. "The Place," 
distributed by the Methodists, offers the 
top hits in music and some reflection on 
them by a local teen panel. The Ameri- 
can Lutheran's "Silhouette" also is mov- 
ing ahead in the contemporary pop mu- 
sic field and giving rise to "Silhouette 
Shacks" in many communities where the 
program is aired. 

For children, a new run of 13 "Davey 
and Goliath" programs is to be released 
in May. Produced by the Lutheran 
Church in America and handled through 
BFC ,' NCC, the animated series is prob- 
ably the most avidly received by stations 
of any religious series. The American 
Lutheran Church is also coming out with 
a new series of animated cartoon pro- 
grams, 4)2 minutes each, entitled "Great 
Bible Stories," for incorporation in on- 
going weekday children's programs. 

From NBC-TV's AprU series on "Chal- 
lenge of a Closer Moon": High school 
boys at a new school being built in Ma- 
lawi (above) and narrator Donald Barn- 
house (right), Philadelphia newscaster 

Another Methodist-originated program, 
"Night Call," is a precedent-setting 
phone-in show that provides a nation- 
wide forum on radio. Since last June, the 
program has increased in coverage from 
12 to 83 stations and already has earned 
some of the highest accolades of the 
broadcasting industry. 

Local efforts: Much effective work in 
use of the mass media is being carried 
out by councils of churches having full- 
or part-time staff members assigned to 
broadcasting. Jean Shank of the Prince 
of Peace Church of the Brethren, Dayton, 
Ohio, serves in this capacity for the 
Church Federation of Greater Dayton. 

Some 30 other state or local councils 
have volunteer broadcast representatives 
at work, as in Toledo, where Edward 
Kerschensteiner, pastor of the Heathers- 
down Church of the Brethren, carries re- 
sponsibility in media for the Toledo 
Council of Churches. However, 17 of the 
nation's "major market areas" have no 
religious broadcast representatives at all. 

News handling: With the assassina- 
tion of Martin Luther King Jr. and sub- 
sequent events last spring, the pressure 
from networks upon religious bodies for 
information led to the creation of a 

broadcast news department in the BFC / 
NCC. Don Roper was seconded by the 
United Presbyterian Division of Mass 
Media to head the program and William 
Winslow of the United Church of Christ's 
Office of Communication has joined him 
as an assistant. 

At the same time the churches, in or- 
der to gear up to the electronic media, 
launched a communications system which 
encompassed the use of TWX, AP news- 
wire, telephone tie-lines, and a recorder 
phone to bring about almost instanta- 
neous reporting from major rehgious 
centers across the country. Beyond feed- 
ing the news service, the system has been 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 21 


a major asset to units of the NCC, local 
councils, and denominations in respond- 
ing early to potential crisis situations. 

TV fare: Still another area of the 
churches' mass media ministry is in the 
production of films not only for in- 
church use but for television presentation 
as well. Two such films, toward which 
the Church of the Brethren as a produc- 
tion pajtner contributed a total of $1,500, 
were "Where the People Are," about a 
seminary student's decisions on peace 
and vocation, and "Faith in Revolution," 
on Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia. 
Other new films aimed for TV use are 
"God's Earth," an American Baptist pro- 
duction on the black people of Boston, 
and "Between the Darkness and the Da\- 
light," a Church World Service film about 
world hunger. 

Released last month by the Lutheran 
Church in America was an adult half 
hour T\' special, "Stalked, " written by 
Rolf Forsberg, who did h\'o films earlier, 
"Parable " and "The Antkeeper." 

In terms of films for in-church use, 
there is a dearth of motion pictures sup- 
porti\e of Bible study, the BFC's William 
Fore explained. He indicated explora- 
tions are under way with related depart- 

ments of the NCC as well as \\ith foun- 
dations that might underwrite such pro- 
duction ventui-es. 

Of kinescopes available of past TV 
programs, the BFC reported those in 
greatest demand were "All Things New," 
on the World Council Assembly, "The 
Playboy and the Christian," and a holy 
season discussion of the Jewish Seder for 

Commercial films: The stance taken 
in recent years by the National Council's 
BFC and many of its constituents toward 
commercially produced films has been one 
of education rather than censorship. A 
similar shift has occurred also in the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Concurrently, Bill Fore of the BFC was 
instrumental in encouraging the film in- 
dustrs' itself to define and adopt a sys- 
tem of self-regulation as is embodied in 
the newly-conceived motion picture code 
and rating program. Though \oluntary, 
the system is believed to be the most ac- 
ceptable means of offering guidance in 
the selection of films to the public and 
particularly to concerned parents. 

Looking ahead: E\en with decided 
adjustments a]read\ in the priorities and 
programs of the churches in mass media, 

Among new media ventures is Methodists' "Night Call," a nationwide phone-in forum 

22 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

continual change and radical reexamina- 1 
tion are required of Christian communi- | 
cators, Mr. Fore states. | 

For one thing, he is eager that com- i 
munication not be thought of "as one \ 
more program — 'a thing' to be done j 
along with others like literacy programs I 
or campus retreats. " Instead, he urges i 
that the principles and techniques of j 
communication ought to permeate every | 
aspect of the church's work: missions, | 
education, evangelism, stewardship, wor- | 
ship. "This may require," he notes, "com- 
pletely diiferent kinds of structures which 
take 'communicators' out of their TV 
and film production ghettos and place 
them directly in functional connection 
with missions and education and social 
action programs." 

Still another concern of the BFC exe- 
cuti\e is that the churches remain open 
to developing new approaches to the 
media, "fust as spots were not really in 
the picture a decade ago, so wholly new 
approaches will emerge as feasible in the 
next decade." He lists entertainment 
shows, spectaculars, joint ventures with 
commercial sponsors, multiple packaging 
all in the realm of possibilities. 

At the same time he urges a great step- 
up in educating people about films and 
broadcasts and suggests even social ac- 
tion "to improve the responsibility of the 
media." He foresees cooperation with 
Catholics, the Jewish community, and 
even nonreligious groups "as holding op- 
portunities which we heretofore have 
been afraid to explore." 

Bill Fore's appeal to the church — an 
appeal to the Church of the Brethren as 
to every other communion — is "to shoul- 
der the burden of how to communicate 
the Christian gospel in a world to which 
it seems alien." 

In this effort, the electronic media are 
pivotal. For a church seriously con- 
cerned with dialogue with the world and 
with the sharing of something of the 
moral, ethical, and spiritual dynamic 
which it has been given, cannot be de- 
tached from some of the leading opinion 
molders of the day. — h.e.f. 

Brethren in the news 

Laura Wine, as a \oung registered 
nurse, had applied for missionary service 
45 years ago. Her application was reject- 
ed, however, because she had once had 

In Chicago, the young woman from 
Mt. Sidney, Va., found mission oppor- 
tunities in the Chinese fellowsliip and at 
First church. Still, in 1964, upon retire- 
ment from a career that had included 22 
years of public school nursing in Oak 
Park and four years of directing nurses 
at Bethany Brethren Hospital, Miss Wine 
pursued the dream of overseas service. 
She was accepted by the Foreign Mission 
Commission as a volunteer and assigned 
to work first at Garkida and then Lassa, 
where she became head of the obstetrical 
ward. She undertook a second volunteer 

On Jan. 26, because of a sudden but 
serious illness, Laura was anointed. Lat- 
er in the day she died. The memorial 
service and burial were at Garkida. 

A missionar>- colleague described 
Laura Wine as "one of the most selfless 
persons I knov\'. It was simply her way 
of life to think of others. I believe she 
would not have chosen to go home even 
if she thought this might happen. 

Harry K. Zeller Jr., 196.3 Annual Con- 
ference moderator and former chairman 
of the Church of the Brethren General 
Board, will terminate his 10-year pas- 
torate at the La Verne, Calif., Church of 
the Brethren on April 1. He has been 
named director of development at Casa 
Colina Hospital for Rehabilitative Medi- 
cine, located at nearby Pomona. 

In a sermon to the congregation an- 
nouncing his leaving the professional 
ministry. Dr. Zeller spoke of the "fright- 
ful adventure" one finds in breaking the 
mold from which patterns have been 
pouring out for .30 years. But he said 
he looks to the change with "a \ibrancy, 
a vitality, and a rich excitement." 

He also spoke to attitudes which see 
leaving the pastorate as "a kind of traitor- 
ship" and which implant guilt feelings on 

the minister and congregation alike. Such 
attitudes fail to take cognizance that the 
gap betw^een clerg\- and laity is closing 
fast. Dr. Zeller noted. And he said that 
turmoil and agony — when recognized 
and confronted by members of the parish 
— can become the occasion for enrich- 
ment and renewal rather than the cause 
for disillusionment and defeat. 

In reference to differences within the 
La Verne parish. Dr. Zeller said, "I am 
a better, freer, fuller person, a more ac- 
cepting, alert, ahve person, and these 
transformations have taken place 'because 
of rather than 'in .spite of all that has 
happened in our midst. It is my prayer 
that the same renewal will in due season 
come also to the La \'erne church and 
more specifically to each of you." 

At the Casa Colina Center, Dr. Zeller 
will be part of a program which not only 
pro% ides physical rehabilitation but which 
is exploring the social, vocational, and 
psychological dimensions of well-being. 

Grace Hollinger has recorded virtual- 
ly all the official minutes of the Church 
of the Brethren General Board since it 
was organized. She also has been the 
only administrative assistant in the gen- 
eral secretary's office. 

Although upon coming to Elgin she 
planned to stay not more than five years, 
she remained for 31. One colleague de- 
scribed her as "the best substitute a head- 
cjuarters office could find for the com- 
puterized memory bank it could not >'et 

One of her early responsibilities in 
Elgin was writing program materials for 
the youth department. In 1947 she be- 
came the right-hand aid to General Sec- 
retary Raymond R. Peters, then his suc- 
cessor, Norman J. Baugher, and last year, 
S. Loren Bowman. Functionally she was 
in many ways the General Offices co- 

It would appear that her nine years of 
evening \olunteer work at the Elgin State 
Hospital prompted her interest in the 
work .she now wishes to pursue vocation- 
ally — therapeutic activity among the 
mentally ill. But in fact she was seriously 

Laura Wine ... a selfless way of life 

considering the area of special education 
at the time she first came to Elgin, back 
when she was teaching school near her 
home at Lititz, Pa. 

After two months' travel in Europe, 
Miss Hollinger plans to reside in the 
Harrisburg area, somewhat near her 
home, and work with people "in a new 
kind of way." 

Which institution she will align with 
is yet uncertain, but the civil service com- 
puter in Pennsylvania is working in her 
behalf. As a result of an examination 
taken by Miss Hollinger some months 
ago, seven institutions across the state 
have made overtures to her. 

Ruth Anna HofF, for 14 years on the 
mission staff at Flat Creek, Ky., has re- 
signed effective late this summer. 

During her work with the people in 
the hills and hollows of southeastern 
Kentucky, Miss Hoff has been engaged 
in a wide variety of educational and 
sei-vice ministries. Among them have 
been church school, children's club work, 
Bible school, women's fellowship, day 
camping, sewing classes, and parish 

As part of the growth of the mission 
enterprise, some of the early ventures, 
such as the Dorcas House project of dis- 
tributing material aid, have given way to 
more comprehensive self-help measures. 

While titled director of Christian ed- 
ucation. Miss Hoff has included also 
among her diverse tasks editing the quar- 
terly newsletter and acting as mission 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 23 ' 


readers write 


I have no synipatliy for men deserting 
military service in protest of tlie Vietnam 
War. War is war. The President has de- 
cided American boys should fight in Viet- 
nam in 1969. At another time die President 
said we should fight in Japan. Once a man 
has committed himself to serve in the mili- 
tary, he has given away his rights of con- 
science and protest. He becomes a tool in 
the machine organized to kill — for one 
reason or imother. His choice was made 
when he registered with Selective Sen'ice at 
age eighteen and he neglected, either out 
of ignorance or conscience, to fill out Fonn 
1.50 stating that he was against killing. 

When a young man fills out Form 150 
for Selective Service, he may still go to 
Vietnam. But this time he is going to heal 
in a hospital ratiier than to bum families 
in their homes. This time he is going to 
grow grain radier tlian to spray it with 
chemicals to destroy it and make die soil 
imfit for many seasons. Perhaps the con- 
scientious objector would rather not work 
in Vietnam under some humanitarian or- 
ganization. He could greet escapees from 
communist countries as they enter West 
German refugee camps. He could tell them 
of tlie hope of peace, wearing civihan 
clothes, rather than the threat (or bluff?) 
of war in an aniiy unifomi. 

I have no sympathy for men deserting 
military service in protest of the Vietnam 
War. War is war. But if a soldier reahzes 
diat Jesus really meant to "love your ene- 
mies and pray for those who persecute you"; 
and if the Clirist really meant the words, 
"Do not resist one who is evil. But if any 
one strikes you on the right cheek, turn 
to him the odier also"; and if one can 
earnestly believe the words, "Do not fear 
them who kill the body but cannot kill the 
soul; rather fear him who can destroy both 
soul and body in hell" — then, one can be 
set at ease by realizing the truth in tliis: 
"There is no fear in love, but perfect love 
casts out fear. For fear has to do with 
punishment, and he who fears is not per- 
fected in love." Paul knew what he was 
talking about when he said, "Love does not 
insist on its own way." So often we call 
Jesus a liar in his words, "Blessed (happy) 
are you when men revile you and persecute 
you." We are shortsighted. Our eyes and 
entire selves are turned on our own hides 
— personal and family. So, if a soldier 

comes to this enlightenment from our new 
covenant with God, then he will not desert 
the military service because of the Vietnam 
War. He will leave any and all military 
service because he realizes tliat Jesus is Lord 
and commander. 

Clyde Carter 
Midland, Va. 


I wish to express my appreciation for the 
beautifid poem on the cover of the Jan. 
16 issue of Messenger. It is very signifi- 
cant to those human beings who have had 
the privilege of communicating deeply with 
anodier being. . . 

You have expressed the tnie sense of 
love in a most significant way. 

Sue Stoudnour 
Martinsburg, Pa. 


The Jan. .30 issue of Messenger . . . 
spoke specifically to some of the questions 
which have been frustrating to me — and 
to some other concerned individuals. . . . 

The article about Pastor Galen Miller 
shed some light on the prevalent conflict 
of community involvement versus congre- 
gational harmony. . . . 

W. R. Miller's article helped us to un- 
derstand the problems some of us have 
been feeling with our youth and junior 
higli groups. 

I could go on page by page — this issue 
was just that timely! Not that you an- 
swered all my questions — but you certainly 
helped sharpen some of the issues so that 
I could evaluate them more clearly. 

Mrs. Ralph Dull 
Brookville, Ohio 


In promulgating your esoteric cogitations 
or in articulating superficial sentimentalities 
and philosophical or psychological observa- 
tions, beware of platitudinous ponderosity. 
Let your conversation possess clarified con- 
ciseness, compacted comprehensiveness, co- 
alescent consistency, and concatenated 

Eschew all conglomerations, flatulent gar- 
rulity, jejune babblement, and asinine af- 
fectations. Let your e.xtemporaneous de- 
cantations and unpremeditated expatiations 
have intelligibility without rodomontade or 
thrasonical bombast. 

Sedulously avoid all polysyllabical pro- ' 
fundity. pompous prolixity, and veutri- 
loquial verbosity. 

Laverne Worley 
Hanover, Pa. 


To what or wlioni do we want to draw 
attention in our various church meetings? 
Is it the choir members or their message? 
the minister or God? the leader of a shar- 
ing group or the members? 

Roman Catholics and Lutherans put first 
in their church music the message of the 
choir, so they place the singers in the rear 
of the church and overhead, where they are 
not seen. In many Protestant churches the 
choir faces the audience, giving about equal 
attention to choir members and the musical 
message. A generally approved plan seems 
to be to have the singers facing at right 
angles to the direction of the audience. 
This not only limits attention to individual 
members during the singing but during 
the preaching to follow. 

The Roman Catholic priest diverts the 
congregation's attention from himself to the 
cross by turning his back to the communi- 
cants and facing the cross. All ministers 
who lead in public prayer expect the audi- 
ence to close their eyes so they may think 
of God rather than persons. When a pastor 
wants to have face-to-face contact with the 
audience, he prefers our most common ar- 
rangement of church pews. 

In counsel or discussion groups where 
many take part, the circle or semicircle is 
most advantageous. We want to see one 
another's faces as we share our views. Is 
your church free from old customs in its 
various meetings? 

O. E. Gibson 
Westmont, 111. 


I read with great interest the article 
about the Middle East (Jan. 30). 

I wish to commend the writer of the 
article for his insight and understanding 
of the problem and for his very fair presen- 
tation. I do not often read articles about 
the Middle East that present the two sides 
of the problem with such objectivity and 
perception. It seems to me, too, that the 
Arab side is rarely stated. 

The Arabs feel that they have suffered a 
great injustice and they are disappointed 

24 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

with the West for its apathy and lack of 
support for their case. 

As I was speaking to different groups last 
year about the Middle East, people often 
asked me, "What could we as Christians 
do to help the Arab refugees?" I feel that 
the best thing that any Christian could do 
is to try to understand the problem. In 
order to do that, one has to understand the 
history, the culture, the religion, the values, 
and the economic conditions of the people 
involved in the conflict. Having understood 
that, the duty of a Christian is to plead 
for justice before the world. 

The Middle East is a great threat to 
world peace. Therefore, the duty of every 

person interested in peace is to be inter- 
ested and informed about that area. 

I am very impressed by your church for 
its genuine interest in people and justice, 
and for the efforts you undertake to demon- 
strate your concern. 

Nina BAZotrzi 
Westminster, Md. 


Even though some men are afraid they 
must pay a tax on a gun they wish to carry, 
I hope you will still urge gun control. Do 
you hear women objecting to gun ta.xation? 
We pay taxes for the privilege of nm- 
ning an automobile and for the pleasure of 

owning a dog. Some places impose a tax 
on personal property in the home. Why not 
tax a gun? 

If a man has a legitimate reason for carry- 
ing a gun, he will gladly pay a tax for the 
privilege. . . . 

As a child, I can remember men's rant- 
ing and raving the same way about giving 
women the vote — the same illogical fear 
that their manliness will be hampered. 

We in D.C. feel we need gun registration 
and control, and I for one heartily approve 
the church's backing any effort to combat 
crime and other social evils. 

Bernice G. Eraser 
Washington, D.C. 

Faith Looks Up 

God is always at work, giving full assurance that he works 
for good with those who love him. This past year proved this 
truth to me again and again. 

There have been periods in my life when I coasted along 
on "Easy Street." But a year ago I experienced a radical 
change that suddenly halted my way of life and resulted in 
a struggle for life and a prolonged recovery from major 
surgery and hospitalization. Coupled wdth this was the sur- 
geon's hesitation to make any hopeful predictions about the 

It all began with a simple hunting accident and a cut 
above the eye, from a scope mounted on a borrowed gun. 
The next day I visited the doctor to see if the laceration 
needed stitches. While conversing vwth the physician, I be- 
came desperately ill, vomiting blood profusely. Transfusions 
and X rays at the hospital revealed internal hemorrhaging and 
malfunctioning organs which, during the past months, had 
been enlarging. Major surgery at the University of Virginia 
preceded two and a half months of inactivity and hospital 
rest and seven months of rest and recovery at home. 

But God was not finished in his re-creative process, only 
temporarily delayed. With imeraployment and enormous 
hospital bills, the road ahead seemed impossible. Yet we 
knew that somehow there would be an answer, for we had 
many assurances of compassionate concern, expressed through 
individuals and churches, including prayer groups, prayer 
chains, long distance calls, and letters of inspiration. 

And God did take over with generosity. His concern par- 
ticularly showed through the congregation of the Mount 

Pleasant church, our home church. Further, he used service 
clubs, pastors' groups, doctors, and family members, including 
a five-year-old, who never missed his prayers for "Uncle Dick" 
and just knew that everything would be all right. Thus, at 
the time of dismissal from the hospital, all bills were paid in 
full, and the rest of the family was enjoying health and an 
abundance of food and gifts. 

But beyond all this there has been complete physical 
restoration and a return to full responsibilities as a pastor. 
Through God's healing spirit, I reentered life with a new joy 
and a deep compassion for all who sufiFer. Likewise I am 
enjoying a renewed faith in God's desire to restore all weakness 
and brokenness. Our first cause is to glorify the Creator and 
to work the works of him who sent us. Without hesitation 
I can say that Jesus Christ is the personal physician of body, 
mind, and spirit. He alone saved my life. I must live for him 
and do whatever he leads me to do. When in doubt or 
discouraged, I can affirm, "Nothing is impossible with the 

RICHARD SIMMONS sent to Messenger 
in January this message "in an effort 
to share my experiences of healing and 
blessing following a prolonged illness." 
Just as this issue was being prepared for 
the press we learned of his death on 
March 4 at the age of 33. He had been 
pastor of the Mount Pleasant church 
near Harrisonburg, Va. A graduate of 
Manchester College (1957) and Bethany 
Theological Seminary (1962) he had 
served parishes in Indiana and Maryland. 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 25 

































APR.iL 969 





Thursday Friday Saturday 

26 MESSENGER 3-27-69 


Music for Easter 

EASTER ORATORIO: Bach (Philips) 
is an adaptation for sacred use of music 
twice employed for secular celebrations. 
Cousin to the famed Brandenburg Ccxn- 
certos, it expresses the joy of the Resm- 
rection with robust simplicity. Lorin 
Manzel conducts the Radio Symphony of 
Berlin in a respectable performance 
which falls a little short of baroque splen- 
dor, using conventional instruments. 


Tallis (Everyman) is dark-hued, deeply 
felt Tudor music of Holy Week, using a 
polyphony of five male voices from bass 
to Alfred Deller's counter-tenor. The 
men are joined by soprano Eileen Mc- 
Loughlin in Five Hymns which alternate 
polyphony and plainsong. The effect is 
3f a motionless, meditative serenity. The 
Deller Consort puts you right in the 
iLxteenth century with its excellent per- 
formance, but the sonics leave some- 
thing to be desired. 


schiitz (Heliodor) dates from 1623. It 
is a narrative for tenor, illustiated by 
sections for two- and three-part chorus, 
rhe \\'hole work flows leisurely and 
:heerfully with simple Protestant rever- 
;nce. Its colors are subdued but multi- 
lued, and repeated listening brings out 
:his oratorio's deep riches. The Nord- 
leutscher Singkreis, augmented with 
/iola da gambas, recorders, cello, double 
3ass, and organ, give the perfoiTnance an 
luthentic period feeling. 

DOG- Archive) was written nearly half a 
;entury after Story of the Resurrection. 
[Composed for two a cappella choirs, it 
itrongly integrates musical expression 
A'ith the meaning of its text, refracting 
"eligious power through a feeling of ex- 
aerienced emotion. This eight-minute 
A'ork is found with seven psalms of earlier 
/intage, all flawlessly sung by the Dres- 
len Kreuzcher under Rudolf Mauers- 
aerger, in one of the most prize-worthy 
•ecordings of recent years. 

MASS IN C MINOR: Mozart (Every- 
man) is a scholarly reconstruction of a 
work begun in 1782 but left unfinished. 
Called "the great" because of its length, 
it might well be ranked just below the 
Requiem for its drainatic power, synthe- 
sizing the current galant manner with the 
rediscovered splendor of Bach and Han- 
del — and with Mozart's individual ge- 
nius. Jean-Marie Auberson conducts the 
Vienna State Opera Chorus and Orches- 
tra and first-rate soloists in a recording 
which will be a discovery for many, as 
it was for me. The reconstruction results 
in an odd mixture at times, but mature 
excellence predominates. 

MAGNIFICAT: C. P. E. Bach (Vic- 
trola), written in 1749, in a blend of the 
late baroque and early classical styles, 
unified by the composer's integrity of 
spirit. It is by tm'ns operatic and re- 
flective, flamboyant and straightforward. 
Kurt Thomas and the Collegium Aureum, 
using baroque instruments and a fittingly 
Italianate singing style, recreate this de- 
lightful work with appropriate verve. 

EIGHT MOTETS: Bruckner (Deutsche 
Grammophon) are a cappella works of no 
great distinction which provide contrast 
with the same composer's powerful and 
exciting 150th Psalm. The latter, featur- 
ing soprano soloist Maria Stader with 
chorus and orchestra under the authorita- 
tive Eugen Jechum, brings to bear all 
the high romanticism of Bruckner's art 
in an awesome and compelling celebra- 
tion of the gloi-y of God. 

LUX AETERNA: Gyorgy Ligeti (DGG- 
Avant-Garde) is familiar as background 
music for part of the film 2001. Here it 
is one of four modern choral works 
(others are by David Bedford, Arne Mell- 
nas, and Marek Kopelent) which will 
comprise a space-age journey to un- 
known regions for most listeners. Ligeti 
uses voices to create a kind of oscillating 
luster of sound. Bedford's settings of 
two love poems by Kenneth Patchen like- 
wise create a sonic poetry in which the 

words are not heard distinctly but form 
an emotional texture. Something to ex- 
periment with. 

CORAL ISLAND: Takemitsu (Victrola) 
is an exploration of the relationship be- 
tween reality and the abstract. Two of 
its five sections feature soprano Mutsumi 
Masuda singing two poems. Both poeti- 
cally and musically, the symbolism is 
subtle and elusive, a kind of unspoken 
prayer. Well worth exploring. Take- 
mitsu's Water Music, overside, is a far 
cry from Handel's — it is a fascinating 
series of glurps and bloops extiapolated 
from a tape recording of water dripping; 
and his Vocahsm Ai is a similar (and 
fascinating) montage of the Japanese 
word ai (love) spoken by one man and 
one woman. 

VOLUMINA: Gyorgy Ligeti (DGG- 
Avant-Garde) takes organ music into a 
new dimension, somewhere beyond Mes- 
siaen. It is a mosiac of fixed and chang- 
ing tone clusters, the aural equivalent of 
a psychedelic light show. Also on this 
disk is Ligeti's Etude No. 1, a study of 
gathering and dissolving chords, and 
works by Mauricio Kagel and Juan Al- 
lende-Blin. What is most interesting is 
the way these composers exploit the full 
technological possibilities of the modern 
electric-powered organ. As performed by 
Hamburg organist Gerd Zacher, these 
works are equally far removed from the 
organ compositions of both Bach and 
Widor. — William Robert Miller 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 27 i 

for a 


At the Easter Story 

NEWf Thoughts For 
Doubting Christians 

by Robert Gregory Tuttle. 

Tackles problems of doubt facing a 

Christian in this age of space, nuclear 

power, credibility gaps, and unrest. 

75? each; ten or more 650 each. 

NEW.' Easter Carols 

New edition with modern and 

traditional Easter music. 

20? each, 10 or more copies, 15? each. 

He Took the Cup 

by Howard W. Ellis 
Meditations wri 
ten by student 
and youth 
T'Sc each, 
ten or 

more copies 
?iO<t each. 

Order from 

T h'-U'orUri Most Widely Read DatUDnnnonal Cuidr 

1908 Ave, Nashville, Tenn.. 37203 

NEEDED: Conrad Beissel materials — let- 
ters, documents, etc., to, from, and about 
him and the Ephrata Cloister — for a 
research project about him and his celi- 
bate position. If you own or have access 
to such materials, please write a descrip- 
tion of them to Professor Jobie E. Riley, 
Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, Pa. 

WANTED: Your class or study group 
to join 350 others exploring the 
meaning of our heritage for our day 
through Why Brethren {50c each; 
10 or more 35c) and Brethren To- 
morrow (60c each; 10 or more 45c). 
9,000 copies sold. Thirteen lessons; 
discussion questions. Order BRETH- 
REN, 219 Hummel Street, Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania 17104. 

Considering tlie Present Piig/it of 

THE PAGAN CHURCH, by Ralph E. Dodge. Lip- 
pincott, 1968. 144 pages, $2.25 

BURIED ALIVE, by Paul G. Johnson. John Knox 
Press, 1968. 171 pages, $5 

INCLUDE ME OUT, by Colin Morris. Abingdon, 
1969. 99 pages, $1.25 paper 

Amid the current rash of books about 
the church's present plight are three 
which, if taken together, may add some- 
thing to our understanding of what is 
happening. The three books have titles 
which are more radical than the contents 

Bishop Dodge compares the problem 
of today's churches in America with Af- 
rican church guidelines. He is frankly 
frustrated at what he sees going on in 
the life of American churches and admits 
that he has had no proper channels 
through which he could speak to be 
heard. Through his book The Pagan 
Church he is leveling with anyone who 
will take the time to hear what he says. 
He concedes that it has been hard to 
criticize the American church because 
the home church has paid the bills. He 
feels the American church is too self- 
centered and has not become involved 
enough with its neighbors in their plight. 
Africans cannot understand why Chris- 
tians in America won't share more, since 
it is implicit in the Christian ethic to 
share. Dodge says that "any kind of 
deep involvement means some kind of 
cross. Is it a fear of the cross that is 
making our churches more pagan than 

Dodge's second conclusion is that the 
church's assets are frozen mostly in 
structure. America has made great 
strides in technology, but "we are woe- 
fully behind in social relations — con- 
servative, even reactionary." For the 
pagan church to move out of its dilemma 
it needs to develop a "theology of con- 
frontation." The flexible generation of 
youth are the ones to bring about the 
changes needed in the church. Dodge 
reluctantly agrees that ineffective church 
structures must go if there is to be a 
rebirth in the church. The splintered 
church also makes a fragmented witness, 

and the African youth are rjuick to rea i 
ize that there is something wTong with ' 
divided church. 

Dodge drives deepest at The Paga.f 
Church when he describes a new kin<! 
of violence — "The violence that whitei 
have practiced against Af ro- American ' 
for decades and centuries. We Cauca 
sians, as a group, have used spiritiia 
violence, not physical." The church to 
day is an exclusive fellowship which 
breeds social segregation. In his final 
chapter Dodge defends the church struc] 
ture and even recompartmentalizes the! 
solution which he opposed in the firsii 
place. He says, "Most problems in lifel 
are spiritual and recjuire spiritual solu-' 

Pastor Paul G. Johnson in Buriea 
Alive raises hope that the church is not 
dead and that it will not be buried alive. 
As a young Lutheran pastor he seems 
to be hung up on the idea of the wall 
that separates clergy and laity. He is 
naive enough to feel that he as a pastor 
is really breaking down the wall by play- 
ing pool in a clerical collar. Paul John- 
son works dihgently to present what 
"lives inside the inside" of the church. 
He claims that Protestantism is a move- 
ment largely of the clergy. Most clergy 
as "coaches" are not even out on the 
sidelines but are still in the locker room 
while the game is being played. 

Many images that a lay person has 
of a clergyman tend to shut him out 
from vital involvement in the real world. 
Laymen who are tremendously active in 
the real world can't understand the 
clergy's continual harping about getting 
out where the action is. It sounds as 
if the pastor is pounding himself with 
his own shortcomings. Johnson says the 
layman is reluctant to say what he thinks 
about the church because, if he did, 
it might put the pastor out of a job. 
Johnson hits hard at the matter of hav- 
ing conventions run by the clergy; he 
asserts that the clergy tend to think that 
the work of the church is done by them 
in conventions. He says, regarding "pew- 
mates" that "impression without expres- 
sion inevitably leads to depression." The 

28 MESSENGER 3-27-69 


rchitectiiral manner in which some 
liijiches are designed often places the 
astor above the laity and places him 
1 an overpowering, father-image posi- 

After diagnosing the ills of the chnrch, 
astor Johnson points to vital spiritual 
ealth as a possibility in the renewed 
liurch. liut his solutions seem tame. 
Ine spiritual concept he presents is that 
social concern cannot be legislated. " 
le suggests that legislation cannot be 
ccomplished through love, but I con- 
;nd that the Supreme Court decision on 
itegration as legislation could be the 
ighest form of love and that it also 
iianges behavior. With behavior changes 
jme attitude changes as well. 

Another place in which I feel Pastor 
>hnsor]'s solution is too tame is iti prc- 
jnting the idea of feedback. He says, 
Feedback is desirable but difficult," as 

the pastor regulates feedback and can 
;11 his wife what day is best for him 
) receive criticism on Sunday's sermon, 
hat is the way pastors talked twenty- 
ve years ago. But the gloves are off 
1 this generation, and when feedback 
oes come in forms other than staying 
way from church services, the pastor 
ad better not act the stuffed clerical 
jllar by even thinking he can regulate 
le feedback. This whole attitude of the 
istance between pastor and people is 
little foreign to Brethren. Johnson 
ven says at one place that the pastor 
m incorporate discussion in the rnorn- 
ig worship "by lellina people jot down 
;actions to the .sermon and then taking 

few minutes to have the pastor read 
lem and respond to them" (italics 
line). Here again is a condescending 
ttitude toward the laity. It is now clear 
lat no one needs to let any layman jot 
own criticism, that he will make his 
loiights known, and that no pastor can 
nswer them in a one-way conversation 
om the pulpit in a few minutes. 

Pastor Johnson concludes with the 
lea that the church can let the message 
f shine througli, and one of the 
est ways is through small groups of 
onest encounter on basic issues. 

Include Mc Qui takes the discussion 
IrojTi there and says what the church 
must actually do in order to survive in 
our day. What made (>olin Morris begin 
to think deeply was a Zambian's drop- 
ping dead from hunger in front of his 
house. So much of what the church is 
not doing is a nonevcnt such as the 
"church union allaii." He ronlcnds liial 
there is hardly a single ((ucslion over 
which the churches are fighting that is 
worth the struggle. TIk; true ordination 
of a person comes not because of laying 
on ol hands but because one is useful 
in the world. 

Morris conlcruls llial though llic the- 
ology of Jesus is simple, theologians have 
made it complex. A great many C;hris- 
lians play the word game but will not 
act out their faith in the face of great 
personal cost. Morris says the church 
has only spoken on major contemporary 
issues; she has not acted. The next 
great division among f;hristians will be 
veiy simple: those who put ihcii the- 

ology into aclion and lliosc who (lon'l. 
Mollis believes that "(Christianity is hu- 
mane action for Jesus' sake at cost to 
myscll." lie also hclicv'cs that Jesus 
saves llial slarviiig Zanibiaii man "by 
feeding liiiii, mil by dying on the cross 
lor him. ' The (liurrh loday is dying 
ol gliilloiiy, choked by our siirleil ol 
jxnvcr and wcallli and knowledge, linl 
our Christ was a chaos bringcr, a revolu- 
tionary who look an ax and hacked away 
al the very lifeline of society, and llicy 
killed him for il. Il is as simple as Ihis: 
"You can I have a rich chiircli in a 
liniigiy world." 

Morris is radical; he says (he chiircli 
exists lo rcpoil an cvciil by leenacting 
it, and (he only "jjiool ol ]{esiirrection 
is a genuine crucifixion, a certified death, 
and an v\\i]-t[y lonili." The task, then, 
ol a revolutionary chnrch is literally (o 
sell what it owns, give il (o (he starving, 
dispossessed jiiillioiis, and in so doing, 

dtinliniiid nil iKi^e 31 

Some Gifts 

Keep Paying... and Paying... 

The benefits of a gift annuity agreement with any of the six colleges of 
the Church of the Brethren begin immediately and go on for the rest of your 

And while the donor realizes a cash return on his gift, he has the 
satisfaction of knowing that he is providing direct support for Christian 
higher education. 

The annuity, on a single-life basis, varies from 3.0% at age 30 to 8.0% 
at age 84 and above. The rate of return is based on the age(s) of the 
person(s) named to receive the annuity when the gift is made. 

For more complete information on a gift annuity agreement in support 
of Christian higher education, please contact any of the Church of the 
Brethren Colleges listed below. 

La Verne College 
La Verne, California 

McPherson College 
McPheraon, Kansas 

Bridgcwater College 
Bridgewater, VirffinUi 

Juniata College 
Huntingdon, Pennsylvania 

Manchester College 
North Manchester, Indiana 

EU/abethtown College 
EUzahethtown, Penruylvania 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 29 



Topics in Western Civilization, a text- 
book edited by Dr. Joseph P. Zaccano, 
professor of history at Elizabetlitown 
College, has recently been published. 
The book, a compilation of brief read- 
ings by Western writers from Plato to 
John F. Kennedy, aims, according to 
author Zaccano, "to give the student 
an overview into some of the significant 
thought influencing mankind." 

Among Manchester College graduates 
awarded this year's Outstanding Young 
Men of America citation was Joel K. 
Thompson, associate general secretary of 
the denomination's World Ministries 
Commission. Other Manchester alumni 
selected for the award were Gar. E. 
Garber, Ypsilanti, Mich.; Patrick Mann, 
Morgantown, W. Va.; Norman P. Metz- 
ger, Fort Wayne, Ind.; Wendell W. 
Meyer, Midland, Mich.; Vernon L. Ox- 
ender, Livonia, Mich.; Lowell E. Shear- 
er, Fort Wayne, Ind.; and Robert J. 
Ulrey, Richmond, Ind. ... In reference 
to similar awards presented to McPher- 
son College graduates for Outstanding 
Young Women of America, other per- 
sons who should have been included are 
Elaine Flory, Joan Walters Keele, and 
Roberta Varner. 

New York City's Town Hall will be 
the scene April 9 of the New York debut 
of Marvin Blickenstaff, concert pianist. 
The program will include works by 
Brahms, Chopin, Kohn, Debussey, and 
Ginastera. A former BVSer, Mr. Blick- 
enstaff will provide music for the Annual 
Conference at Louisville, Ky., in June. 
... A Church of the Brethren minister 
was among the recipients of the liighest 
patriotic awards made in Valley Forge, 
Pa., by the Freedoms Foundation. Rob- 
ert F. Williams of Whittier, Calif., re- 
ceived a medal for a project to place a 
book. Unto the Generations, in public 
schools and for promoting a patriotic 
pageant. Mr. Williams is chaplain at 
Knotts Berry Farm. 

Our congratulations go to a couple 

celebrating their golden wedding anni- 
versary: Mr. and Mrs. Paul Kemp of 
Dayton, Ohio. . . . Other couples mark- 
ing anniversaries are Mr. and Mrs. Br>'an 
Leckron, Sebring, Fla., fifty-one; Mr. 
and Mrs. Artie Berlcey, Millersburg, 
Ind., fifty-six; Mr. and Mrs. Norman 
Flora, fifty-six; Mr. and Mrs. O. C. 
Frantz, fifty-six; Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
Whitmer, fift>-nine; and Mr. and Mrs. 
A. P. Musselman, fifty-nine, all of Se- 
bring, Fla.; Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Shafer, 
Pontiac, Mich., sixty; and Mr. and Mrs. 
Harvey Cripe, Middlebury, Ind., sLxty- 

Preaching the Easter sunrise sermon 
at Natural Bridge, Va., will be David L. 
Rogers, pastor of Central church, Roan- 
oke, Va. The service will be broadcast 
statewide over the radio. ... A Meth- 
odist minister and senior at Central 
Michigan University, James Linton, has 
accepted a call to the Midland church 
pastorate in Michigan. . . . News of 
other pastors in the Michigan District 
includes the resignations of Edward 
Angeny and Donald Holsopple. The 
Angenys anticipate moving to the South- 
west, while the Holsopples have accept- 
ed the pastorate at the West Goshen 
church in Northern Indiana, beginning 
next September. 


The Union Grove church in Southern 
Indiana won first place in its district for 
a iTjral improvement project sponsored 
by the Indiana Farm Bureau. . . . Rats, 
Roanoke, and Relief set the theme for 
a "focus on the poor " week at Bridge- 
water College in Virginia last month. 
Students and Episcopal clergyman James 
Carrard Jones Jr. examined films and 
discussed the plight of the poor in 

Dedication day services will be held 
at the Bethel church, Naperville, 111., 
April 20, with Earle W. Fike Jr., of the 
Brotherhood staff, and Paul M. Robin- 
son, president of Bethany Theological 

Seminary, the speakers. . . . Northern 
Indiana's Crest Manor church at South 
Bend on May 4 will dedicate its newly 
finished sanctuary, the organ, and new 
educational facilities. Earle W. Fike Jr.i 
will be guest speaker, . . . Jolui D. Ellis,! 
executive secretary for Western Perm- I 
sylvania, conducted a gioundbreaking 1 
service at the Rockhill church in Mid-; 
die Pennsylvania earh' this month. . . .1 
At Adel, Io\\a, the Panther Creek con- ' 
gregation plans a two-day centennial ob-! 
.senance Aug. 30-31. The church is 
extending an invitation to friends and 
former members and pastors to attend i 
the event. 

"We think Messenger is great" is the 
word from the Middletown church. 
Subscriptions in the Southern Ohio con- 
gregation soared from thirteen to thirt\- 
one as the church joined others on the 
Everv-Home Plan. 'J 

"Hope in the Midst of Crisis" will be 
the theme for the Burkhart Institute for 
ministers, hosted April 22-24 by La 
Verne College in California. Leadership 
personnel include Robert A. Blees, di- 
rector of counseling services at Commu- 
nity Church, Columbus, Ohio; Frank W. 
Kimper, director of the pastoral counsel- 
ing center at Claremont, Calif.; Lyle E. 

March 30 

Palm Sunday 

April 3 

Maundy Thursday 

April 4 

Good Friday 

April 6 


April 20 

National Christian College Day 

May 1-7 

Mental Health Week 

May 11 

Rural Life Sunday 

May 11 

Mother's Day 

May 11-18 

National Family Week 

May 16-18 

District conference, First Virg 

First church, Roanoke 

May 15 

Ascension Day 

May 25 


May 30 

Memorial Day 

June 1 

Annual Conference Offering 

June 15 

Father's Day 

June 24-29 

Annual Conference, Louisville, 

June 29 

Christian Citizenship Sunday 


30 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

REVIEWS / continued 

haller, executive at the Center for Par- 
h Development, Evangelical Theologi- 
il Seminary, Naperville, 111.; Edward 
/. Meury, pastor, Claremont, Calif., 
'nited Church of Christ; and Joseph 
lolnar Jr., chief social worker for Tri- 
lity Mental Health Authorit\' at 
omona, Calif. 

Travel notes. . . . The 1969 Brethren 
our has a few seats open for some who 
■isli transportation from the North 
[anchester area to Louisville. Interest- 
i persons ma\' contact L. W. Shultz, 
0.3 College Ave., North Manchester, 
id. 46962. . . . Tours of Scandinavia 
id Western Europe are in the offing 
)r 1970, sponsored b\' Kreider Friend- 
lip Tours. Lapland will be included 
I the Scandinavian tour, while travelers 
ith the Western Europe group will at- 
ind the Oberammergau Passion Play, 
iven in the Ba\arian Alps only once 
ich ten years. Persons wishing further 
[formation may write J. Kenneth Kreid- 
-, Route 3, Ehzabethtown, Pa. 17022. 

Leadership training will keynote the 
iterdistrict Leadership School at the 
hambersburg church July 21-2.5, spon- 
)red denominationally for churches in 
le East. The training seminar will ex- 
nine the Encounter Series, a major 
irriculum resource for the Educational 
Ian. Source persons will include A. G. 
reidenstine, Pennsylvania educator and 
loderator-elect for the Brotherhood; 
arle W. Fike Jr., associate general sec- 
!taiy for the Parish Ministries Commis- 
on; Anna Warstler, director of adult 
■ork for the Brotherhood; Virginia 
isher, Tri-District director for Chris- 
an education; and Ralph McFadden, 
secutive secretary, Mid-Atlantic Dis- 
ict. Registration fees, meals, and 
)dging will bring the total cost per 
erson to $4.5. 

Bethany Brethren Hospital in Chi- 
igo needs nurses — both permanent and 
)r summer vacation relief. Persons who 
3uld work two weeks or as long as the 
ntire summer — or who are interested 
1 pursuing a career in the inner city — 
lay contact Miss Olga Bendsen, per- 

sonnel director, Bethany Brethren Hos- 
pital, 3420 W. Van Buren St., Chicago, 
111. 60624. 

Several farms for sale near the Spring 
Creek church of the Brethren commu- 
nity, northeast of North Manchester, 
Ind., may interest Brethren families. For 
more information, persons may write 
Pastor Dolar Ritchey, Timbercrest 
Home, North Manchester, Ind. 46962. 

The Light in the Wilderness, an 

oratorio written by jazz pianist Dave 
Brubeck, will be presented from Wash- 
ington Cathedral Easter Sunday on 
CBS-T\"s "Look Up and Live" series. 
The National Symphony Orchestra with 
the Cathedral Chor- 
al Society will 
participate in sing- 
ing the oratorio. 

According to the 
composer, the first 
section of the work 
takes as its text 
the temptations of 
Jesus, "his message 
of hope to a suffer- 
ing world," while Part Two deals with 
questions of faith and man's place 
in the universe. 

First performed early in 1968, the 
oratorio drew critical acclaim and is 
scheduled for performance a dozen 
times in the first half of this year. 

A visit to the National Gallery of Art 
at Washington, D.C., which will en- 
able viewers to see how the great 
masters presented religious and biblical 
themes in painting, will be made on 
Art and the Bible Sunday, March 30, 
on NBC-TV's "Southern Baptist Hour." 
For all programs viewers may con- 
sult local television logs to determine 
time and channel. 

In Brief for March 13 incorrecdy 
reported the death of Grace Frantz, 
Conway Springs, Kansas. The note 
should have read Erwin Frantz. 


die. Then, and only then, will the 
Easter story be an event that can be told, 
because only if the church gives up her 
life can she live. If the chui'ch does not 
have the couiage to die this way, the 
"church's bones will be laid to rest in 
the cemetery of lost causes, ancient 
glories, and faded dreams." This is what 
MoiTis calls "radical discontinuity." 

These three authors in concert have 
something to say to our church, and 
though there are weaknesses and even 
contradictions in the books, the truth 
that the chui-ch must lose herself in a 
costly spending for others is valid. A 
thoughtful reading of these three books 
is a needed experience for both laymen 
and clergy. — Jacob T. Dick 

Bollinger. Hilda. Westminster. Md.. on Jan. 11. 

1969, aged 68 
Carter. George H., Callaway, Va., on Nov. 22. 

1968, aged 78 

Cooper. .\lta. Dry Fork, W. Va., on Jan. 29, 

1969, aged 65 

Cosner, Mary S., Keyser, \V. Va., on Feb, 2, 1969, 

aged 86 
Crawmer, Lydia, Westininster, Md., on Jan. 19, 

1969, aged 82 
George, Rosa, Dayton, Ohio, on Feb. 22. 1969, 

aged 92 
Good, Clara, Bigelow, Minn., on Feb. 4. 1969, 

aged 77 
Harris, Phoebe, Kansas City, Kansas, on Jan. 25. 

1969. aged 88 
Hinies. Martha A., Ladoga, Ind.. on Jaii. 29. 

1969, aged 72 
Holsinger, J. N.. Logansport, Ind.. on June 29, 

1968, aged 84 

Holsinger, Laura M.. Logansport. Ind., on Nov, 

23, 1968, aged 80 
Holt, John \V., Callaway, Va., on Jan. 18. 1968, 

aged 95 
Kauflman, Laura E., Modesto, Calif., on Jan. 21, 

1969, aged 81 

Lewis, Mrs. Ray, Lcwiston, Minn., on Feb. 21, 

1969, aged 56 
Lockwood, EIna. Arcadia, Ind.. on Feb. 10. 1969, 

aged 65 
McKnight, RoUa, Modesto, Calif., on Dec. 16, 

1968, aged 79 
Musser, Ella, Van Wert, Pa., on Jan. 25. 1969, 

aged 78 
Myers, Charles H.. Logansville, Pa., on Dec. 31, 

1968, aged 75 
Philliday, John, Lebanon, Pa., on Sept. 9. 1968. 

aged 66. 
Pritt. Robert, Keyser. W. Va., on Feb. 16, 1969, 

aged 82 
Replogle, Grant, La Verne, Calif., on Nov. 12, 

1968, aged 81 

3-27-69 MESSENGER 31 

God Sends Us Forth on a Journey 


God sends us forth 

on a journey that has an end, and is endless. 
The way of Jesus brought rejection, 

suffering, and death. 
This seemed to be the end! 

But God turned a human end 

into a beginning that is endless. 

How stunning and shattering 
when goodness comes 
under the hammer blows of evil. 
What evil does seems so final. 

But God gave Jesus victory over the cross, 
and it is henceforth the seal and sign 
of love's triumph in time 
under and through human conditions. 

Who among us is willing 

to love through the cross to victory? 

We want a painless, costless discipleship, 

and so the creative, transforming, 

redeeming power of God is absent i 

from our lives and from the world. 1 

Too long have we been in flight ' 

from the garden and Golgotha. ; 

Only a courageous return 

to the total way of suffering love, 

in creative conflict with evil, j 

can yield victory I 

and turn the tombs of earth I 

into places of life and light. ; 

God has given us these days 
to l<now him, 

to commit our lives to him, 

to work with him in the redeeming of ! 

our time and generation. 

O God, send us forth on our journey, \ 

walking in newness of life among all men. i 

32 MESSENGER 3-27-69 

Books that provide spiritual anchors 
for an anxious generation 



Wesley C. Baker $5,00 

This is a book of "feelings," a book that opens up from the "inside" 
of a depressed person. From his own experiences and his counseling, 
the author leads the reader through four very different kinds of de- 
pression to a greater understanding of himself and others. Mr. 
Baker says, "Dealing with depression from a background of some 
religious experience training, but even more from a foreground of 
personal affliction, I am only able to expose what I can neither 
understand nor describe. Hopefully, the exposure presented more in 
feeling-tone than in logic may help someone who cares with sympathy, 
or someone who suffers to feel less alone." 


James Armstrong $3.50 

An open discussion of the meaning of life which guides the reader 
toward self-evaluation, makes suggestions for personal development, 
and considers moral questions in our twentieth-century world. With 
freedom and freshness of style. Bishop Armstrong guides the reader 
in his quest to find a place in life that is not alone but is a satis- 
fying relationship with others and v/ith God. 



Georgia Harkness $3.00 

The pen of Georgia Harkness wholeheartedly reaffirms the message 
of hope which the Christian faith has for our strife-filled world. 
She discusses strengths and weaknesses of the new theology, the 
new morality, renewal in the church, and other contemporary 
movements in American religion. She goes beyond this to emphasize 
the necessity of holding fast to the stabilizing elements in prayer, 
and the importance of understanding what the Bible teaches about 
the good news in the midst of an anxious generation. 


Elton Trueblood $2.95 

This is a serious efFort to provide a basic and reasoned guide for 
a solid Christian faith needed to encounter the world today. It is 
addressed to those who feel keenly the need for a strong stand 
from which to operate in the confusion of contemporary existence. 
Contents: The Function of Reason; The Fulcrum; The Living God; 
The Reality of Prayer; Life Everlasting. 

Church of the Brethren General Offices, Elgin, Illinois 60120 



Variations on a Death and Life Theme. The scene can he }enisah-n} in the 
first ecntun/ or an Anicrican coniniuniti/ in tlic ticcnficfli. Sonic of the cliar- 
aefcrs liavc hiI)UcaI names and otiiers are straiglit out of the newspaper. But 
the theme is the same: Conviction and concern lead to control crsij. and some- 
one <{ets hurt: but out of despair rises a new hope, and beyond death is a 
resurrection. For example: 
Newsbeat — Jerusalem, by Elaine Sollenberger, page 1. A Letter to Isaiah, by Andrew 
Murray, page 3. Spring in an Old Cemetery, by Howard A. AAiller, page 5. The Day I 
Became a Draft Resister, by John Flory, page 6. Up There and Down Here, by Jack Wil- 
liams, page 8. In the Year That King and Kennedy Died, by Ronald K. Morgan, page 9. 
Beyond Tragedy, by Conrad Burton, page 10. Hope Is a Constant Necessity, by Edith 
Lovejoy Pierce, page 12. To Celebrate This Most High Day, by George Herbert, page 14. 
God Sends Us Forth on a Journey, by Glen Weimer, page 32. 

Otiiku FF...\Ti'HK.s include "Day by Day," liy Ronald and Be\erly Petry (page 15); "Evan- 
geli.sni tor